Plant diseases always become an important problem affecting the whole life of plant. Diseases that impact crops in the tropic regions can be significant constraints to production influencing human life and the environment. Mostly plant protection
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  BIOPESTICIDES: IMPACT TO THE ENVIRONMENTLoekas SoesantoFaculty of A!"cultu!e# $en%e!al Soe%"!&an 'n"(e!s"tyP)O) Bo* +,-# Pu!.oke!to -/+0+ e1&a"l: lukassus,23&a"l)co&ABSTRACTPlant %"seases al.ays 4eco&e an "&5o!tant 5!o4le& affect"n t6e .6ole l"fe of 5lant) Diseases that impact crops in the tropic regions can be signifcant constraintsto production inuencing human lie and the environment. Mostly 5lant  5!otect"on &et6o%s !ecently use synt6et"c 5est"c"%es# es5ec"ally fun"c"%e# t6at a!e to*"c c6e&"cals no*"ous t6e en("!on&ent) Because of t6e 6a7a!%ous effect# one of en("!on&entally f!"en%ly &et6o%s "s %e(elo5e% to 5!otect 5lant f!o& 5lant 5at6oens# t6at "s# t6e use of 4"olo"cal cont!ol o! !efe!!e% to as 4"o5est"c"%es) B"o5est"c"%es enco&5ass a 4!oa% a!!ay of &"c!o4"al  5est"c"%es# 4"oc6e&"cals %e!"(e% f!o& &"c!o1o!an"s&s an% ot6e! natu!al sou!ces# an% 5!ocesses "n(ol("n t6e enet"c "nco!5o!at"on of DNA "nto a!"cultu!al co&&o%"t"es) B"o5est"c"%es 6a(e  4enef"ts an% l"&"tat"ons effect fo! t6e en("!on&ent# 6u&an l"fe# o! a!"cultu!al 5!o%ucts) B"o5est"c"%es 5!o("%e !o.e!s ."t6 (alua4le tools on 4ot6 f!onts 4y %el"(e!"n solut"ons t6at a!e 6"6ly effect"(e "n &ana"n 5ests an% %"seases# ."t6out c!eat"n neat"(e "&5acts on t6e en("!on&ent  and t6e"! act"(e an% "ne!t "n!e%"ents a!e ene!ally !econ"7e% as safe) Bes"%e t6e &"c!o4"al content# ca!!"e! &e%"a fo! fo!&ulat"n 4"o5est"c"%e .e!e cons"ste% of se(e!al o!an"c &ate!"als# suc6 as an"&al 4!ot6# o!an"c &ate!"als# o! o!an"c .aste 5!o%uct) T6e &e%"a "s  4"o%e!a%a4le &ate!"al) B"o5est"c"%es su55o!te% sta4"l"ty an% susta"na4"l"ty of a!oecosyste&  4ecause t6ey %"% not affect neat"(ely on en("!on&ent)8ey 9o!%s: 5lant %"seases# 4"o5est"c"%es# en("!on&ent)INTROD'CTIONIn t!a%"t"onal o! &o%e!n a!"cultu!al f"el%# 5lant %"seases al.ays 4eco&e an "&5o!tant  5!o4le& affect"n t6e .6ole l"fe of 5lant# f!o& see% to see%) Diseases that impact crops in the tropic regions can be signifcant constraints to production, especially when they occur in lowland environments with high rainall and uniorm, warm temperatures; respites rom disease pressure there are oten inrequent. Dec!eas"n 5lant 5!o%uct"on an% co&&o%"t"es a!e !esulte% f!o& 5lant %"seases attack Ploet7# ,00;<) T6"s "s# acco!%"n to Ploet7 ,00;<# 4ecause t6e t!o5"cal !e"on "s t6e .o!l%=s ol%est 4a!ely un%e!stoo% ecosyste& ."t6 6"6ly %"(e!s"f"cat"on an% fa(o!a4le con%"t"on fo! 5lant %"sease %e(elo5&ent)Because of t6e 5lant %"sease# so&e "&5o!tant co&&o%"t"es a!e %"sa55ea!e% f!o& ce!ta"n !e"on) Ne. 5!o4le& !a"se% f!o& t6ese %"seases "s not only %ec!ease o! fa"lu!e of 6a!(est an% %"sa55ea! of "&5o!tant 5lants# 4ut 5eo5le fa&"ne# &"!at"on# o! e(en %"e# an% %a&ae t6e 1  en("!on&ent as .ell can 4e "nfluence%) Fo! "nstance# 5otato late an% ea!ly 4l"6t a!e "&5o!tant %"sease to t6e 5otato "n%ust!y 4ecause t6ey coul% %est!oy fol"ae an% affect tu4e!s an% f"nally !e%uc"n y"el% F!y# ,00;<) F!o& t6e ea!l"e! 56yto5at6olo"cal 6"sto!y# t6e %"sease coul% 4eca&e %"saste! fo! 5eo5le l"("n "n t6e 5otato consu&"n count!"es) E(en so"l14o!ne 5lant 5at6oens suc6 as Colletotrichum s5)#  Rhizoctonia solani #  Fusarium  s5)# Sclerotium  s5)# an%  Phytophthora infestans  an% also a"!14o!ne one suc6 as Ceratocystis cacaofunesta  4eco&e t6e &ost "&5o!tant .o!l%."%e 5lant 5at6oens "n se(e!al cult"(ate% c!o5s an% 5lants 8"& et al.,  ,00/> Engelbrecht   et al  )# ,00;> Ha&&# ,00;> 9"%o%o an% Bu%"a!t"# ,00?<) Many &et6o%s 6a(e 4een a55l"e% to sol(e 5lant %"seases const!a"nts !esulte% e"t6e! f!o& con(ent"onal o! 4"otec6nolo"cal ("e.s# fo! e*a&5le# e!a%"cat"on# 5lant @ua!ant"ne# san"tat"on# so"l sola!"7at"on# an% cult"(at"on tec6n"@ue Pa!k et al  )# ,002> Ploet7# ,00;> S"n6# ,00;<) Mostly  5lant 5!otect"on &et6o%s !ecently use synt6et"c 5est"c"%es# es5ec"ally fun"c"%e# t6at a!e to*"c c6e&"cals no*"ous t6e en("!on&ent fo! 5lant 5at6oens alt6ou6 t6e synt6et"c 5est"c"%e ."ll 4e ("tal an% o4l"ato!y to &a"nta"n an% "&5!o(e y"el% a&l"el et al  )# +??;> S&"t6 et al  )# ,00<) Ho.e(e!# t6e 6a7a!%ous effect of t6ese c6e&"cals o! t6e"! %e!a%at"on 5!o%ucts on t6e en("!on&ent an% 6u&an 6ealt6 st!only necess"tates t6e sea!c6 fo! ne.# 6a!&less &eans of %"sease cont!ol a&l"el et al  )# +??;> E%!e(a# ,00> $u!aske an% Sanuan# ,0++<) T6e!e a!e &any  5lant %"seases .6e!e cont!ol 4y c6e&"cals .as ne(e! an o5t"on# suc6 as t6e cont!ol of &ycoto*"n conta&"nat"on of %"(e!se c!o5s 4y  Aspergillus  s5ec"es Counc"l fo! A!"cultu!al Sc"ence an% Tec6noloy# ,00/<) E(en t6e use of synt6et"c o!an"c "nsect"c"%es "n c!o5 5est cont!ol 5!o!a&s a!oun% t6e .o!l% 6a% cause% t!e&en%ous %a&ae to t6e en("!on&ent# 5est !esu!ence# 5est !es"stance to "nsect"c"%es# an% let6al effects on non1ta!et o!an"s&s A4u%ula" et al  )# ,00+<Because of t6e 6a7a!%ous effect# one of en("!on&entally f!"en%ly &et6o%s "s %e(elo5e% to 5!otect 5lant f!o& 5lant 5at6oens !ecently# t6at "s# t6e use of antaon"st"c &"c!oo!an"s&s calle% 4"olo"cal cont!ol o! !efe!!e% to as 4"o5est"c"%es) Disease management should be considered as part o an integrated approach to crop production that also includes the nutrition, water, and environmental needs o the crop, and its economic constraints !loet", #$$%&.  T6e 4"olo"cal cont!ol "s 5!o(en as 5o.e!ful 5lant %"sease &anae&ent tool# .6"c6 can 5!o("%e !eat 4enef"ts) Many 4enef"c"al &"c!oo!an"s&s# suc6 as  Pseudomonas fluorescens # Trichoderma  s55)#  Bacillus subtilis # an%  Fusarium  non1 5at6oen# 6a(e 4een stu%"e% an% teste% t6e"! a4"l"ty aa"nst (a!"ous 5lant 5at6oens) So&e of #  t6e& 6a(e 4een !elease% an% &a!kete% as 4"o5est"c"%e  C6an%le! et al  )# ,0++< ) In C6"na# (eeta4le fa!&e! 6ouse6ol%s ."t6 "n%"("%ual c6a!acte!"st"cs an% 5a!t"c"5at"on "n a!"cultu!al coo5e!at"(es .e!e &o!e ."ll"n to use 4"o5est"c"%es 9u et al  )# ,0+,<)9HAT IS BIOPESTICIDES')S) En("!on&ental P!otect"on Aency EPA< a(e a %ef"n"t"on of 4"o5est"c"%es "n .6"c6  4"o5est"c"%es a!e c!o5 5!otect"on 5!o%ucts .6"c6 6a(e 4een %es"n fo! !e5eate% a55l"cat"on an% ce!ta"n ty5es of 5est"c"%es %e!"(e% f!o& suc6 natu!al &ate!"als as an"&als# 5lants# 4acte!"a# an% ce!ta"n &"ne!als O&4u%s&an# B"o5est"c"%es an% Pollut"on P!e(ent"on D"("s"on# ,0+,> Pan%a# ,0+,<) Fo! e*a&5le# canola o"l an% 4ak"n so%a 6a(e 5est"c"%al a55l"cat"ons an% a!e cons"%e!e%  4"o5est"c"%es) Ho.e(e!# Su%ak"n ,00/< an% u5ta an% D"ks6"t ,0+0< state% 4!oa%e! %ef"n"t"on of 4"o5est"c"%es t6at t6e te!& 4"o5est"c"%e enco&5asses a 4!oa% a!!ay of &"c!o4"al 5est"c"%es#  4"oc6e&"cals %e!"(e% f!o& &"c!o1o!an"s&s an% ot6e! natu!al sou!ces# an% 5!ocesses "n(ol("n t6e enet"c "nco!5o!at"on of DNA "nto a!"cultu!al co&&o%"t"es t6at confe! 5!otect"on aa"nst  5est %a&ae 5lant1"nco!5o!ate% 5!otectants<) Acco!%"n to O&4u%s&an# B"o5est"c"%es an% Pollut"on P!e(ent"on D"("s"on ,0+,<# at t6e en% of ,00+# t6e!e .e!e a55!o*"&ately +?- !e"ste!e% 4"o5est"c"%e act"(e "n!e%"ents an% ;0 5!o%ucts)Acco!%"n to B"o5est"c"%e In%ust!y All"ance BPIA# ,00?<# t6e s"n"f"cant !e%uct"on of c6e&"cal usae "n a!"cultu!e 6a(e 4een s"ne% "n ,00? 4y T6e Susta"na4le 'se D"!ect"(e fo! E'o(e!n&ents to "nt!o%uce nat"onal act"on 5lans 4y ,0+,) F!ance# Den&a!k# an% S.e%en al!ea%y 6a(e a!ess"(ely !e%uce% o(e!all a!"cultu!al c6e&"cal use 4y &o!e t6an /0G) T6!ou6 "ts Eco56yto ,0+ 5lan# .6"c6 "nclu%es a !o4ust !o.e!1e%ucat"on co&5onent# F!ance "nten%s to !e%uce "ts a!"cultu!al c6e&"cal usae 4y -0G 4y ,0+ ."t6out affect"n y"el% o! !e(enues) O(e!all# t6e nu&4e! of con(ent"onal 5est"c"%es a55!o(e% fo! a!"cultu!al use "n t6e E' 6as 4een !e%uce% f!o& an all1t"&e 6"6 of a4out +#000 to a cu!!ent l"st of /00 BPIA# ,00?<)T6e 4"o5est"c"%es can 6a(e one of &o!e 5os"t"(e "&5act to 5lant 4y "n6"4"t"n 5lant  5at6oen"c !o.t6 an% %e(elo5&ent) It &eans t6at 4"o5est"c"%es 6a(e 4ot6 "n%"!ect an% %"!ect effect on 5lant) In6"4"t"on of t6e 5at6oen "s 6a55ene% t6!ou6 se(e!al &ec6an"s&s# suc6 as ant"4"os"s# co&5et"t"on# an% 6y5e!5a!as"t"s& Ho.ell# ,00/> Hassane"n et al  )# ,00?<) Me&4e!s of t6e enus Trichoderma  t6at 6a(e a4"l"ty to 5!o%uce ant"4"ot"c to*"n< an% to 5a!as"t"7e ot6e! fun"# suc6 as  Pythium ultimum  an% a  Phytophthora  s5ec"es# 6a(e 4een stu%"e% 4y Ho.ell '  ,00/<) Hassane"n et al  ) ,00?< stu%"e% t6e ant"funal act"("ty of 5yocyan"n# s"%e!o56o!e an% 6y%!oen cyan"%e 5!o%uce% 4y  Pseudomonas aeruginosa ) Soesanto et al  ) ,0++a< stu%"e% t6e secon%a!y &eta4ol"tes 5!o%uce% 4y  Pseudomonas fluorescens  P20 suc6 as c6"t"nase# 5!otease# cellulase# sta!c6 an% elat"n 6y%!olys"s# ant"4"ot"c# s"%e!o56o!e# an% IAA 5!o%uct"on)S"nce +???#  Pseudomonas fluorescens  "solate% f!o& .6eat !6"7os56e!e 6as 4een stu%"e% to cont!ol so&e so"l14o!ne 5lant 5at6oens# sta!te% ."t6 erticillium dahliae  on  Arabidopsis thaliana  an% e5lant Soesanto# ,000<) T6e 4acte!"al antaon"st#  P. fluorescens  st!a"n P20# .as t6en teste% aa"nst  Fusarium o!ysporum  an% ot6e! so"l14o!ne 5lant 5at6oens on se(e!al 5lants "nclu%e% soy4ean Soesanto et al  )# ,00/<# 5eanut Soesanto# ,00<# c6"l" 5e55e! Ma@@on et al  )# ,002<# la%"olus 9a!%6ana et al  )# ,00?<# to&ato Soesanto et al. # ,0+0<# s6allot Santoso et al  )# ,00;> Soesanto et al  )# ,0++%<# !"ce Soesanto et al  )# ,0++%<# 5otato Soesanto et al  )# ,0++%<# an%  4anana Ha!yono et al  )# ,00<) Bes"%es t6e 4acte!"al antaon"st# so&e "solates of Trichoderma harzianum  6a(e also 4een "solate% f!o& !6"7os56e!e of se(e!al 5lants an% t6en teste% aa"nst se(e!al 5lant 5at6oens e"t6e! in "itro # in planta # in "i"o # o! in situ  A&al"a et al  )# ,00>)Sus"lo et al  )# ,00-> Soesanto et al.,  ,00-> P!a4o.o et al. # ,002> Santoso et al  )# ,00;<)T6e antaon"sts 4ot6  P. fluorescens  st!a"n P20 an% se(e!al Trichoderma harzianum  "solates use% fo! cont!ol of se(e!al 5lant 5at6oens .e!e t6en analy7e% t6e"! e"t6e! &o!56olo"cal# 56ys"olo"cal# o! 4"oc6e&"cal c6a!acte!"st"cs Soesanto et al  )# ,0++a#4#c<) Base% on t6e antaon"st c6a!acte!"st"c analys"s# so&e &ec6an"s&s 6a(e 4een "%ent"f"e% suc6 as ant"4"os"s# co&5et"t"on on nut!"t"on# 5lant !o.t6 5!o&ot"n !6"7o4acte!"a o! fun"# lyt"c en7y&es# an% syste&"c "n%uce% !es"stance) Base% on !esea!c6 !esult of Soesanto et al  ) ,0++a<#  P. fluorescens  st!a"n P20 coul% 5!o%uce se(e!al en7y&es t6at 6a(e 4enef"t "&5act to 5lant o! l"&"tat"on to 5at6oen# an% 5lant !o.t6 !eulato! suc6 as "n%ole acet"c ac"% IAA<# 4u! not DNA1se) It &eans t6at t6e 4acte!"al antaon"st %"% not 6a(e a neat"(e effect to 6u&an) F!o& t6"s 5o"nt of ("e.# t6e antaon"st can 4e cons"%e!e% .6et6e! 4enef"t# safe# an% f!"en%ly o! not to t6e en("!on&ent an% 6u&an l"fe) T6e c6a!acte!"st"c of t6e antaon"st "s an "&5o!tant .o!k to kno. t6e antaon"st a4"l"ty "n affect"n 5lant "tself of 5lant 5at6oen)BENEFITS AND LIMITATIONS OF BIOPESTICIDES (  B"o5est"c"%es 6a(e 4enef"ts an% l"&"tat"ons effect fo! t6e en("!on&ent# 6u&an l"fe# o! a!"cultu!al 5!o%ucts) T6e 4enef"ts of 4"o5est"c"%es BPIA# ,00?> u5ta an% D"ks6"t# ,0+0> Mc!at6 et al  )# ,0+0< as follo.:+)t6e a4"l"ty to 5!o("%e alte!nat"(e &o%es of act"on to t!a%"t"onal 5!o%ucts .6"c6 &akes t6e& a c!"t"cal co&5onent "n &ost IPM 5!o!a&s> ,)a!e t6ou6t to tu!n on 5lant %efense !es5onses) Suc6 5!o%ucts s6oul% 4e a55l"e% 4efo!e "nfect"on to 4e effect"(e>/)6a(e t6e s6o!t !es"%ual t"&e# lo. to*"c"ty# an% !e%uce% !"sk to non1ta!et o!an"s&s o! t6e en("!on&ent> o! &ostly 6a(e 6ost s5ec"f"c ta!et>)a!e often una4le to co&5ete ."t6 nat"(e so"l &"c!oo!an"s&s# t6ey ten% to 5e!s"st at le(els "neffect"(e fo! cont!ol>-)!e"st!at"on "n less t"&e t6an con(ent"onal c6e&"cal 5!o%ucts 4ecause 4"o5est"c"%es e*6"4"t &"n"&al "&5act on t6e en("!on&ent an% 6u&ans>   lo. 5e!s"stent# o! &ostly !es"%ual effect  4"o%e!a%a4le an% self 5e!5etuat"n> less 6a!&ful on 4enef"c"al flo!a an% fauna>2)t6e a4"l"ty to e*ten% t6e l"fe of con(ent"onal c6e&"cals 4y 5!o("%"n !es"stance &anae&ent  4enef"ts "n a!"cultu!al 5!o!a&s> ;)e*e&5t"on f!o& tole!ances# suc6 as !e%uce% 5!e16a!(est !est!"ct"ons an% a55l"cat"on "n en("!on&entally sens"t"(e a!eas# .6"c6 5e!&"ts 4"o5est"c"%es t6at 6a(e no Ma*"&u& Res"%ueLe(els MRLs< to 4e use% on c!o5s "nten%e% fo! e*5o!t an% "n u!4an sett"ns>)a 6"6 %e!ee of .o!ke! safety an% t6e s6o!test !eent!y "nte!(als allo.e% 4y la.>?)(alue1a%%e% 4enef"ts# suc6 as "&5!o(e% 5lant 6ealt6# y"el%s an% @ual"ty an% an "nc!ease "n  4enef"c"al# "n 4ot6 t!a%"t"onal an% o!an"c cult"(at"on 5!o!a&s)Bes"%e t6e 4enef"c"al effect of 4"o5est"c"%es# se(e!al facto!s can affect 5e!fo!&ance of  4"o5est"c"%es# o! any 5!o%uct use% fo! %"sease cont!ol) T6ese nee% to 4e cons"%e!e% .6en !e("e."n !esults f!o& an eff"cacy e*5e!"&ent o! on fa!& use Mc!at6 et al  )# ,0+0<) +)B"o5est"c"%es &ay a55ea! to 4e effect"(e .6en actually con%"t"ons 4eca&e unfa(o!a4le fo! t6e %"sease to %e(elo5 o! t6e 5at6oen .as not 5!esent) T6e ea!l"e! "n %"sease %e(elo5&ent t6at a55l"cat"ons of a 5!o%uct a!e sta!te% t6e &o!e effect"(e t6e 5!o%uct ."ll 4e) ,)D"sease s5ots les"ons< cannot 4e cu!e%= an% once a 5at6oen 6as "nfecte% a 5lant "t cannot  4e k"lle%# e(en ."t6 &ost con(ent"onal fun"c"%es# "n cont!ast ."t6 "nsect 5ests .6"c6 !e&a"n on 5lant su!faces an% a!e access"4le to t!eat&ent) /)Data on t6e eff"cacy of 4"o5est"c"%es suc6 as t6e 5!o%ucts &o%e of act"on# !es"%ual t"&e# an% ta!et %"seases< "s l"&"te%>)P!o%uct 5e!fo!&ance can also 4e affecte% 4y s5!ay co(e!ae an% f!e@uency of a55l"cat"on) )
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