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Biology Chap10 Notes

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Destiny Cobb Biology Unit 4, Chapter 10 Mendel and Meiosis pgs.258-285 Main Idea Section 10.1 Mendel’s Laws of Heredity Notes/Vocabulary ã Genes are located on chromosomes and exist in alternative forms called alleles. A dominant allele can mask the expression of a recessive allele. ã When Mendel crossed pea plants differing in one trait, one form of the trait disappeared until the second generation of offspring. To explain his results, Mendel formulated the law of segregation. ã Mendel formul
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  Destiny CobbBiologyUnit 4, Chapter 10 Mendel and Meiosis pgs.258-285 Main Idea Notes/Vocabulary Section 10.1Mendel’s Lawsof Heredity ã Genes are located on chromosomes and exist in alternative formscalled alleles. A dominant allele can mask the expression of arecessive allele. ã When Mendel crossed pea plants differing in one trait, one form of the trait disappeared until the second generation of offspring. Toexplain his results, Mendel formulated the law of segregation. ã Mendel formulated the law of independent assortment to explainthat 2 traits are inherited independently ã Events in genetics are governed by the laws of probability.Heredity-passing on of characteristics from parents to offspringGenetics-branch of biology that studies heredity Trait-characteristic that is inherited; can be either dominant orrecessiveGamete-male and female sex cells; sperm and eggPollination-transfer of male pollen grains to the pistil of a flowerFertilization-fusion of male and female gametesHybrid-offspring formed by parents having different forms of a traitAllele-alternative forms of a gene for each variation of a trait of anorganismDominant-observed trait of an organism that masks the recessiveform of a traitRecessive-trait of an organism that can be masked by the dominantform of a traitLaw of Segregation-Mendelian principle explaining that becauseeach plant has two different alleles, it can produce two differenttypes of gametes. During fertilization, male and female gametesrandomly pair to produce 4 combinations of allelesPhenotype-outward appearance of an organism, regardless of itsgenesGenotype-combination of genes in an organismHomozygous-paired chromosomes with genes for the same traitsarranged in the same orderHeterozygous-when there are 2 different alleles for a traitLaw of Independent Assortment-Mendelian principle stating thatgenes for different traits are inherited independently of each other Section 10.2Meiosis ã In meiosis, one diploid(2 n ) cell produces 4 haploid ( n )cells,providing a way for offspring to have the same number of chromosomes as their parents ã Mendel’s results can be explained by the distribution of chromosomes during meiosis ã Random assortment and crossing over during meiosis provide forgenetic variation among the members of a species ã Mistakes in meiosis may result from nondisjunction, the failure of chromosomes to separate properly during cell divisionDiploid-cell with 2 of each kind of chromosome; is said to contain a  Destiny CobbBiologyUnit 4, Chapter 10 Mendel and Meiosis pgs.258-285 diploid, or 2 n , numbers of chromosomesHaploid-cell with 1 of each kind of chromosomes; is said to contain ahaploid of  n , number of chromosomesHomologous Chromosome-paired chromosomes with genes for thesame traits arranged in the same orderMeiosis-type of cell division where one body cell produces 4gametes, each containing half the number of chromosomes as aparent’s body cellSperm-haploid male sex cells produced by meiosisEgg-haploid female sex cells produced by meiosisZygote-diploid cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an eggSexual reproduction-pattern of reproduction that involves theproduction and subsequent fusion of haploid sex cellsCrossing Over-exchange of genetic material between nonsisterchromatids from homologous chromosomes during prophase 1 of meiosis; results in new allele combinationsGenetic Recombination-major source of genetic variation amongorganisms caused by reassortment or crossing over during meiosisNondisjunction-failure of homologous chromosomes to separateproperly during meiosis; results in gametes with to many or to fewchromosomes
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