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Biopharmaceutical potential of submerge cultivated higher basidial mushrooms

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Biopharmaceutical potential of submerge cultivated higher basidial mushrooms
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  New Biotechnology  ·  Volume 25S  ·  September 2009  ABSTRACTS 3.2.10 Bioelicitation of secondary metabolites in  in vitro  cul-tures of   Gymnema sylvestre  R.Br. C.SubathraDevi ∗ ,  V.MohanaSrinivasan VIT University, Vellore, India  Aspergillus niger   cell extract was used as a elicitor. Growth rate andthegymnemicacidproductionoftheelicitedandnon-elicitedcul-turesof  Gymnemasylvestre wereinvestigated.Thegrowthrateoftheelicited and non-elicited cultures was not significantly different,but the gymnemic acid yield was very high in elicited cultures.When compared to non-elicited cultures, 8—9-fold increase of gymnemic acids yield in elicited cultures was noticed. 10g of cellsuspension produced in shake flask culture was transferred to 5lbatch fermentor containing 2-l MS medium. Fresh weight wasincreased 6.5 times after 20 days of culture and the gymnemicacid production achieved was 900mg/l. After elicitation, 8 timesincrease of fresh weight was gained. When compared to shakeflask culture, 8—9-fold increase in gymnemic acid production wasnoticed in fermentors.doi:10.1016/j.nbt.2009.06.643 3.2.11 Spirulina as ‘functional food’ M.Ajeesh ∗ ,  C.P.N.Bohra ,  N.Gupta ,  C.Rajasekaran PlantBiotechnologyDivision,SchoolofBiotechnology,ChemicalandBiomed-ical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014, India Functional foods are foods that contain multiple ingredient/s andcontribute constructive health benefits over other forms of food.They can be food with or enriched with bioactive substances ortraditional food with synthesized food ingredients. Spirulina, afilamentous cyanobacterium, with high nutritive value has beenunder immense research for its role in medication and as well asinNutraceuticals.Besidesinhibitoryeffectonviralreplicationandageing mechanism, Spirulina has been found to have detoxifica-tion of undesirable compounds and help reduce oxidative damagedone by free radicals in the body. This poster focuses the use of Spirulina as a functional food in our diet. It also accentuates therole of Spirulina metabolites such as amino acid, pigments, vita-mins and minerals in imparting improved metabolism and bodyfunctions.doi:10.1016/j.nbt.2009.06.644 3.2.12 Expression and functional analysis of rice-producedhuman insulin-like growth factor-I (hIGF-I) S.C.K. Cheung 1 , ∗ ,  L. Liu 1 ,  S.S.M. Sun 1 ,  Q. Liu 2 ,  L. Lan 1 ,  J.C.N.Chan 1 ,  P.C.Y.Tong 1 1  The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong 2 Yangzhou University, Hong Kong Human insulin-like growth factor-I (hIGF-I) is a growth factor thathighly resembles to insulin. It is essential for cell proliferation andcan be used to treat various endocrine-associated diseases includ-ing growth hormone insensitivity syndrome (GHIS) and diabetesmellitus. To meet the increasing demand of hIGF-I in therapeuticuses, we have developed an efficient plant expression system toproduce biologically active recombinant hIGF-I (rhIGF-I) in trans-genic rice grains. The plant-codon-optimized hIGF-I, under thecontrolofriceseed-specific Gt1 promoter,wasintroducedintoricevia  Agrobacterium -mediated transformation. In order to enhancerhIGF-Istabilityandyield,twoprotein-sortingsequences,anendo-plasmic reticulum (ER)-retention signal (KDEL) and glutelin signalpeptide, were used to deliver the recombinant protein to ER forstable accumulation.  In vitro  functional analysis showed that therice-derived rhIGF-I could induce membrane ruffling and glucoseuptake on L6myc cells in a dose-dependent manner. It was esti-mated that 1mg of transgenic rice grain contained equivalentbiological activity of 1.6—3.2nM of commercial rhIGF-I.  In vivo oral meal test with rice-derived rhIGF-I was also found to acutelylower blood glucose level in normal C57/BL6 mice. The bloodglucose levels of the mice fed with wild type rice were alwayshigher than those fed with rhIGF-I rice throughout the experi-ment(  p <0.05).Bothofthebloodglucoselevelsreachedmaximumat 15minutes, with 3.42 ± 0.76 and 2.49 ± 0.35-fold for wild typeand rhIGF-I rice respectively (  p <0.01), indicating that rhIGF-I ricewas more effective in lowering blood glucose than wild type rice.To conclude, our findings provided an alternative expression sys-tem to produce large quantities of functional rhIGF-I that can bea promising substitution of insulin for diabetic treatment.doi:10.1016/j.nbt.2009.06.645 3.2.13 Biopharmaceutical potential of submerge cultivatedhigher basidial mushrooms Mark Shamtsyan ∗ ,  Vera Spiridonova ,  Eugenia Tozik  ,  BorisKolesnikov ,  AntonKlepikov St. Petersburg State Institute of Technology (Technical University), St. Peters-burg, Russian Federation From ancient times humans have used mushrooms for their heal-ing potential. The major part of the traditional knowledge of mushrooms bioactive properties has srcinated from the Orien-tal countries. Western countries are just discovering the variabilityand tremendous potential of medical mushrooms. www.elsevier.com/locate/nbt  S285  ABSTRACTS  New Biotechnology  ·  Volume 25S  ·  September 2009 Inourstudiesmushroomfruitbodiesweregatheredwiledfromvarious geographical zones, were identified and introduced intoculture.Submerge mycelia and native liquids of cultivation of basid-iomycetes were studied. The results showed that mycelia aqueousextracts, mainly containing beta-glucans, possess various types of marked immunomodulating activities. Immunomodulating effectwas also demonstrated, for oral administration of extracts as wellfeeding animals with extract fortified yogurts and milk. Additionofthisextractstothedailydietresultsinanti-tumoreffectsagainstmelanoma B-16 and Erlich’s ascit carcinoma. In addition extractsof submerge mycelia possessed significant antioxidant and Super-oxide dismutase like activity.The addition of submerge mycelia of some mushrooms to ahigh cholesterol diet effectively reduced cholesterol accumula-tion in the serum and liver of experimental rats redistributingcholesterol in favor of high-density lipoprotein, reduced produc-tion of low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein,cholesterol, reduced cholesterol absorption and triglyceride levelin blood serum. Uptake of mushroom mycelia was also decreasingglycemic indexes of food in streptozotocine induced diabetic rats,thus possessing antidiabetic effect.From the native liquid of several higher basidiomycetes we iso-lated enzymes with high fibrinolytic activity can also be producedduring submerge cultivation of various mushrooms. Intravenousinjections of purified enzyme preparations were resulting in com-plete lyses of thrombus formed in the venues and arteries of theexperimental animals.Obtained results are demonstrating high healing potential of mushrooms.doi:10.1016/j.nbt.2009.06.646 3.2.14 Bio-flocculants, a novel approach to safe water treat-ment using biologically active proteins prepared fromseeds A.Murphy 1 , ∗ ,  M.Schneider 2 ,  I.W.Marison 1 1 School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland 2 Laboratoire de Genie Chimique et Biologique (LGCB), Ecole PolytechniqueFederale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Waterisanessentialcomponentoflife.Thereisanever-increasingdemand for safe clean drinking water. Aluminium sulphate andferricsulphate,alongwithpolyacrylamide,arechemicalscurrentlyemployed in water treatment plants as coagulants and flocculants.Polyacrylamide has been found to be toxic to aquatic organismsandispossiblyacarcinogenicaluminiumhasbeenlinkedinrecentyears to the brain disease Alzheimer’s and iron sulphate has linkswithliverdisease.Asaresultalternative,safe,sustainablemethodsare required.Theaimistouseproteinsderivedfromoleaginousseedsofsub-tropical plants as a natural flocculating and coagulating agent andin so doing, eliminate the use of harmful chemicals.In our work we have shown that the active coagulating sub-stances present in  Moringa oleifera  seed extracts are proteinaceouscomponents.Thenatureoftheextractionmediumappearstohavelittle influence on the composition of the proteins extracted butcan have a major effect on the yield. The results have been com-pared to a standard method of treating drinking water.doi:10.1016/j.nbt.2009.06.647 3.2.15 Separation and purification of crude ellagic acid fromwhite flesh of pomegranate fruits as a potent anti-carcinogenic A.W.Hamad ∗ ,  W.Al-Momene Amman, Jordan Separation and purification of ellagic acid from Jordanian whiteflesh pomegranate.Studying the effect of ellagic acid  in vitro  by using cell linesof pharma-cytoma. It was found that the effect depends on theincubation time and concentration.Studying the effect of ellagic acid  in vivo  by the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma in mice (balb \ c type) after synthesizedcancer by chemicals carcinogenic.This study consisted two parts—–the first one is the separationof ellagic acid and second part to use the ellagic acid as anti-oxidant.Pomegranatefruitsarewidelyconsumedfreshandinprocessedforms as juice, jams and wine. Pomegranate white flesh is a richsource of ellagitannins (ETs). These ETs are extracted from thewhite flesh in significant quantities into the juice due to theirhydrophilic properties.The method is to isolate ellagic acid from Fresh pomegranate.The white flesh was removed, mixed with ethanol and thenmincedbyusinghomogenizer.Thehomogenizedwhitefleshsolu-tion was washed three times with ethanol. The supernatant wastaken and placed in incubator at 37 ◦ C for 48h until become drymaterial and then ground to fine powder.The second part—–The anti-neoplastic effects of both com-pounds on the plasmacytoma cells ( in vitro ) and squamous cellcarcinoma ( in vivo ) occurs in the absence of DNA synthesis. Theeffect of ellagic acid and cisplatin compound on the activity of malignant cells was studied by two following ways: It was foundthat ellagic formula and cisplatin was effective in reducing bothsize and density of malignant cells.In conclusion, our findings indicate that ellagic acid acts bynot only enhancing the host immune function but also through adirectalterationoftumorcellgrowthandproductionofcytokines.Thesefindingsmayofferamechanismofactionthatcouldexplainthe high clinical success and impressive benefits of ellagic acidtreatment.doi:10.1016/j.nbt.2009.06.648 S286  www.elsevier.com/locate/nbt
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