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BITOR AND ALIYU (1)

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  The Cameroonian  “Toguh”   Traditional Clothing: It Uniqueness, Economic and Socio-Cultural Values in the North West RegionB Bitoh, E!N, "ai#ada , S! and $utsen#ai, S  .Department of Industrial Design, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, NigeriaBITOH !ODIA, NDI"O# Department of Industrial Design Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria $itohlove%gmail.&om '('))*+*+- 1  %&stract Toghu traditional &lothing is used in most traditional institutions in the North est region of /ameroon0 it portrays the &ultural values and heritage of the people. This paper is spe&ifi&allyaimed at e1amining the so&io2&ultural and e&onomi& values of Toghu  traditional &lothing in the North est region of /ameroon. /luster sampling te&hni3ues 4as used e1&lusively 4ith thedes&riptive approa&h to &olle&t data among three &ategories of the population in 5an6on andBe6om lo&alities of the North est region. The end result of the revie4 proved that Toghu traditional &loths are sym$oli&, multipurpose 4ear and are not 7ust used for so&io2&ulturala&tivities, $ut also during e&umeni&al servi&es and other o&&asions. This traditional outfit fa&esalso remar6a$le influen&es resulting from modernism in the so&iety from the youths. It ho4ever,&ontri$utes greatly to the e&onomi& gro4th of the people in the North est region and in/ameroon in general through the lo&als and foreigners. It also helps preserve the uni3ueness of the &ultural heritages of the grass fielders. "inally, this traditional regalia are important to thedevelopment, gro4th, and advan&ement of North esterners in /ameroon0 to promote their &ultural identity and harmony. 2  Introduction /ulture as one of the most interesting aspe&t of one8s life, it is as old as history itself andtherefore needs to $e preserved and improved. It involves $oth &ons&ious and un&ons&iousfor&es, dis&rete &hara&teristi&s that are deepened and need to $e passed on from generation togeneration. /ultures defy through immigration $oarders, disregarding people8s notions of geography, ra&es, history, food, religions and geneti&s 4hether $la&6 or 4hite. The 4ord &ulture 4as &oined $y Tylor, 9-:; and later found 4ide a&&eptan&e in thefield of anthropology and so&iology. "ollo4ing the lead of a <erman 4riter, 4ho used 6ulture inthe sense of naming his pioneer 4or6 primitive &ulture, the term as applied 4as defined at theoutset of his 4or6 as =that &omple1 4hole 4hi&h in&ludes 6no4ledge, $elief, art, morals, la4,&ustom, and any other &apa$ilities and ha$its a&3uired $y man as a mem$er of so&iety8. !i&tor,9(-+; in his vie4 defined &ulture as, the &omple1 of shared &on&epts and patterns of learned $ehaviour 4hi&h &ould $e handed do4n from one generation to the ne1t through the means of language and imitation. Also &ulture 4as defined $y Olu4a$amide, 9>''';. As that aspe&t that $ounds, and ties the people of a region or &ommunity together.it involves the people8s &ostumes,e&onomi& organisation, politi&al organisation, la4, 6inship, edu&ation and other tradition of their &ommunity, in&luding festivals, &lothing, food they eat, and most important, the &ultural valuethey adhere to and that $inds them together. /ulture from another perspe&tive &ould $e vie4ed as identifi&ation of a group of peoplesharing &ommon migration history, ideas, religion, language, and traditional pra&ti&es or rights asopined $y the resear&her. In /ameroon, spe&ifi&ally in lo&alities su&h as 5an6on and ?om, of the North est region, = Toghu 8 is a traditional &loth used $y the people in most &ommunities during&ultural festivals and &eremonies, li6e 4edding, graduations, funerals, formal o&&asions, death&ele$rations, &ultural dan&es, and rituals. It is an honoura$le traditional dress depi&ting the 3  &ulture of a person from the North est region of /ameroon 4ho 6eeps to his &ustoms andtradition. It represents a sym$ol of identity to the people of the North est region of /ameroonthat distinguish them in &eremonies and other o&&asions from persons &oming from differentareas in the &ountry.This a&tually has not $een do&umented for preservation of its values. Hen&e,the need for investigations and do&umentation of the Toghu traditional &lothing so as to preserveits &ultural signifi&an&e in ar&hives. The name of the &ountry /ameroon 4as derived from the term used for the ouri #iver  $y @ortuguese e1plorers. #ea&hing the /ameroon &oast near the modern port &ity of Doualaaround :>, those e1plorers named the river #io dos /amarooes 9#iver of @ra4ns; due to thevariety of &rayfish they found there. This name later applied to the &oastal area $et4een 5ount/ameroon and #io 5uni 9Cevine and Nye, (:;.Nevertheless, the division of the &ountry intoBritish and "ren&h2ruled Ceague of Nations mandates after orld ar I &reated the nglish and"ren&h territories. A&&ording to Cevine and Nye, 9(:; report sho4s that the nglish2spea6ingterritory &onsists of the outh est and North est, 4here @idgin nglish 9es /os; is thelingua fran&a used $y the people $ut nglish is the national language. Beyart, 9(();Eon his vie4emphasised that the edu&ational system, legal pra&ti&es and poli&ies implemented in this se&tion4ere those of the British from ngland. ?onings and Nyamn7e, 9((*; pointed out that the "ren&h2spea6ing territory &omprises of the remaining eight regions, 4here "ren&h is the lingua fran&a, and the main language taughtin s&hools. This system used the legal pra&ti&es and varying poli&ies related to the statutory la4of &ontinental urope. @resently this region is dominant $oth in population siFe and governan&e.Ho4ever, the &o2e1isten&e of the t4o systems has &reated tension in their relationship due to the $irth of a multi2party system in the &ountry. 4  alamone,9(-+; &ited that, the =nglish2spea6ing region is divided into t4o &ulturalvarieties. The grass field peoples of the North est region and those of the forest Fone in theouth est region8. In addition, "eldmen, 9(((; strongly supported the fa&t that the grass field peoples &onsist of =nearly one hundred &hiefdomsG ea&h ruled $y a divine 6ing 9"on or /hief;,&lassified into first &lass, se&ond &lass and third &lass. Nevertheless, &ultural integrity,moderniFation, glo$aliFation and a&&ulturation has for&ed the spread of these varying &ultures todifferent regions due to fa&tors su&h as inter2tri$al marriages and e1hi$itions in &ultural festivity.5oreover, as a matter of fa&t the North est regions of /ameroon are made up of pluralismso&iety 9Otite, ((';. Otite, 9(('; on his part mentioned that a pluralism so&iety of thein&orporated people is one 4hi&h is &hara&terised $y &o2e1isting $ut distin&t &ultural diversitiesand &ompulsion institution 4hi&h determine the individual group and $ehaviours./ameroon as a 4hole is made up of many distin&t so&ieties and &ultures, ea&h 4ith a pe&uliar history and different dressing style. ven though /ameroon &ulture is diverse the peoplelive together as one nation0 thus there is unity in diversity. Bamenda is one of the regions that isfound in /ameroon. The name Bamenda is also 6no4nas 5aFam, A$a64a or 5an6on to4n, andis the &apital of North est region. The &ity &onstitutes three villages namely, 5an6on,5anda64en, and N64en. It is also a home to various ethni& groups li6e Ti6eris. The people of this &ity are mostly engaged in 4ood &arving, $ronFe statues, $eads, and 4eaving of lo&al $as6ets4hi&h are &ommon &raft4or6s. There are also three ma7or mar6ets in the to4n 4hi&h have&ontri$uted to the so&io2e&onomi& 4ell2$eing of the people in this region. These mar6ets are theBamenda 5ain 5ar6et, the "ood 5ar6et and the N64en 5ar6et. This &ity has a total populationof a$out +'',''' peoples.9/hris, >'';. And it &overs a$out )** 6ilometres surfa&e area a4ayfrom the &entral &apital aound.A4ay from Bamenda, ?om is 6no4n to $e one of the >+' indigenous ethni& groups or tri$es of /ameroon 4hi&h is situated a$out +' miles a4ay from Bamenda to4n. It has a$out 5
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