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Biology Book Report 1

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Biology Book Report 1
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  Biology Book Report Book Title: World of PlantsAuthor: Laura HowellPublisher: Us borne Publishing LtdIP!: "##$$%Library &all !o: '(# H)W *"& LB+&hapter: ,, Book-&hapter su..ary:  This book in/estigates the fas0inating li/es of plants and fungi and the /ital roles they bothplay on "arth1It also pro/ides the details of a nu.ber of plants and fungi whi0h are used by people for.edi0ine2 food and other purposes whi0h /ary greatly around the world1 o.e 0ountries use akind of fruit 3ust si.ply for its taste but another .ay use the. for .edi0inal 4ualities su0h asAniseed2 Belladonna et01 This book introdu0es 5owering plants2 water plants2 5owerless plantsand how they reprodu0e2 their stru0tures and type1 6oreo/er2 the fungi and the seeds andfruit1 e0ondly2 it tells about how plants li/ing in di7erent areas and the relationships betweenthe. and people2 en/iron.ents1 Thirdly2 it talks about how s0ientists work on plants likeorgani8e and breeding the. arti90ially1 In addition2 this book introdu0es the lea/es2 plants2ste.s and roots1 Plants ste.s and roots whi0h plants is .ainly supported by and are for 0arrying 5uids1 The.ain parts of a ste. ha/e ter.inal bud2 node et01 There are di7erent types of roots like taproot2 9brous root and 0arrots are known as root /egetables1 Besides hu.an bodies ha/etissues2 plants also ha/e e;0ept algae2 .osses and li/erworts1 <as0ular plants 0ontain a0o.ple; syste. of /as0ular tissue whi0h has two types2 ;yle. and phloe.1 =yle. 0arriedwater while phloe. 0arried food1 The book also says about the growth of plants tissues andse0ondary thi0kening whi0h in early or late wood1 Lea/es of plants are the .ain food>.akingparts1 There ha/e si.ple and 0o.pound lea/es2 per foliate lea/es2 bra0t1 Leaf has a long0entral /ein 0alled the .idrib and ha/e brun0hes of s.aller /ein besides1 The whole syste.0alled /enation1 This book also gi/es a nu.erous details and reasons of di7erent plant0onditions su0h as guttation2 wilting and plas.oplysis1 It introdu0es di7erent kinds of plantssu0h as he.i parasites2 saprotrophs2 the seed surfa0es and types of fruit like true and falsefruit2 dry fruit2 0ones1 There are water plants 0alled hydrophytes su0h as e.ergent2 5owerlessplants like ferns2 fungi like .oulds whi0h help or har. the other li/ing things1 ?i7erent plantsin the world used di7erent .ethods for li/ing in so.e harsh pla0es like desert1 =erophytesha/e spines to sa/e water in dry pla0e1 Halophytes ha/e salt bladders for li/ing in so.e salinepla0e1 Lithophytes ha/e spe0ial roots for an0hor to ro0ks1 o.e use 0a.ou5age to 9ght forothers atta0ks su0h as laying eggs1 Plants life is des0ribed as annuals2 biennials2 perennials2ephe.erals1 o.e are e/ergreen or de0iduous whi0h li/e in bio.es like s0rublands2 tundraet01 It also des0ribed that how s0ientists 0lassi9ed di7erent plants into kingdo.s or di/isionslike .onera2 protista2 0y0ads2 bryophytes1  This book not only relate with .y present study but also later study like plant geneti0s andbiologi0al te0hnology whi0h .ay ha/e har. or help1 @or e;a.ple2 sele0ti/e breeding1 Thisbook has the parts that introdu0e the plants 0ells2 the water .o/e.ent2 transpiration2 and thepro0ess of photosynthesis2 the response of plants su0h as tropis.2 hydrotropis.2 andthig.otropis.1 The reprodu0tion of plant2 the fe.ale and .ale parts and how they attra0tani.als or reprodu0e by wind2 water1 ?ispersal or ger.ination1 There also ha/e /egetati/ereprodu0tion and arti90ial propagation like 0or.s1 It also in0ludes the intensi/e far.ing2 6food2 0rop rotation and global war.ing1 ' !"W knowledge-0on0epts learnt fro. the book:  A    A  The .o/e.ent of 5uids inside a plant is0alled translo0ation1 There are so.e/apour es0apes through tiny holes 0alledsto.ata on the underside of the lea/es1 This type of water loss is 0alledtranspiration1 As the outer leaf 0ells losewater by transpiration2 the 0on0entration of .inerals and sugars inside the lea/esin0rease1 Therefore2 water fro. 0ellsfurther in passes into the outer 0ells torepla0e the water that has been lost1Be0ause of this2 the roots pull up the waterin the soil to the plants whi0h 0alled atranspiration strea.1 Howe/er in so.eplants2 water in the soil still enters to theroots 0ontinuously e/en in the hu.id days2this is be0ause it has a weak attra0tion tothe ;yle. walls1 This is 0alled 0apillarya0tion and .akes the roots pressure buildsup in the roots1 Be0ause of too .u0h water2the plants 0annot release the water 3ust bytranspiration droplets are for0ed out of theplants along the edges of lea/es whi0h are0alled guttation1 This is a pro0ess of water.o/e.ent in plants1 <a0uoles are used to store waste and so.e useful substan0es1 They also support the plants when they are full1 Healthy plants usually stand 9r. and upright be0ause their /a0uoles are full of 0ap sap and push outward against the 0ytoplas. and the 0ell walls1 The 0ell is 0alled turgid while the plants are 0alled turgor1In hot and dry 0onditions2 the plants .ay lose .ore water than usual1  The pressure in the /a0uoles drops1 This .ake the 0ells li.p and 0annotsupport the plants .u0h1 The plants then be0a.e droops1 This is 0alled wiltin1    A In the .ost e;tre.e 0ases2 a plant .ay lose too .u0h water and theroots are too dry or too .u0h .inerals1 The 0ell /a0uoles then shrinkand pull away fro. the 0ell walls1 This is 0alled plas.olysis1 The plant.ay kill unless it re0ei/es .ore water 4ui0kly1Li/ing things ha/e se/en 0hara0tists one of the. is irritability whi0h .eans they 0an sense the en/iron.ents and response to the.1 This is 0alled sensiti/ity or responding to a sti.ulus su0h as light2 tou0h2 te.perature1 All the plants responses are 0alled tropis.1 rowing toward the sti.ulus is known as positi/e tropis. while growing away is negati/e tropis.1It is belie/ed that the tropis. is 0ontrolled by the au;ins 0he.i0als .ake in plants 0ells1 The light response of plants is 0alled phototropis. whi0h .ake plants rea0t to the a.ount of light a/ailable and the dire0tion fro. whi0h is 0o.ing1All the li/ing things in the world respond to the pull of gra/ity whi0h is 0alled geotropis.1 Also2 they all needwater for .aintain life1 The roots of plants grow down inthe soil for obtain water and .inerals1 This waterresponse is 0alled hydrotropis.1 There also ha/e .eat>eating plants in the world2 they eat food by trap their foodwhen it tou0hes sensiti/e parts of their surfa0e1 Thisresponse is 0alled thig.otropis.1 @or e;a.ple2 so.e0li.bing plants like /ines twining together when theytou0h so.ething1 Also2 a plant 0alled .i.osa 0lose anddroop when they tou0hed by others1 This is be0ause their/a0uoles pressure drop when they tou0h1    A Li/ing things also ha/e the ability to reprodu0e1  There ha/e se;ual reprodu0tion whi0h in/ol/es plants .ale and fe.ale parts like sta.ens and 0arpel1 Their se; 0ells 0alled ga.etes1 When they reprodu0e2 they 3oin together and this known as fertili8ation1When pollen2 .ale grain lands on the stig.a of a plant of the sa.e type2 it for.s a pollen tube whi0h grows o/ule through tiny hole 0alled .i0ropyle1 This is a pro0ess 0alled pollination1 A pollen grain 0ontains two .ale nu0lei1 These tra/el down into o/ary and enter and the pollen tube and 3oin with the o/ule1 )ne for.s a 8ygote whi0h is the 9rst 0ell of a new organis.2 other for.s a layer of prote0ti/e tissue1 Together these .ake aseed and the o/ary grows be0o.e a fruit1 Reprodu0e with the plants of the sa.e kind is 0alled 0ross>pollination while pollinate the.sel/es is 0alled self>pollination1 This happen when the ani.als whi0h help the. reprodu0e does not 0o.e1 Plants ha/e /aried ways of reprodu0tion su0h as by ani.als2 wind1 The plants whi0h pollinated by ani.als ha/e brightly 0olored petals or sweet s0ents1 It also ha/e ne0tar guide on ne0tar or e;tra pollen1 The plants whi0h pollinated by wind only ha/e uns0ented and s.all petals but their 0ells hang outside the plants1 The 5owers plants shapes also help pollination1 The dispersal of plants also .akes    the plants reprodu0e by ani.als2 wind2 and water1 This helps pre/ent new plants fro. 0o.pleting with their parents for spa0e1 o.e plants with hooks for sti0king on ani.als ha/e waterproof shells for 5oating on water2 light with papery wings for 5ying in the air1    A @ungi also reprodu0e by push up through soiland grow into fruiting bodies1 0ientists nowalso dis0o/er .i0ro propagation to helplants rerodu0tion1Beside abo/e2 plants 0an be reprodu0ed in another ways su0h as runners2 0or.s2 tubers2 bulbs1 Bulbs and 0or.s both 0an sprout e;tra one ea0h year while runners be0a.e plants when they tou0h the grounds1 The tubers store food whi0h helps plants to grow afterwinter1A.oebas not only uni0ellular and also protista2 single>0elled organis.s2 su0h as a.oebas2 whi0h share features with both plants and ani.als1 Ba0teria are .onera whi0h is si.ple .i0ros0opi0 organis. whi0h do not ha/e a nu0leus in their 0ells1 !u0leus 0ontains geneti0 infor.ation whi0h is .aking up of a long 0hain of 0he.i0al 0alled genes1 enes is a pla0e for 0ontaining 0oded infor.ation about all the organis.s traits1Plants also 9ght for sur/i/al likehalophytes2 ;erophytes2 lithophytesin saline pla0e2 desserts and ro0ks1?i7erent plants obtain for water2.inerals and food in di7erent wayssu0h as he.i parasites2 epiphyteset01
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