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BioOil Char

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Dynamotive http://www.dynamotive.com/en/biooil/index.html What is BioOil? BioOil is an alternative fuel made using Dynamotive’s pyrolysis process of biomass. It is a dark brown, free flowing liquid fuel with a smoky odour reminiscent of the plant from which it was derived. BioOil is formed in a process called pyrolysis wherein plant material (biomass), such as sawdust or bagasse from sugar cane, is exposed to 400-500 degrees Celsius in an oxygen free environment. BioOil contains up to 25% water.
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  Dynamotive http://www.dynamotive.com/en/biooil/index.html What is BioOil? BioOil is an alternative fuel made using Dynamotive’s pyrolysis process of biomass. It is a dark brown, free flowing liquid fuel with a smoky odour reminiscent of the plant from which it wasderived. BioOil is formed in a process called pyrolysis wherein plant material (biomass), such assawdust or bagasse from sugar cane, is exposed to 400-500 degrees Celsius in an oxygen freeenvironment.BioOil contains up to 25% water. The water component in BioOil is not a separate phase and isimportant because it lowers the viscosity of the fuel. BioOil is not a hydrocarbon-water mix likeOrimulsion. Another feature of BioOil is its propensity to change slowly over time. This is not tobe considered an instability because it can take months.BioOil is a fossil fuel substitute. It pumps well, ignites, and burns readily when atomized.BioOil has EcoLogo certification, having met stringent environmental criteria for industrial fuelsas measured by Environment Canada’s Environmental Choice Program. The EcoLogo signifiesthat the manufacturing process of the product has been audited by a credible third party, andsupported by empirical data on combustion tests conducted by both the company and authorizedthird parties.BioOil should be handled in a similar manner as conventional fuels. Direct contact with skin, aswell as inhalation of its vapours should be avoided. Although not as readily flammable asconventional fuels, pyrolysis fuels should always be kept away from open flame or other heatsources. For further information, please see the material safety data sheet at the end of thisdocument.  BioOil properties and how they compare with conventional fuels Table 1: Comparison of fuel properties – wood based pyrolysis fuelParameterUnitAnalyticalmethodsBioOil PlusBioOilHeatingoil #2Heavy fuel oilHigh HeatingValueMJ/kgDIN5190018-2016-1945.542.5High HeatingValueMJ/LDIN5190023-2519-2339.441.7Flash PointoCASTM D9350-6048-553860Pour PointoCASTM D97-11-15-6-Density (15oC)Kg/literASTMD40521.22-1.31.20.8650.986AciditypHpH meter2-32-3--Solids (char)wt %Insolubles inEthanol20-230.01-0.2--Moisturewt%Karl Fisher20-2520-25-< 0.5Ashwt %ASTM D482<1<0.02Trace0.08KinematicViscosity cStASTM D445----20°C--1500-3700703-62000-900040°C--300-500191.8-3.5500-100060°C--140-25081.4-2.5100-20080°C--70-9041.1-1.840-70  Table 2: Ultimate Analysis of different fuels (% by wt)BioOilBioOil PlusCharHeatingoil #2Heavy fueloilAsh < 0.02<1< 8< 0.010.02-0.08Carbon 42-4745-5175-7886.485.7Hydrogen 6-85-63-412.710.5Nitrogen < 0.1< 0.3 < 0.30.0060.18Sulfur < 0.02< 0.06-0.2-0.7< 2.8Oxygen(by difference)46-5143-497-140.040.38 BioOil Applications BioOil’s potential use as a fossil fuel replacement is already well established. Customers for BioOilcan include local, regional and national electrical utilities and power producers operating withpartial or complete fuel substitution depending on scale and application. The opportunities forindustrial applications are too numerous to list but some immediate applications in primary industry are kilns and boilers in pulp and paper, process heat in boilers in sawmills, metallurgy,oil and gas industries, as well as in secondary industries such as greenhouses, district heating andstationary engines.Pyrolysis fuels have a very complex chemical composition, containing a multitude of differentcompounds. The specialty applications of these compounds in industrial processes andmanufacturing are just beginning to be explored. They represent a potentially very large marketfor value-added products derived from BioOil.  Key Properties to Accommodate Switching Fuel to BioOil ViscosityPreheat BioOil to 40° C. Select air or steam atomized nozzles.Wherever possible, avoid pipe diameters < 1.5” ID in longerruns.AcidityDue to corrosivity, avoid carbon steel and use stainless orHDPE in all BioOil Plus wetted surfaces and instrumentationLower heating valueSelect larger feed pump and preferably consider a positivedisplacement type for BioOil Plus pumping.AgingAvoid sustained heating to > 60° C. Use BioOil within 3months.IgnitionIgnition is not a problem – what works with fuel oil generally works with BioOil Plus. It is necessary to attend to the fuel /combustion air ratio before ignition.While the properties of BioOil are somewhat different from the fuel type the user may beaccustomed to, the modifications required for switching to a pyrolysis fuel are fairly simple andmechanically traditional. Standard inspection and maintenance procedures, as described by theequipment manufacturers, still apply. Dynamotive can provide expertise and consultation on allaspects of its fuel combustion. This includes, for instance, equipment and material suitability,modification requirements or a tailored maintenance, and inspection program for burningBioOil. Utility fuel, Power Generation Dynamotive is working with manufacturers of gas turbines and stationary diesel engines tofurther test and develop BioOil fuels for heat and power generation. The first application was theinstallation of an OGT 2500 gas turbine with a combined cycle in Dynamotive’s first commercialBioOil plant in West Lorne, Ontario. Due to the high solid content in BioOil Plus, it cannot beused in a gas turbine and diesel engine. Nevertheless, its higher heating value makes it a good fuelto be used in any heating application. Industrial fuel, Cogeneration Dynamotive’s successful burner tests have created opportunities for early commercialapplications of BioOil as a clean burning fuel to replace natural gas, diesel and other liquid fossilfuels in the multi-billion dollar industrial boilers and kiln markets.
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