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Bis 13 1172 the Wider Benefits of International Higher Education in the Uk

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Bis 13 1172 the Wider Benefits of International Higher Education in the Uk
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  1   BIS RESEARCH PAPER NUMBER 128 The Wider Benefits of International Higher Education in the UK SEPTEMBER 2013   Prepared by the Careers Research & Advisory Centre (CRAC) Ltd for the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills About CRAC The Careers Research & Advisory Centre (CRAC) is a limited company established in 1964 and registered as a charity. We provide research, expertise and innovation to all those who support career development at all ages and across all sectors. Our main business activities are:   Provision of research, evaluation, consultancy and innovation relating to career development, with a focus on higher education and graduate employability;   Leadership and co-development/co-delivery with the UK higher education sector of the national Vitae programme to enhance the personal, professional and career development of researchers within higher education;   Sharing of information and best practice for careers advisers and others supporting career decision-making, including the national ‘Decisions at 18’ conference. Authors:  Robin Mellors-Bourne, Christine Humfrey, Neil Kemp and Steve Woodfield Contact: robin.mellors-bourne@crac.org.uk www.crac.org.uk Sheraton House, Castle Park, Cambridge CB3 0AX 01223 460277 Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank the members of the Steering Group convened for this project, and especially Charles Ritchie, Eleanor Kilpatrick and Brian Johnson of the Department for Business, Innovation & Skills. The input of Louise Atkin of CRAC as Project Manager and Gill Wilson as an interviewer were also crucial to the success of the project. The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. Department for Business, Innovation and Skills 1 Victoria Street London SW1H 0ET www.bis.gov.uk BIS Research Paper number 128 September 2013 iv  The Wider Benefits of International Higher Education in the UK Contents Contents..........................................................................................................................................v   Executive summary.......................................................................................................................ix   Research objectives and method..................................................................................................ix   Group results.................................................................................................................................ix   Wider benefits and impact..............................................................................................................x   Benefits to the UK (economic)..................................................................................................xi   Benefits to the UK (influence)...................................................................................................xi   Benefits to international graduates...........................................................................................xii   Benefits to countries of srcin..................................................................................................xiii   Summary of benefits and impact.............................................................................................xiii   Individuality.................................................................................................................................xiv   Promoting the UK as a host for international HE........................................................................xiv   Wider experiences including work...............................................................................................xiv    Ambassadors including scholarship alumni.................................................................................xv   Sustaining positivity......................................................................................................................xv   Recommendations.......................................................................................................................xv   1.   Introduction.............................................................................................................................1   2.   Context: UK international higher education.........................................................................2   2.1   Growth of international HE in the UK..................................................................................2   2.2   International students in the wider global context...............................................................3   2.3   Internationalisation of HE systems.....................................................................................3   2.4   Dynamics of the international HE market...........................................................................5   v  The Wider Benefits of International Higher Education in the UK 2.5   Government interventions in UK international education...................................................6   2.5.1   Immigration and employment......................................................................................7   2.6   Benefits and impact of international student mobility.........................................................8   2.6.1   Beneficiaries................................................................................................................8   2.6.2   Benefit types................................................................................................................8   2.6.3   New insights..............................................................................................................13   3.   Research aims and methodology........................................................................................14   3.1   Research objectives and design.......................................................................................14   3.2   Primary research methodology.........................................................................................16   3.2.1   Interview preparation and structure...........................................................................16   3.3   Sample design and stratification.......................................................................................17   3.3.1   Countering positive bias in the interview sample......................................................21   4.   Benefits of international graduates.....................................................................................22   4.1   Benefit types and classification........................................................................................22   4.2   Benefits to the UK (host country)......................................................................................24   4.2.1   Benefit type A1: Additional HE exports.....................................................................24   4.2.2   Benefit type A2: Indirect economic benefits..............................................................27   4.2.3   Benefit type A3: Professional networks.....................................................................29   4.2.4   Benefit type A4: Personal consumer behaviour........................................................32   4.2.5   Benefit type A5: Skilled migration..............................................................................35   4.2.6   Benefit type B1: UK Ambassadors............................................................................38   4.2.7   Benefit type B2: Promoting trust................................................................................42   4.2.8   Benefit type B3: UK influence during capacity building.............................................45   4.3   Benefits to international graduates...................................................................................47   4.3.1   Benefit type C1: Career enhancement or change.....................................................47   vi
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