Bizantska mornarica

Tekst o mornarici Bizanta.
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  Byzantine navy From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search   Byzantine Navy Participant in the Justinianic Wars, theByzantine–Arab Wars, the Byzantine–Bulgarian Wars, the Rus'–Byzantine Wars, the Crusaes an the Byzantine–!ttoman ars Active ##$–%&# Leaders Byzantine (mperor  )Commaner*in*chie+  Megas droungarios ,  Megas doux  )a+ter %%th century Headquarters Constantinople Area of operations -eiterranean .ea, /anube,  Blac0 .ea Strenth ca1 &2,$$$ men in 3441 5%6 ca1 #$$ arships in 4th–%$th centuries1 526 !art of  Byzantine (mpire riinated as Roman 7avy Allies 8enice, 9enoa, Pisa, Crusaer states, (mirate o+ Ayn pponents 8anals, !strogoths, the Caliphate an .aracen   pirates, .lavs, Bulgarians, Rus',  7ormans, 9enoa, 8enice, Pisa, Crusaer states, .el;u0s, Anatolian <ur0ish Beyli0s, !ttomans <he Byzantine navy  comprise the naval +orces o+ the Byzantine (mpire1 =i0e the empire it serve, it evelope irectly +rom its earlier imperial Roman counterpart, but in comparison ith its precursor playe a +ar greater role in the e+ense an survival o+ the state1 While the +leets o+ the Roman (mpire +ace +e great naval threats, operating as a policing +orce an vastly in+erior in po er an prestige to the legions, the sea as vital to the very e>istence o+ Byzantium, hich several historians have calle a ?maritime empire?1 5#6  <hroughout its history, the (mpire ha to e+en a long coastline, o+ten ith little hinterlan1 @n aition, shipping by sea as al ays the uic0est an cheapest ay o+ transport, an the (mpire's ma;or urban an commercial centers, as ell as its most +ertile areas, lay close to the sea1 5&6   7evertheless, the nature an limitations o+ the maritime technology o+ the age meant that the Byzantines coul not evelop a true thalassocracy1 Combine ith the traitional  preominance o+ the great Anatolian lan*holers in the higher military an civil o++ices, this meant that the navy, even at its height, as still regare largely as an a;unct to the lan +orces, a +act clearly illustrate by the relatively lo ly positions its amirals hel in the imperial hierarchy1 56  With the -uslim conuests +rom the th century on ars, the -eiterranean .ea cease  being a ?Roman la0e? an became a battlegroun bet een Byzantines an Arabs1 7ot only ere the Byzantine +leets critical in the e+ense o+ the (mpire's +ar*+lung possessions aroun the -eiterranean basin, but they also playe a ma;or role in the e+ense o+ the imperial capital o+ Constantinople +rom seaborne attac0s1 <hrough the use o+ ?9ree0 +ire?, the Byzantine navy's best*0no n an +eare secret eapon, Constantinople as save +rom several sieges an numerous naval engagements ere on +or the Byzantines1 <hus, by the early 4th century, the Byzantine navy, a ell*organize an maintaine +orce, as again the ominant maritime po er in the -eiterranean1 <he antagonism ith the -uslim navies continue until the %%th century, uring hich the navy, li0e the (mpire itsel+, began to ecline1rom that point on, the Byzantines ere +orce more an more to rely on the navies o+ allie @talian city*states li0e 8enice an 9enoa, ith isastrous e++ects on their economy an sovereignty1 Recovery uner the Domnenians  as +ollo e by another perio o+ ecline, hich culminate in the isastrous issolution o+ the (mpire by the ourth Crusae in %2$&1 A+ter the (mpire as restore in %2E%, several emperors o+ the Palaiologan ynasty trie to revive the navy, but their e++orts ha only a temporary e++ect1 By the mi*%&th century, the Byzantine +leet, hich once coul +iel hunres o+ arships, as limite to a +e ozen at  best1 5E6  <he iminishe navy ho ever continue to be active until the +all o+ the Byzantine (mpire to the !ttomans in %&#1 #ontents 5hie6  % Fistory  o %1% (arly perio   %1%1% Civil ars an barbarian invasions: the &th an th centuries  %1%12 <he Eth century – Justinian restores Roman control over the -eiterranean o %12 <he struggle against the Arabs   %121% <he emergence o+ the Arab naval threat  %1212 <he Byzantine counter*o++ensive  %121# Rene e -uslim ascenancy o %1# <he ?Byzantine Reconuest?   %1#1% <he reign o+ Basil @  %1#12 Arab rais uring the reign o+ =eo 8@  %1#1# <he recovery o+ Crete an the =evant o %1& Domnenian perio   %1&1% /ecline uring the %%th century  %1&12 Attempts at recovery uner Ale>ios @ an John @@  %1&1# <he naval e>peitions o+ -anuel @ o %1 /ecline   %11% <he Angeloi ynasty  %112 7icaea an the Palaiologan perio  2 !rganization  o 21% (arly perio )&th – mi*th centuries o 212 -ile perio )late th century – %$$s   2121% <he naval themes   21212 -anpo er an size  2121# Ran0 structure o 21# =ate perio )%$3$s – %&#   21#1% <he re+orms o+ the Domnenoi  21#12 <he navy o+ -ichael 8@@@ Palaiologos  # .hips  & <actics an eapons  o &1% 7aval tactics o &12 Armament o &1# 9ree0 +ire   Citations  E .ources an bibliography $edit% History $edit% &arly period $edit% #ivil 'ars and (ar(arian invasions) the *th and +th centuries By the late th century, the Western -eiterranean ha +allen in the hans o+ barbarian 0ingoms1 <he conuests o+ Justinian @ restore Roman control over the entire sea, hich oul last until the -uslim conuests in the latter hal+ o+ the th century1<he Byzantine navy, li0e the (ast Roman or Byzantine (mpire itsel+, as a continuation o+ the Roman (mpire an its institutions1 A+ter the Battle o+ Actium in #% BC, an in the absence  o+ any e>ternal threat, the Roman navy in the -eiterranean per+orme mostly policing an escort uties1 <he Roman +leets ere there+ore compose o+ relatively small vessels, best suite to these tas0s1 -assive sea battles, li0e those +ought in the Punic Wars, no longer occurre1 By the early &th century, the permanent Roman +leets ha  inle, so that hen the +leets o+ the rival emperors Constantine the 9reat an =icinius clashe in #2& A/, 56  they ere compose to a great e>tent o+ ne ly*built or commaneere ships +rom the port cities o+ the (astern -eiterranean1 536  <he civil ars o+ the &th an early th centuries i ho ever seea revival o+ naval activity, ith +leets mostly employe to transport armies, such as in #$, hen Constantius @@ saile against the usurper -agnentius, or in .tilicho's ars1 546  Consierable naval +orces continue to be employe in the Western -eiterranean throughoutthe +irst uarter o+ the +i+th century, especially +rom 7orth A+rica, but Rome's mastery o+ the -eiterranean as soon challenge, hen A+rica as overrun by the 8anals over a perio o+ +i+teen years1 5%$6 <he ne  8analic Dingom o+ Carthage, uner the capable 0ing 9eiseric, immeiately launche rais against the coasts o+ @taly an 9reece, even sac0ing an plunering Rome in &1 5%%6  <he 8anal rais continue over the ne>t t o ecaes, espite repeate Roman attempts to e+eat them1 5%%6  <he Western (mpire as impotent, its navy having  inle to almost nothing, 5%26  but the eastern emperors coul still call upon the resources an naval e>pertise o+ the (astern -eiterranean1 A +irst (astern e>peition in &&3 ho ever ent no +urther than .icily, an in &E$, the 8anals attac0e an estroye a Western Roman invasion +leet at Cartagena in .pain1 5%%6  inally, in &E3, a huge e>peition as assemble uner Basiliscus, reputely numbering %,%%# ships an %$$,$$$ men, but it +aile isastrously1 About E$$ ships ere lost, an the +inancial cost o+ %#$,$$$ pouns o+ gol an $$ pouns o+ silver nearly ban0rupte the (mpire1 5%#6  <his +orce the (mpire to come to terms ith 9eiseric, signing a peace treaty1 A+ter 9eiseric's eath in & ho ever, the 8anal threat recee1 5%&6 $edit% he -th century . /ustinian restores 0oman control over the 1editerranean @n $3, as antagonism ith the !strogothic Dingom o+ <heooric +lare up, the (mperor Anastasius @ )&4%–%3 sent a +leet o+ %$$ arships against the coasts o+ @taly1 5%6  @n %#, the magister militum per  Thracias , 8italian, revolte against (mperor Anastasius @1 <he rebels assemble a +leet o+ some 2$$ ships, but a+ter a +e successes, they ere estroye by amiral -arinus, ho employe an inceniary substance )possibly an early +orm o+ 9ree0 +ire to e+eat them1 5%E6 @n ##, ta0ing avantage o+ the absence o+ the 8anal +leet in .arinia, an army o+ %,$$$ uner Belisarius  as transporte to A+rica by an invasion +leet o+ 42 romons an $$ transports )the entire +leet as manne by #$,$$$ men, 5%6  beginning the 8analic War , the +irst o+ the Wars o+ Reconuest o+ (mperor Justinian @ )2–E1 <hese ere largely amphibious operations, mae possible by the control o+ the -eiterranean ater ays, an the+leet playe a vital role in carrying supplies an rein+orcements to the iely isperse Byzantine e>peitionary +orces an garrisons1 5%E6  <his +act as not lost on the Byzantines' enemies1 Alreay in the 2$s, <heooric ha planne +or a massive +leet builup irecte against the Romans an the 8anals, but his eath in 2E limite the e>tent o+ these plans1 5%36  @n #, the 9othic War  began by a ouble*pronge o++ensive, ith a +leet again carrying Belisarius' army to .icily an then @taly1 Roman control o+ the sea as o+ great strategic importance, an allo e the smaller Roman army to success+ully occupy the peninsula by &$1 5%46
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