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Biology -Chapter 4 and 5 - incomplete

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  History of DNA: section 4.1 Gregor Mendel Mendel's First LawThe Law of Segregation: During gamete formation, two alleles of a gene pair segregate from each other. Aheterozygous plant that is Tt forms the gametes: T & t in equal numbers. The gametes do not blend.Mendel's Second LawThe Law of Independent Assortment: Segregation for different pairs of alleles occur independently/ A plant thatis heterozygous for two pairs of alleles. In example, a heterozygous TtRr can form four types of gametes: TR, Tr,tR & tr  Friedrich Miescher Isolated non protein substance from nucleus of cells Named this substance: Nuclein Frederick Griffith Experimented with mice and two different strains of pneumoniaDiscovered the process of transformation Joachim Hammerling Experimented using green alga: AcetabulariaHypothesized that hereditary information is stored in the nucleus Oswald Avery, Maclyn McCarty, Colin MacLeod Demonstrated that DNA was the transforming principle of pneumococcus bacteria Erwin Chargoff  Discovered that DNA contains:Equal amounts of Adenine and ThymineEqual amounts of Guanine and Cytosine Alfred Hershey, Martha Chase Experimenting with radioisotopes of phosphorus and sulphur and suggested that DNA was the hereditarymaterial Rosalind Franklin Produced and X-ray diffraction pattern of DNASuggested DNA was double helix in structure James Watson, Francis Crick  Discovered the structure of DNA using information from Chargoff, Franklin, and Maurice Wilkins Matthew Meselson, Franklin Stahl Discovered that DNA replicated semi conservatively Archibald Garrod Hypothesized that genes code for the production of enzymes / proteins Noticed that an error in hereditary material resulted in an error in a enzyme  George Beadle, Edward Tatum Hypothesized that one gene = one enxyme Noticed that a lack of a particular enzyme corresponded to a mutation in a single gene. Vernom Ingram Discovered that sickle cell anemia is caused by the coding of one wrong amino acid.Discovered that a gene specifies the kind of location of each amino acid in a polypeptide chain. Thomas Morgan Morgan was able to demonstrate that genes are carried on chromosomes and are the mechanical basis of heredity.  Structure of DNA: section 4.2 Chemical analysis by scientists revealed the general chemical composition of nucleic acids (DNA andRNA): they are composed of nucleotides. A nucleotide consists of  a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar (deoxyribose in DNA and ribose inRNA), and a nitrogenous base bonded together. Each nucleotide in a DNA molecule has one of four nitrogenous bases: Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Uracil in RNA.Adenine and Guanine are purine bases . their structure consists of  two rings of atoms . Thymine and Cytosine are pyrimidine bases . Their structure consists a single ring of atoms . Uracil is another pyrimidine base found in RNA. Uracil replaces Thymine in RNA .  DeoxyRibose Sugar Vs Ribose Sugar DNA vs. RNADeoxyribonucleic acidRibonucleic acid - Contains Deoxyribose sugar- Contains Ribose sugar - Double Stranded- Single Stranded- Adenine – Thymine- Guanine – Cytosine- Adenine – Uracil- Guanine – Cytosine- Resides in the Nucleus- Resides in both Nucleus andCytoplasmPractise on DNA Structure: Chapter 4, section 4.2, Page 216, Questions #1 – 10.

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Nov 15, 2017

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