Blended Learning: The Future of Higher Education

1. Blended Learning: The Future of Higher Education Professor Mike Keppell Professor of Higher Education Director, The Flexible Learning Institute Charles Sturt…
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  • 1. Blended Learning: The Future of Higher Education Professor Mike Keppell Professor of Higher Education Director, The Flexible Learning Institute Charles Sturt University Wednesday, 21 July 2010 1
  • 2. Overview Assumptions and principles What is blended learning? Benefits of blended learning - from an activity, subject, course, university perspective Paradigms of blended learning - enabling, enhancing, transforming Affordances of learning spaces Examples of blended learning Wednesday, 21 July 2010 2
  • 3. Assumptions Universities value and seek to inculcate the skills essential for lifelong and life wide learning, producing graduates who will continue to develop intellectually, professionally and socially beyond the bounds of formal education. Universities believe that programs, services and teaching methods should be responsive to the diverse cultural, social and academic needs of students, enabling them to adapt to the demands of university education and providing them with the cultural capital for life success. Wednesday, 21 July 2010 3
  • 4. Higher Education Principles Equivalence of Learning Outcomes ethical obligations traverses physical, Student Learning Experience blended and virtual learning spaces learning outcomes, subject, degree Constructive Alignment program, generic attributes specific needs of Discipline Pedagogies disciplines Wednesday, 21 July 2010 4
  • 5. What is Blended Learning? Combination of face-to-face teaching and learning with online teaching and learning “It is a design approach whereby both face-to-face and online learning are made better by the presence of each other” (Garrison & Vaughan, 2008, p.5). “Thoughtful fusion of face-to-face and online experiences” (p.5). “Combines the properties and possibilities of both to go beyond the capabilities of each separately” (p.6) “It is a complete rethinking and redesign of the educational environment and learning experience” (p.x) Wednesday, 21 July 2010 5
  • 6. What is Unique about Blended Learning? Convergence of classroom and communications technology Transformation of how we approach teaching and learning Synchronous and asynchronous communication Diversified range of learning spaces that are both physical and virtual Wednesday, 21 July 2010 6
  • 7. Activity-Level Blended Learning Activity-level blending Includes both face-to-face and online Discussion / Project/ Reflection / components. e.g online debate and Debate Topic Posted face-to-face debate; off-line reading and online discussion. Individual Response Posted Blackboard Platform Student-Student Interaction: React to Three Responses from Peers Results Synthesis of Discussion (e.g. 85% peers agreed) Collaboration Products (e.g., Top five best) Wednesday, 21 July 2010 7
  • 8. Activity-Level Blending in Practice Student Resources Resources Instructor Role Assessment Role (Content) (Services) Allocate reading. Some Ask students to Read discussion read required Off-line reading and post respective Reading about topic in chapter face-to-face summary in class LMS Feedback from Post a one Student peers in online paragraph and discussion. summary instructor Discussion Feedback from Online Facilitator and posts in forum instructor in comment discussion online on two forum discussion other posts forum. Wednesday, 21 July 2010 8
  • 9. Subject and Course Level Blending Subject-Level Blending One of the most common Distinct face-to-face and online activities as part of course/subject. For example designing learning resources (50/50 blended approach) Course-level blending Degree program level Teaching Fellowship Scheme Wednesday, 21 July 2010 9
  • 10. Paradigms of Blended Learning Enabling blends These address issues of access and equity and add flexibility. This might include the same opportunities in face-to-face, online and blended learning environments. Enhancing blends These focus on incremental changes to the pedagogy in both the face-to-face and online components. Transforming blends Transformation of the pedagogy. Major redesign of teaching and learning e.g. online PBL. Wednesday, 21 July 2010 10
  • 11. Problem-based Traditional model learning model Content Problem Teacher Student Coach Problem solver Tan (2003) p.12 11 Wednesday, 21 July 2010 11
  • 12. Wednesday, 21 July 2010 12
  • 13. What are Affordances? When you first see something you have never seen before, how do you know what to do? “An affordance is the design aspect of an object which suggests how the object should be used” (Norman, 1988). Determined by context, culture, instinct, mental model e.g. hyperlinked text on website. When designers make use of affordances the user knows what to do just by looking Wednesday, 21 July 2010 13
  • 14. Diversity of Learning Spaces Physical Blended Virtual Formal Informal Formal Informal Mobile Personal Outdoor Wednesday, 21 July 2010 14
  • 15. Learning Space Affordance Example Face-to-Face Oral feedback to a Teaching and Oral communication question Learning Information access Learning Subject outline Interactive learning Management Multimedia forum Networked learning Systems project Materials development Discussion about Learning Commons Informal learning lecture Peer learning Wednesday, 21 July 2010 15
  • 16. Learning Space Affordance Example In-depth group Discussion of reading Tutorial discussion Discussion of Peer learning presentation Practical work Peer interaction Practical work on IT Residential School Sense of belonging to networks university Authentic learning Applied learning in Practice Community of Practice discipline Mentor/mentee Wednesday, 21 July 2010 16
  • 17. An Example of Blended Learning - Critical Decisions What are the learning goals? What are the learning activities? What are the affordances of the technology? What should be off-line and online? What is the assessment? Wednesday, 21 July 2010 17
  • 18. An Example of Blended Learning Postgraduate Diploma in Education Programme (Professional and Vocational Education) Module IIT5078 - Designing Learning Resources Blended learning (Five face-to-face classes of four hours duration - 20 hours and 10 hours of online Approach discussion activities). Emphasis on peer learning, project-based learning and learning-oriented assessment. In this module it was essential for the student to interact within the Blackboard LMS as the online Essential component was designed to be a significant component of the module. Wednesday, 21 July 2010 18
  • 19. Learning Design Problem-based Project-based Authentic Learning Cases Wednesday, 21 July 2010 19
  • 20. Project-based Learning Howard, (2002) Wednesday, 21 July 2010 20
  • 21. Interactivity Decisions Information access Interactive learning Networked learning Materials development (Oliver & Herrington, 2001) Wednesday, 21 July 2010 21
  • 22. Information Access CONVEY INFORMATION ALONE TO THE LEARNER Examples Rationale Module outline information accessibility Assessment outline timely delivery of information PowerPoint slides review of content Task outlines administrative efficiency Wednesday, 21 July 2010 22
  • 23. Information Access Examples Announcements weekly announcement to students teaching schedule document module outline document Module Information weekly topics document module assessment document project assessment rubric document Staff Information lecturer background and contact details Books reading list Resources websites Course Material for powerpoint files, etc Five Classes Wednesday, 21 July 2010 23
  • 24. Interactive Learning INCREASED LEVEL OF ENGAGEMENT WITH RESOURCES Examples Rationale Search and review independent learning documents Database searching independent learning External links to websites independent learning simulations of real life Simulations activities tutorial type activities and Multimedia immediate feedback Wednesday, 21 July 2010 24
  • 25. Interactive Learning Examples Problem-based learning cases Project-based learning videos Interactive concept maps Synchronized audio-lecture and PowerPoint files Online Survey Online encyclopedia: Wikipedia Encyclopedia of Educational Technology Wednesday, 21 July 2010 25
  • 26. Networked Learning PROVIDE COMMUNICATION BETWEEN STUDENTS AND TEACHERS Examples Rationale Announcements one way communication in Bb initial communication with Staff information students Email one-to-one, one-to-many Discussion forums, group tasks social construction of knowledge Online debates social construction of knowledge Real-time chats social construction of knowledge Wednesday, 21 July 2010 26
  • 27. Networked Learning Examples Four online discussion groups related to module readings Two in-class discussion groups Discussion forums for module- related questions Group spaces for projects Wednesday, 21 July 2010 27
  • 28. Materials Development DEVELOPING AND PRESENTING PRODUCTS AND ARTEFACTS Examples Examples Stories/digital stories Portfolios Reflective journals Teaching practice journals Reports Concept maps Presentations Interviews Photographs/video/audio Projects > Combined with discussion forums Wednesday, 21 July 2010 28
  • 29. Materials Development Examples The group project provided an opportunity to apply principles and skills in the module to create a learning resource (i.e. needs analysis, concept map, video, photos, report, presentation) Wednesday, 21 July 2010 29
  • 30. 1. 4. 2. Criteria 3. Needs 5. Student Authentic Concept - Rubric Analysis Presentation Task Map Feedback Feedback as feed- as feed- Assessment forward forward AS learning task Teacher feedback Teacher feedback - Verbal Student feedback - Written Peer feedback - - Verbal Verbal Needs analysis 6. Learning Concept map Students as Digital learning self-evaluators Resource resource Report 30 Wednesday, 21 July 2010 30
  • 31. Conclusion Blended learning is a combination of face-to-face teaching and learning with online teaching and learning Examples of blended learning include problem- based, project-based and authentic learning tasks Benefits of blended learning expound from an activity, subject, course, and university perspective Paradigms of blended learning include enabling, enhancing, transforming Wednesday, 21 July 2010 31
  • 32. Professor Mike Keppell Wednesday, 21 July 2010 32
  • 33. Wednesday, 21 July 2010 33
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