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Biomedical Imaging 4/13/10 10:17 AM Biomedical Imaging The main objective of this group is multidisciplinary research collaborations across a wide range of disciplines to develop non-invasive, in vivo three-dimensional (sub)cellular resolution, molecular and functional imaging technology that is of significant diagnostic value in ophthalmology as well as cancer diagnosis in a variety of medical fields. In particular the aims of this research group is the development of compact, low cost, ultra
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  4/13/10 10:17 AMBiomedical ImagingPage 1 of 4http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/optom/research/researchgroups/biomedicalimaging/index.html Histology (left) and ultrahigh resolution OCT (right) of a primate retina(Macaca fascicularis). gc ax : ganglion cell axonlayer, gc: ganglion cells, ipl :inner plexiform layer, inl :inner nuclear layer, H’s f:fibers of Henle, onl : outernuclear layer, cis/cos: coneinner/outer segments, pe :pigment epithelial layer, chcap : choriocapillaris, ch:choroid, (Collaboration with P. Ahnelt,Department of Physiology,Medical University Vienna and  A. Cowey, Oxford University) In vivo three dimensionalultrahigh resolution OCT of a normal human retina atdifferent views (A,B) withsimultaneous fly through B-scans of the whole volume(upper left corner). Virutal C-scans system (C-F) enablesarbitrary horizontal removalof different retinal layers  Biomedical Imaging The main objective of this group is multidisciplinary research collaborations across awide range of disciplines to develop non-invasive, in vivo three-dimensional (sub)-cellular resolution, molecular and functional imaging technology that is of significantdiagnostic value in ophthalmology as well as cancer diagnosis in a variety of medicalfields.In particular the aims of this research group is the development of compact, low cost,ultrabroad bandwidth light sources, optical as well as hardware and software engineeringfor the development and clinical application of novel in vivo ultrahigh resolution andfunctional optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology. OCT is an emerging non-invasive, optical medical diagnostic imaging modality which enables in vivo cross-sectional tomographic visualization of internal microstructure in biologicalsystems, achieving unprecedented image resolutions (1-3 µ m), approximately 100times better than that of conventional ultrasound. Therefore OCT enables for example unprecedented visualization of intraretinal layers and has the potential to perform non-invasive optical biopsy of the human retina, i.e. visualization of intraretinal morphology approaching the level of that achieved with histopathology.Click on the thumbnail below to see the full image: 45.1 Kb Click the link below to download the video: Histology of a primate retina morphed into ultrahigh resolution OCT of the samespecimen[10.2 Mb] Three dimensional ultrahigh resolution OCT – optical biopsy of the retina The development of novel detection techniques (Frequency Domain OCT) enabled the combination of ultrahigh resolutionOCT (UHR OCT) and extremely fast data acquisition for three dimensional UHR OCT of the living human retina with highaxial resolution of 3 µ m at video-rate with up to 25-50 B-scans/second. Employing other wavelengths for betterpenetration into the choroid are investigated.Click on the thumbnail below to see the full image: 78.8 Kb Click the link below to download the video: In vivo three dimensional UHR OCT of a normal human retina: B-scan flythough[2.7 Mb]  4/13/10 10:17 AMBiomedical ImagingPage 2 of 4http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/optom/research/researchgroups/biomedicalimaging/index.html revealing morphologicinformation inside thescanned volume. (3Drendering developed incollaboration with C.Glittenberg, S. Binder, LudwigBoltzmann Institute, Vienna, Austria) In vivo three dimensionalultrahigh resolution OCT of a patient with macular hole(A) with simultaneous flythrough B-scans of the wholevolume (upper left corner). Avirtual biopsy system allowsthe user to excise any givenshape from the probe in orderto visualize intraretinalmorphology inside theacquired volume (B-F).Functional OCT: Doppler FlowOCT (left top: bidirectionalflow of artery and veinlabelled in red andgreen);Spectroscopic OCT(left bottom: opticalcontrasting via melaninconcentration in a patientwith RPEatrophy);Optophysiology(right: depth resolveddetection of retinalphysiology via time resolvedoptical backscatteringchanges, (Collaboration withR. Pflug, Department of   Click on the thumbnail below to see the full image: 72.0 Kb Click the link below to download the video: In vivo three dimensional UHR OCT of a normal human retina: 3D rendering[7.7 Mb] Adaptive optics ultrahigh resolution OCT- cellular resolution retinal imaging Using adaptive optics to correct higher order aberrations of the human eye in combination with high speed, three-dimensional ultrahigh resolution OCT enables unprecedented in vivo volumetric visualization of intraretinal cellularfeatures like photoreceptors.Functional ultrahigh resolution OCT – depth resolved functional tissue informationIn addition, extension of ultrahigh resolution OCT are developed that provide non-invasive depth resolved functionalimaging of the retina, including spectroscopic, blood flow or physiologic tissue information. These extensions of OCTshould not only improve image contrast, but should also enable the differentiation of retinal pathologies via localizedspectroscopic properties or functional state. Optophysiology – non-invasive optical analogue of electrophysiology Electrophysiology is the ‘golden standard’ to detect physiologic/functional changes sincedecades. This method is invasive, time intensive and has no depth resolution and poortransverse resolution. Non-contact, optical probing of retinal response to visualstimulation with <10 µ m spatial resolution, achieved by using functional ultrahighresolution optical coherence tomography (fUHROCT) has recently been demonstrated forthe first time in vitro in isolated rabbit retinas. The method utilizes the fact thatphysiological changes in dark-adapted retinas caused by light stimulation can result inlocal variations of the tissue reflectivity. fUHROCT scans were acquired prior, during andafter external white light stimulation and could be correlated to simultaneous ERGmeasurements. The observed stimulus-related changes in the retinal reflectivityappeared most pronounced in the inner/outer segments of the photoreceptor layer.Control experiments, e.g. dark adaptation versus light stimulation indicate that the srcinof the observed optical changes might be the altered physiological state of the retinaevoked by the light stimulus.Click on the thumbnail below to see the full image. 67.9 Kb  4/13/10 10:17 AMBiomedical ImagingPage 3 of 4http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/optom/research/researchgroups/biomedicalimaging/index.html Physiology, Medical University Vienna) In vivo 3D UHR OCT indermatology (human skin(left) collaboration H.Pehamberger, MedicalUniversity Vienna) andgastroenterology (mousecolon (right) collaboration J.Barton, A. Tumlinson, L.Hariri, University of Arizona,USA)Photo of Biomedical ImagingGroup Members: WolfgangDrexler, Boris Hermann, BorisPova ž ay, Bernd Hofer,Angelika Unterhuber, EnriqueJ. Fernández. Ultrahigh resolution OCT in non-transparent tissue – early cancer diagnosis The key objective is to develop ultrahigh resolution OCT (UHR OCT) technology which enables non-invasive in vivooptical biopsy for detection of early neoplastic changes at a sub-cellular level for improved cancer diagnosis. This novelversion of OCT would enable real time, in situ visualization of tissue microstructure without the need to excisionallyremove and process a specimen as in conventional biopsy and histopathology. Preliminary studies to evaluate theclinical feasibility of three-dimensional UHR OCT in dermatology, gastroenterology and neurology are conducted at themoment.Click on the thumbnail below to see the full image. 82.6 Kb In the last years, we have initiated and established several academic collaborations: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA (Prof. James G. Fujimoto)Imperial College (Dr. Sergei Popov, Prof. Roy J. Taylor)University of Arizona (Prof. Jennifer Barton, Alex Tumlinson, Lida Hariri)LMU Munich, MPQ Garching, Germany (Prof. F. Krausz, Dr. A. Apolonski)City University London (Dr. Luis Diaz-Santana, Dr. Steve Grupetta)Laboratorio de Optica, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain (Prof. Pablo Artal)RISOE National Laboratory, Denmark (Prof. Peter Anderson, Dr. Lars Thrane)Centre for Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Medical University Vienna (Prof. L.Schmetterer)Ludwig Boltzmann Institute, Rudolfstiftung Vienna, Austria (Prof. Susanne Binder, Dr.Carl Glittenberg, Dr. Florian Zeiler, Dr. Christiane Falkner)Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University Vienna, Austria (Prof. U. Schmid-Erfurth, Prof. O. Findl, Prof. M. Stur, Prof. C. Scholda)Department for Physiology, Medical University Vienna (Prof. Peter Ahnelt, Dr. RenatePflug)Institute of Electrical Measurements and Circuit Design, Vienna University of Technology (Dr. H. Arthaber)Institut fuer Nachrichtentechnik und Hochfrequenztechnik, Technische Universitaet Wien (Prof. F. Hlawatsch, Prof. G.Matz)Department of Dermatology, Medical University Vienna (Prof. H. Pehamberger, Prof. M. Binder)Institute of Neurology, Medical University Vienna (Prof. H. Budka, Dr. C. Preusser)Department for Histology, Medical University Vienna (Prof. Pavelka) Since several years, we are also collaborating with following companies: Carl Zeiss Meditec AG (Jena, D) und Inc. (Dublin, Ca, USA)Femtolasers Produktions GmbH (Vienna, Austria)SuperlumDiodes Ltd (Moscow, Russia)NP Photonics (Tucson, USA)Crystal Fibre (Birkeroed, Denmark)Laser Quantum (Cheshire, GB).Novartis Ophthalmics AG (Basel, CH)Imaging Eyes (Orsay, France)  4/13/10 10:17 AMBiomedical ImagingPage 4 of 4http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/optom/research/researchgroups/biomedicalimaging/index.html Thorlabs Inc. (USA) & GmbH (Germany)Hamamatsu Photonics GmbH (Germany) & K.K. (Japan)We are also working with two external members:Enrique J. Fernández (Laboratorio de Optica, Universidad de Murcia, Spain)Harald Sattmann (Centre for Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Medical University Vienna, Austria) Research Group Members Dr Boris Pova ž ayDr Angelika UnterhuberDr Boris HermannMr Bernd HoferProf Wolfgang DrexlerDr Cristiano Torti
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