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Biology Ass #1

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SYSTEMS CIRCULATORY SYSTEM: The Circulatory System is responsible for nutrients, water, and oxygen throughout the entire body and carries away wastes such as carbon dioxide that body cells produce. Parts The Heart Functions ã a muscle about the size of your fist ã located in the center of your chest slightly to the left ã pumps blood and keep the blood moving throughout your body ã carries nutrients, water, oxygen and waste products to and from your body cells ã travels through thousands of mil
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  SYSTEMS CIRCULATORY SYSTEM:The Circulatory System is responsible for nutrients, water, and oxygen throughout the entire body andcarries away wastes such as carbon dioxide that body cells produce.PartsFunctionsThe Heartã a muscle about the size of your fistã located in the center of your chest slightly to the leftã pumps blood and keep the blood moving throughout your bodyThe BloodRed Blood CellsWhite Blood Cellsã carries nutrients, water, oxygen and waste products to and from your  body cellsã travels through thousands of miles of blood vessels right within your own body.ã about 5,000,000 Red Blood Cells in ONE drop of bloodã pick up oxygen in the lungs and transport it to all the body cellsã gather up the carbon dioxide and transports it back to the lungs whereit is removed from the body when we exhaleã help the body fight off germsã attack and destroy germs when they enter the bodyPlateletsã help stop bleeding esp. when skin is cut or we get woundedã plugs up to the holes of arteries where blood is leaking off and attractother platelets and fibers to make the blood clotPlasmaã liquid part of the bloodã makes up approximately half of our bloodã carries the blood cells and other components throughout the bodyThe Blood VesselsArteriesCapillariesVeinsã carry oxygen rich blood AWAY from the heartã thin or thinner than the hairs on your headã connects arteries to veinsã site where exchange of nutrients, gas and waste take place in respectto the csã carry blood back toward your heart.DIGESTIVE SYSTEM:Its main function is to digest the food eatMouthã first stop of food in entering the digestive tractã prepares food in entering our body by grinding, cutting and wetting it to becomemore acceptable in the bodyEpiglottisã lies beneath just the tongueã a flap that directs food to the esophagus and prevents it from entering the tracheaEsophagusã tube-like structure that serves as the larynx for foodã passageway of food to the stomachstomachã contains gastric juices that digests the food like the way they are decomposed as itcontract and expandã separates the needed nutrients from food and prepare them for the next path for the  foodSmall Intestineã grind the food more thoroughLarge Intestineã last stop for food before secretion Rectum ã short, muscular tube that forms the lowest portion of the large intestine andconnects it to the anusã feces collects here until pressure on the rectal walls cause nerve impulses to pass tothe brain, which then sends messages to the voluntary muscles in the anus to relax, permitting expulsion Anus ã the passageway that allows the release of the feces out of the body ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: It's main function is to produce and secrete hormones that are responsible the body's growth, metabolism,and sexual development and function.Hypothalamus ã regulates satiety, metabolism, and body temperature ã stimulate or suppress the release of hormones in the pituitary glandPituitary Gland ã control many functions of other endocrine glands Thyroid Glandã regulate the body's metabolism and help maintain normal blood pressure, heartrate, digestion, muscle tone, and reproductive functionsParathyroid Glandsã which plays a role in regulating calcium levels in the blood and bone metabolismAdrenal Glands ã regulate the body's metabolism, the balance of salt and water in the body, theimmune system, and sexual functionã help the body cope with physical and emotional stress by increasing the heartrate and blood pressure Pineal Bodyã which may help regulate the wake-sleep cycle of the body.Reproductive Glandsã main source of sex hormones Pancreasã exocrine pancreas, secretes digestive enzymes ã endocrine pancreas, regulate the level of glucose in the bloodstreamINTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM:It's functions are to protect underlying tissues and prevents the loss of fluids.Skinã guard underlying muscles and organsã performs insulation and temperature regulation, sensation and vitamin D and B synthesisHair  ã protects certain body parts it coversã regulates temparature in surfaces it covers  Nailsã serves as a protective plate and enhances sensation of the fingertipGlandsã performs means on release of temperature or wastesã lubricates body parts and protect them from dirt and bacteriaMASCULAR SYSTEM:Enables us to move our body, protects some organs, etc.Muscleã above descriptionMyofilamentsã threadlike proteins found in myofibril  ã attach and detach to each other causing contractions or relaxing,depending on the amount of ATP presentTendonsã a tough white cord-like tissue formed by layer of connective that bundle the various parts of musclesã stretch and provides additional length at the muscle-bone junctionInsertionã end that is attached to a bone that moves when the muscle contracts  NERVOUS SYSTEM: It is the control and communication system of the body. Its job is to send and receive messages. Your nervous system controls all your thoughts and movements. Neurons ã long, stringy cells that make up the nervous system are called neurons ã carry the electrical messages that are the language of the nervous systemBrain ãcommand center and main information center of your entire bodyhelps the body respond to the information it receives from the senses and processesthoughtsãhas cerebrum, which controls vision, touch, and other senses where thinking takes place;and cerebellum which helps control balance and coordination; lastly the brain stem whichlink to the spinal cord and it also controls digestion, breathing, and heartbeat. Spinal Cord ã neurons that runs up the spine and attaches to the brain stem ã responsible to the reflex action: it holds impulses and direct us to act w/out thinking Reproductive System Responsible for the reproduction or the possibility to have own offspring in the combination of thefeatures of two individuals.MALEFEMALE Penis ã anatomically male copulatory organ Vaginaã place where semen from the anatomic male isdeposited into the anatomically female person's body at the climax of sexual intercourse, commonlyknown as ejaculationScrotum ã pouch-like structure that hangs behind the penisthat holds and protects the testes Cervix ã narrower tube-like structure that connects the vaginato the uterus Epididymisã whitish mass of tightly coiled tubes cuppedagainst the testiclesãacts as a maturation and storage place for sperm before they pass into the vas deferens,tubes that carry sperm to the ampullary glandand prostatic ducts.Uterusã major female reproductive organ of humans ã provides mechanical protection, nutritional support,and waste removal for the developing embryo Vas deferens ã perm duct is a thin tube approximately 17inches long that starts from the epididymis to the Oviductsã or fallopian tubes are two tubes leading from theovaries of female mammals into the uterus.   pelvic cavity ã where the ovum would be released and have the possibility to be fertilizedTestes ã also known as the testicles, are the anatomicallymale gonads, the organs that produce sperm cellsThe ã produces hormones, including testosterone,which stimulates the production of sperm cellsand facilitates male maturation Ovariesã responsible for the production of the ova and thesecretion of hormonesAccessory glandsã provide fluids that lubricate the duct systemand nourish the sperm cells (seminal vesicles,the prostate gland, and the bulbourethralglands [Cowper glands]).Reproductive tractã be used for various transluminal procedures suchas fertiloscopy, intrauterine insemination andtransluminal sterilization. The external components include the mons pubis, pudendal cleft, labia majora, labia minora, Bartholin'sglands, and clitoris. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM:Your respiratory system is made up of the organs in your body that help you to breathe.The goal of  breathing is to deliver oxygen to the body and to take away carbon dioxide. Tracheaã filters the air we breathe and branches into the bronchiBronchi ã two air tubes that branch off of the trachea and carry air directly into thelungs Diaphragmã provides larger space beneath the lungs, making it store more air and as weexhale, also flattensLungsã supply oxygen to blood and receives carbon dioxide from blood to be exhaledBronchiole ã small branches of each of the bronchi in the lungs that lead to the alveoli Alveoli ã site where the exchange of gases actually occur SKELETAL SYSTEM:The skeletal system (bones and joints), working interdependently with the skeletal muscle system(voluntary or striated muscles), provides basic functions that are essential to life: Protection: protects the brain and internal organs, Support: maintains upright posture and Blood cell formation: hematopoiesis. Long Bonesã provide support and serve as the interconnected set of levers and linkagesthat allow us to create movementShort Bones ã allow movement, provide elasticity, flexibility, & shock absorption. Flat Bonesã protect and provide attachment sites for musclesIrregular Bonesã support weight, dissipate loads, protect the spinal cord, contribute tomovement and provide sites for muscle attachment
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