Biology - Biocram Regents Review

1. Biology Test-taking RemindersLast-Minute Checklist: Exam Date: Thursday, June 18, 12:15am - 3:15 [earliest allowable release – 2:00]. If you are not taking a…
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  • 1. Biology Test-taking RemindersLast-Minute Checklist: Exam Date: Thursday, June 18, 12:15am - 3:15 [earliest allowable release – 2:00]. If you are not taking a bus, arrive by 11:15 – you’ll be more relaxed this way. Bring to exam: #2 pencils (2). “ “ “ STANDARD BLACK or BLUE pens (2) (no “neon” colors allowed). “ “ “ any text books [if not already turned in]. “ “ “ your cerebrum .Be Prepared: Get a good night sleep, relax the morning of the test. Eat breakfast (Note: Mountain Dew™ is not a “good” complete breakfast). Try to relax.Grades: Won’t be available for DAYS (don’t bother guidance or me, wait for report cards). If you should fail, you will be contacted with options.R. Bio. End-of–year Cram Garnsey 1
  • 2. BioCram Sheet I: Concepts Causing ConfusionR. Bio. End-of–year Cram Garnsey 2
  • 3. Trouble Tables Concept Definition Cause Example Gradual replacement of the organisms Disruption of the Abiotic  moss  Succession that occupy an environment ecosystem (fire, Man) field  Forrest Gradual change in organism over Early primates  Evolution Natural selection time -varied form of common ancestor Modern Man Concept Definition Common Error Resistance to A natural ability of an organism to NOT be Insects/bacteria cannot become Antibiotics or affected by a chemical due to genetic immune to chemicals; they simply Pesticides variation inherited the genetic variation. The bodily response to exposure to a Through evolution, they may Immunity pathogen (WBC’s involved) become a resistant species. Resistance to The only time “resistance” should The build-up of immunity by the body’s Disease be used is when antibodies are natural defenses (WBC’s) involved Concept Chemical Cause Effect Outcome Increase in Earth’s Flooding, wild Global Warming CO2 ANY combustion Temp. due to trapped weather, biome radiant heat changes Cl and F permanently Propellants, Increased Ozone Depletion CFC’s bond with O3, thus coolants mutations loss of radiation filter Loss of Aquatic S and N Coal & auto Decrease pH in Acid Rain life in lakes, tree oxides combustion rainfall damage/ loss Darwin’s theory. Directed by Nature. Change directed by variation, Natural competition, adaptation, survival of the fittest, speciation Selection Directed by Man. We choose traits by choosing which plants or animals Artificial mate. Examples: all farm animals, flowers, crops BioCram Sheet IIR. Bio. End-of–year Cram Garnsey 3
  • 4. Constant input of energy (sunlight) and transfer of energy between trophic levelsEcosystem Biodiversity (variety of producers, consumers . . .)Requirements Recycling of materials (carbon, oxygen, nitrogen) Ecosystem Concepts Energy Flow Energy flows UP levels Only 10% of energy that enters organism is available to Of pyramid be passed on to next trophic level Bottom level: producers (plants), next level up: primary Order of organisms is Trophic levels consumers (herbivores), top level: secondary always the same consumers (carnivores) Runoff Allows entrance & spread through aquatic system Effects of Chemicals Nondiscriminant Harm to unintended beneficial organisms Biomagnification Increased accumulation as go up the food chain Cantankerous Chemicals PCB’s Manufacturing wastes; aid to water pollution, contamination causes health risks DDT Pesticide; run-off into H2O supply; biomagnification B. eagle decline, persistent CFC’s From aerosols, coolants –decrease ozone levelHeavy metals Mercury, lead; contamination biomagnifies in fish; causes nervous disordersGeneral terms Herbicides, pesticides, biocides, toxins Aquatic Ecosystems Concept Definition Cause Problem Natural –succession; Man Deposit of minerals that Decreases DO limiting Eutrophication –accelerated by encourage algal growth aquatic life phosphates and nitrates Amount of O2 in water DO increases as turbulence increases, current velocity Dissolved O2 available to organism use increases, and temperature decreases Light Autotrophs can only live to the depth that light that Photosynthesis requires Penetration light penetrates to Light Invasive Species (Exotic, Introduced, non-native) Organism ProblemPurple Loosestrife Invades cattail swamps; out-competes cattails causing habitat lossZebra Mussel Invaded Great Lakes; uses native organism’s resources and clogs H2O intakesGypsy Moth Invades deciduous forests; defoliation damageEuropean Starling Invades cavity nesting sites; out-competes native song bird species BioCram Sheet IIIR. Bio. End-of–year Cram Garnsey 4
  • 5. ORGANIZATION OF LIFE ORGANISM SYSTEMS ORGANS TISSUE CELLS NUCLEUS (ORGANELLE) CHROMOSOMES GENES Concept Definition Synonyms Examples Gene splicing, Bacterially produced Genetic To use technology to change cloning, recombinant hormones, clones, insecticide- Engineering the genes of an organism DNA producing plants Genetic Due to: crossing over (meiosis), mutations (DNA) & Offspring vary from parents Diversity genetic recombination (gametes in sexual repro) Cell Membranes Double layer of lipids with larger protein moleculesStructure Fluid Mosaic Model inserted throughout Determine the passage of Molecules must be small enough to pass through (i.e.Function molecules in and out glucose –yes, starch –no) Active Requires energy (ATP)Types of All Requires no energyTransport Passive Diffusion Movement from high to low concentration Osmosis “ “ “ “ “ “ of WATER BioCram Sheet IV Importance of the Shape of MoleculesR. Bio. End-of–year Cram Garnsey 5
  • 6. Purpose: speed up (catalyze) Lock and Key model –enzyme must fit aEnzymes reaction rate specific substrate to work Varied effects –regulation Receptors in membranes of “target tissue”Hormones Travel through bloodstream must fit for hormone to functionNeuro- Released from terminal branches in Must fit receptors in cell membranes oftransmitters Neurons, fills synapse (space) dendrites in next neuron Will fit specific antigen receptors to activateAntibodies Active in immune system (defense) its destruction Mimic or prevent action of natural chemicalsDrugs Many types by fitting receptors Cell Division # of # New Parent cell Daughter Process Cell types Purpose Divisions cells chromosome cell Chrom. Identical body cells Somatic 2n (diploid) 2n (diploid)Mitosis 1 3 Micro-organisms Unicellular 46 -humans 46 -humans Cancer 2n (diploid) n (haploid) Gametes Meiosis gametes 2 4 46 –humans 23 –humans Each has ½ of parent DNA Basic BiochemistryElement Smallest chemical unit C, H, O, N, P, S, Fe, K, Na, Cl,Compound 2 or more different atom bonded C6H12O6, H2O, NH3, CO2Organic Comp. Contain both C and H Carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acidsInorganic Comp Not “ “ “ “ “ H2O, NaCl, NH3 Biochemical Buiding Blocks Monosaccharides “-ose” ending (i.e. glucose, sucrose), sugarsCarbohydrates Polysccharides Starch, cellulose, glycogen, chitinLipids Glycerol & 3 fatty acids Fats, oils, waxesProteins Amino acids (contains N) Proteins, enzymes, some hormones (insulin) Nucleotides (phosphate,Nucleic Acids DNA, RNA –responsible for heredity sugar, and base) BioCram Sheet V Biochemical ReactionsR. Bio. End-of–year Cram Garnsey 6
  • 7. Reactants Compounds present before the reaction startsProducts New compounds produced by changing reactants (are now larger are smaller)Enzymes Speed up (catalyze) chemical reactions Breaking compounds down into smaller compoundsHydrolysis (digestion of starch to sugars), (digestion of proteins to amino acids)Dehydration Combining smaller compounds to make larger onesSynthesis (protein synthesis- combining amino acids to make proteins –in ribosomes) ReleasingAerobic Uses: glucose Makes energy (ATP) Done in all cells with energyRespiration And oxygen And CO2 and H2O mitochondria For use Makes energy (ATP) Used when muscle cellsAnaerobic Releasing And lactic acid lack O2Respiration energy Uses glucose Makes energy (ATP) Yeast cells and(Fermentation) For use CO2 and eth. alcohol anaerobic bacteria Microscope FunctionReview parts of microscope: oculars, objectives, diaphragm, stage, fine & coarse adjustmentsReview how to make a wet mountReview how to stain a specimenReview how to measure an object under magnificationThe image is upside down and backwards of actual objectThe field of view decreases as the magnification increase (so always begin at low power)Center object before increasing magnificationIncrease diaphragm opening (letting in more light) after increasing magnification Graphs Variable controlled by the experimenter at the beginning of the experimentIndependent variable (will take readings from pH 1 – 4 or temps. From 5 – 10o) -x axis Unknown info. at the beginning of the experiment. This is the data beingDependent variable collected. (checking height of plants, or CO2 production) –y axisTwo-thirds rule Use the majority of your graphing space (2/3 for rule of thumb)Circle points Follow instructions on which symbols to use around your plotted pointsExtrapolation Keep lines between connected points and DO NOT continue beyondLine trends Increasing, decreasing, no change BioCram Sheet VI Scientific MethodR. Bio. End-of–year Cram Garnsey 7
  • 8. Steps PHEDAR –problem, hypothesis, experiment, data, analysis, repeatVariable Whatever is being changed (varied) by the experimenterControl The set-up that lacks the variable (being used as a basis of comparison)Hypothesis A best prediction made before the experiment takes placeMust only have one variable in each experimentMust have large amounts of data (repeatability) Lab Safety  Try not to Prevention RemedyCatch sleeves on fire Roll sleeves up Fire blanketCatch hair on fire Tie hair back Safety showerSplash caustic chemicals in eyes Wear goggles Eye washConsume toxins in lab Avoid eating or drinking in lab Brain transplantTest-taking reminders: As you read …underline key words and concepts, write in the definitions to complex vocabulary words. Label or analyze all diagrams, tables, and graphs before reading answer choices. Paraphrase each question in you own words. In multiple choice… when your choices are wordy, it helps to reread the question in between reading each choice. In free response …check the point values given for the question and try to break down the question into the appropriate number of phrases or sentences. Be as specific as possible. If you complete an answer and are still able to insert a “why” –write more. Check written responses for ambiguous words such as “it”, “things”, “stuff”. Convert them to the appropriate nouns. Write whole sentences. Reread them to be sure that they are clear and make sense.R. Bio. End-of–year Cram Garnsey 8
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