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Bits, Bytes, Data & Information

Bits, Bytes, Data & Information
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  Bits, Bytes, Data Information Bits and Bytes At the smallest scale in the computer, information is stored as bits and bytes. In this section, we'll learn how bits and bytes encode information Bit   •   a "bit" is atomic: the smallest unit of storage •   A bit stores just a 0 or 1 •   "A bit is too small to be much use •   Group 8 bits together to make 1 byte Everything in a computer is 0's and 1's. The bit  stores just a 0 or 1: it's the smallest building block of storage. Byte  One byte = collection of 8 bits e.g. 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 One byte can store one character, e.g. 'A' or 'x' or '$' Number of bits Different Patterns 1 0 1 2 00 01 10 11 3 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 •   In general: add 1 bit, double the number of patterns •   1 bit - 2 patterns •   2 bits - 4 •   3 bits - 8 •   4 bits - 16 •   5 bits - 32 •   6 bits - 64 •   7 bits - 128 •   8 bits - 256 - one byte •   Mathematically: n bits yields 2 n  patterns (2 to the nth power) One Byte - 256 Patterns (demo)   •   1 byte is group of 8 bits •   8 bits can make 256 different patterns •   Start with 0, go up, one pattern per number, until run out of patterns  •   One byte can hold a number between 0 and 255 •   i.e. with 256 different patterns, we can store a number in the range 0..255 •   Really good for storing characters/letters. Bytes   •   "Byte" - unit of information storage •   A document, an image, a movie .. how many bytes? •   1 byte is enough to hold about 1 typed character, e.g. 'b' or 'X' or '$' •   All storage is measured in bytes, despite being very different hardware •   Kilobyte , KB, about 1 thousand bytes •   Megabyte , MB, about 1 million bytes •   Gigabyte , GB, about 1 billion bytes Terabyte , TB, about 1 trillion bytes (rare)  Bytes and Characters - ASCII Code   •   ASCII is an encoding representing each typed character by a number •   Each number is stored in one byte (so the number is in 0..255) •   A is 65 •   B is 66 •   a is 96 •   space is 32 •   "Unicode" is an encoding for mandarin, greek, arabic, etc. languages, typically 2-bytes per "character" Data and Information Data Information   •   Data is any collection of numbers, characters or other symbols that has been coded into a format that can be input into a computer and processed. •   Data on its own has no meaning, or context. •   It is only after processing by a computer that data takes on a context and becomes information. •   There are many types of data •   All data ends up being stored as a series of numbers inside the computer. •   Data can be input to the computer by the user in many different ways. •   The main types of data that can be input into a computer and processed are numeric, text, dates, graphics and sound. The Computer Sub-System and Peripherals A computer peripheral  is a device that is connected to a computer but is not part of the core computer architecture. The core elements of a computer are the central processing unit, power supply, motherboard and the computer case that contains those three components. Technically speaking, everything else is considered a peripheral device. However, this is a  somewhat narrow view, since various other elements are required for a computer to actually function, such as a hard drive and random-access memory (or RAM). Types of Peripheral Devices ○   There are many different peripheral devices, but they fall into three general categories: ○   Input devices , such as a mouse and a keyboard ○   Output devices , such as a monitor and a printer ○   Storage devices , such as a hard drive or flash drive Input Devices ○   An input device  is any hardware device  that sends data to a computer, allowing you to interact with and control it. The picture shows a Logitech trackball mouse, which is an example of an input device . . Output Devices ○   An output device  is any device  used to send data from a computer to another device  or user. Most computer data output  that is meant for humans is in the form of audio or video. Thus, most output devices  used by humans are in these categories. Examples include monitors, projectors, speakers, headphones and printers. Storage Devices ○   a piece of computer equipment on which information can be stored. Central Processing Unit (CPU) The central processing unit (CPU) is the computer component that's responsible for interpreting and executing most of the commands from the computer's other hardware and software. All sorts of devices use a CPU, including desktop, laptop, and tablet computers, smartphones...even your flat-screen television set.  Intel and AMD are the two most popular CPU manufacturers for desktops, laptops, and servers, while Apple, NVIDIA, and Qualcomm are big smartphone and tablet CPU makers. You may see many different names used to describe the CPU, including processor, computer processor, microprocessor, central processor, and "the brains of the computer." Computer monitors or hard drives are sometimes veryincorrectly  referred to as the CPU, but those pieces of hardware serve entirely different purposes and are in no way the same thing as the CPU. Ram and Rom RAM Random Access Memory, or RAM (pronounced as ramm ), is the physical hardware inside a computer that temporarily stores data, serving as the computer's "working" memory. Additional RAM allows a computer to work with more information at the same time, which usually has a dramatic effect on total system performance. Some popular manufacturers of RAM include Kingston, PNY, Crucial Technology, and Corsair.  Note:  There are many types of RAM, so you may hear it called by other names. It's also known as mainmemory , internalmemory , primarystorage , primarymemory , memory"stick"  , and RAM"stick"  . ROM Read-only memory  ( ROM ) is a type of  non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices. Data stored in ROM can only be modified slowly, with difficulty, or not at all, so it is mainly used to store firmware (software that is closely tied to specific hardware, and unlikely to need frequent updates) or application software in plug-in cartridges.  Presentation By: Ira Leila Bautista Louie Bouvei Alegre Rhea Jane Sumarago Joseph Victor Pacquing Diana Marie Labajosa
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