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The aim of the project was to compile a report on a management process within an organisation; design, implement and document a procedure to deal with a management issue; review and evaluate the process. The essay describes management in general, its functions and levels concentrating on the process of human resource management in particular. The procedure of performance appraisal, as its part, is described in more details. A performance appraisal form was designed and consequently the process h
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  1The aim of the project was to compile a report on a management process within an organisation;design, implement and document a procedure to deal with a management issue; review andevaluate the process.The essay describes management in general, its functions and levels concentrating on the process of human resource management in particular. The procedure of performance appraisal, as its part, isdescribed in more details. A performance appraisal form was designed and consequently the processhas been reviewed and evaluated.Management is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals andobjectivesusingavailable resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprisesplanning,organizing,staffing,  leadingor directing, andcontrollinganorganization(a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal.Resourcingencompasses the deployment andmanipulation of human resources,financialresources,technologicalresources andnatural resources. Since organizations can be viewed assystems,management can also be defined as human action,including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This view opens theopportunity to 'manage' oneself, a pre-requisite to attempting to manage others.The verb manage comes from theItalian maneggiare (to handle, train, control horses), which in turnderives from theLatin manus (hand). The French word mesnagement  (later ménagement  ) influencedthe development in meaning of the English word management  in the 15th and 16th centuries. [16]  Some definitions of management are:Organization and coordination of the activities of an enterprise in accordance with certain policiesand in achievement of clearly defined objectives. Management is often included as a factor of production along with machines, materials and money. According to the management guruPeterDrucker(1909  – 2005), the basic task of a management is twofold:marketingandinnovation.  Another way of thinking,Mary Parker Follett(1868  – 1933), defined management as the art of getting things done through people . She described management as philosophy. [11]  It is essential to notice that management today is not limited to managing human resources only; ithas been divided into various branches like strategic management, financial management, time  2management, operations management, crisis management, etc. Each of these branches is handledby managers who specialize in these fields.Today the importance of good management has increased significantly. Managers achieve thedesired goals through performing key functions: planning, organising, staffing, leading, andcontrolling.For theoretical purposes, it may be convenient to separate the function of management butpractically these functions are overlapping in nature i.e. they are highly inseparable. Each functionblends into the other & each affects the performance of others.PlanningIt is the basic function of management. It deals with chalking out a future course of action &deciding in advance the most appropriate course of actions for achievement of pre- determined goals. According to KOONTZ, “Planning is deciding in advance - what to do, when to do & how to do. It bridges the gap from where we are & where we want to be”. A plan is a future course of actions. It is an exercise in problem solving & decision making.Planning is determination of courses of action to achieve desired goals. Thus, planning is asystematic thinking about ways & means for accomplishment of pre-determined goals.Planning is necessary to ensure proper utilization of human & non-human resources. It is allpervasive, it is an intellectual activity and it also helps in avoiding confusion, uncertainties,risks, wastages etc.OrganizingIt is the process of bringing together physical, financial and human resources and developingproductive relationship amongst them for achievement of organizational goals. According to Henry Fayol, “To organize a business is to provide it with everything useful or its funct ioning i.e. raw material, tools, capital and personnel’s”. To organize a business involves determining & providing human and non-human resources to the organizational structure. Organizing asa process involves:Identification of activitiesClassification of grouping of activitiesDelegation of authority and creation of responsibilityCoordinating authority and responsibility relationships  3StaffingIt is the function of manning the organization structure and keeping it manned. Staffing hasassumed greater importance in the recent years due to advancement of technology,increase in size of business, complexity of human behaviour etc. The main purpose o staffingis to put right man on right job i.e. square pegs in square holes and round pegs in round holes. According to Kootz & O’Donell, “Managerial function of staffing involves manning the organization structure through proper and effective selection; appraisal & development of personnel to fill the roles designed o n the structure”. Staffing involves:  Manpower Planning(estimating man power in terms of searching, choose theperson and giving the right place)Recruitment, selection & placementTraining & developmentRemunerationPerformance appraisalPromotions & transferDirectingIt is that part of managerial function which actuates the organizational methods to workefficiently for achievement of organizational purposes. It is considered life-spark of theenterprise which sets it in motion the action of people because planning, organizing andstaffing are the mere preparations for doing the work. Direction is that inert-personnelaspect of management which deals directly with influencing, guiding, supervising, motivatingsub-ordinate for the achievement of organizational goals. Direction has following elements:SupervisionMotivationLeadershipCommunicationSupervision- implies overseeing the work of subordinates by their superiors. It is the act of watching & directing work & workers.Motivation- means inspiring, stimulating or encouraging the sub-ordinates with zeal to work.Positive, negative, monetary, non-monetary incentives may be used for this purpose.Leadership- may be defined as a process by which manager guides and influences the workof subordinates in desired direction.  4Communications- is the process of passing information, experience, opinion etc from oneperson to another. It is a bridge of understanding.ControllingIt implies measurement of accomplishment against the standards and correction of deviation if any to ensure achievement of organizational goals. The purpose of controlling isto ensure that everything occurs in conformities with the standards. An efficient system of control helps to predict deviations before they actually occur. According to Theo Haimann , “Controlling is the process of checking whether or not proper progress is being made towards the objectives and goals and acting if necessary, to correct any deviation”.According to Koontz & O’Donell “Controlling is the measurement & correction of  performance activities of subordinates in order to make sure that the enterprise objectives and plans desired to obtain them as being accomplished”. Therefore controlling hasfollowing steps:Establishment of standard performanceMeasurement of actual performanceComparison of actual performance with the standards and finding out deviation if anyCorrective actionManagement is divided into a number of levels. The level determines the amount of authority andstatus as well as the chain of command. The number of management depends on the size of thebusiness and work force; they can either increase or decrease. The levels of management can beclassified in three broad categories: Top-level managers Consists of board of directors,president, vice-president,CEOs,etc. They are responsible for controlling and overseeing the entire organization. They develop goals, strategic plans, companypolicies, and make decisions on the direction of the business. In addition, top-level managers play asignificant role in the mobilization of outside resources and are accountable to the shareholders andgeneral public.

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