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  Information Security and Risk Management 126   Amity Directorate of Distance and Online Education Notes Unit 3: Network Security Structure: 3.1 Network Security Issues3.1.1 IT Manager and Network Administrator Role3.1.2 Reasons of Security Issues to Networks3.1.3 Recommended Steps for Network Safety3.2 Threats and Solutions3.3 Cryptography3.3.1 Hieroglyph    The Oldest Cryptographic Technique3.3.2 Steganography3.3.3 Evolution of Cryptography3.3.4 Characteristics of Modern Cryptography3.3.5 Context of Cryptography3.3.6 Security Services of Cryptography3.3.7 Cryptography Primitives3.3.8 Components of a Cryptosystem3.3.9 Types of Cryptosystems3.3.10 Relation between Encryption Schemes3.3.11 Kerckhoff’s Principle for Cryptosystem3.3.12 Details of the Encryption Scheme3.3.13 Earlier Cryptographic Systems3.4 Summary3.5 Check Your Progress3.6 Questions and Exercises3.7 Key Terms3.8 Check Your Progress: Answers3.9 Case Study3.10 Further Readings Objectives  After studying this unit, you should be able to understand:   Network security issues   About cryptography algorithm   Encryption   Crypto analysis   Methods for breaking cryptography algorithm   A case study based on this unit  Network Security 127   Amity Directorate of Distance and Online Education Notes Overview The unprecedented connectivity of the Internet age has led to enormous social andeconomic benefits, but has also introduced numerous new challenges. In a fullyconnected world, security threats continue to evolve, keeping ahead of the mostadvanced defenses. Background Network-based security threats have led to widespread identity theft and financialfraud. Spam, viruses and spyware cause significant problems for consumers andbusinesses. A security breach may irreparably damage a company’s brand or reputation.In the US, security issues threaten to slow the national adoption of electronic medicalrecords. In the EU, consumer confidence regarding security and data protection is abarrier to the more rapid expansion of e-commerce across member state borders.Today’s information attacks are a profitable business enterprise and are oftencontrolled by organized crime syndicates. A growing number of sophisticated cyber crimebusiness models, including the emergence of criminal enterprises, are built aroundselling tools and services for launching network attacks, rather than simply sellinginformation gained from attacks.Security technology continues to advance, changing from passive, pointproduct-based to active, end-to-end approaches to security recognition, containment,and quarantine. In addition, Internet Service Providers (ISPs) are competing on securityand consumer ISPs offer security as part of their service.Policymakers around the world are focused on the state of the informationinfrastructure. Policymakers want to ensure that users of networks employ the besttechnology and process practices to make networks as secure as possible. Governmentsand businesses continually update their strategies to prevent attacks, and public-privatepartnerships have been formed to develop voluntary, market-based approaches tosecurity. Cisco’s Position Cisco believes that governments can help decrease cyber security threats by:   Raising consumer and industry awareness ofthe importance of network security   Educating users about best practices   Using best practices to secure their own systems   Funding long-term research and development   Aggressively enforcing the laws against cyber crime and prosecuting criminalsthat use or attempt to use the network for theft, fraud, extortion, or other crimes   Increasing cooperation at an international level with other governments, lawenforcement agencies, and the private sector on the socialization of bestpractices and international prosecution of cyber crimeCiscodoesnotbelievethatgovernmentsshouldregulatesecurity.Ingeneral,regulation:   Stifles innovation by picking and choosing specific technology, rather thanletting market competition develop the best and most advanced solutions   Does not advance quickly enough to keep pace with current industry needsand newly posed threats   May actually decrease Internet security by creating specific points for systemicfailure  Information Security and Risk Management 128   Amity Directorate of Distance and Online Education Notes  3.1 Network Security Issues Computer networks have highly benefited various fields of educational sectors,business world and many organizations. They can be seen everywhere they connectpeople all over the world. There are some major advantages which computer networkshave provided making the human life more relaxed and easy. Some of them are listedbelow: Communication:  Communication is one of the biggest advantages provided by thecomputer networks. Different computer networking technology has improved the way of communications. People from the same or different organization can communicate in thematter of minutes for collaborating the work activities. In offices and organizations,computer networks are serving as the backbone of the daily communication from top tobottom level of organization. Different types of softwares can be installed which areuseful for transmitting messages and e-mails at fast speed. Data sharing:  Another wonderful advantage of computer networks is the datasharing. All the data such as documents, file, accounts information, reports multimedia,etc. can be shared with the help of computer networks. Hardware sharing and applicationsharing is also allowed in many organizations such as banks and small firms. Instant and multiple accesses:  Computer networks are multi processed. Many of users can access the same information at the same time. Immediate commands such asprinting commands can be made with the help of computer networks. Video conferencing:  Before the arrival of the computer networks, there was noconcept for the video conferencing. LAN and WN have made it possible for theorganizations and business sectors to call the live video conferencing for importantdiscussions and meetings. Internet service:  Computer networks provide internet service over the entirenetwork. Every single computer attached to the network can experience the high speedinternet, fast processing and workload distribution. Broadcasting:  With the help of computer networks, news and important messagescan be broadcasted just in the matter of seconds who saves a lot of time and effort of thework. People can exchange messages immediately over the network any time or we cansay 24 hour. Photographs and large files:  Computer network can also be used for sendinglarge data file such as high resolution photographs over the computer network to morethan one user at a time. Saves cost:  Computer networks save a lot of cost for any organizations in differentways. Building up links thorough the computer networks immediately transfers files andmessages to the other people which reduced transportation and communication expense.It also raises the standard of the organization because of the advanced technologies thatare used in networking. Remote access and login:  Employees of different or same organization connectedby the networks can access the networks by simply entering the network remote IP or web remote IP. In this, the communication gap which was present before the computer networks no more exist. Flexible:  Computer networks are quite flexible. All of its topologies and networkingstrategies supports addition for extra components and terminals to the network. They areequally fit for large as well as small organizations.  Network Security 129  Amity Directorate of Distance and Online Education Notes Reliable:  Computer networks are reliable when safety of the data is concerned. If one of the attached system collapse, same data can be gathered from another systemattached to the same network. Data transmission:  Data is transferred at the fast speed even in the scenarioswhen one or two terminals machine fails to work properly. Data transmission is seldomaffected in the computer networks. Almost complete communication can be achieved incritical scenarios too. Provides broader view:  First and far most important task which is required to bedone after developing a network on any scale is to protect the network. This section willcover network security, and solutions, tips to avoid anti-spamming, trojans, viruses,malware, etc. All networks face one or more issues mentioned above. It is computer network administrator or IT manager job to keep himself updated regarding latest threatsand maintaining the computer networks.It is right of the users of the network to get smooth working network system, withoutany interruption by annoying messages or experience slow communication betweencomputers. This is only possible if network administrator keep the network secure for malicious software, worms and other threats. Keeping different biometrics and usingauthentication procedures can help to only certain levels. Hackers and intruders arealways on search to get some loopholes to exploit corporate sector including financialdata and other sensitive information. In all scenarios, data integrity and security cannever be compromised. Therefore, keeping network secure and running flawlessly,IT manager and computer network administrator needs to be on monitoring ends all thetime. 3.1.1 IT Manager and Network Administrator Role The most important factor in maintaining the security of network is knowledge of IT manager or network administrator (NA). The role of these personnels are extremelyimportant in any organization when it comes to keep the network secure. Networkadministrator should always be updated for all the possible and latest threats andattacking techniques to the network and of course know how to avoid them and solutionsto them when it happens. NA should search on internet for latest viruses on role, latestsecurity threats, malware, trojans and e-mail attachments, etc. and find solution to thesethreats before his own network become the victim of these threats. He should always beready to scan the entire network for malware, trojans, virus, et.c and if any system isfound, it should be removed and fixed to keep rest of the network secure. Spyware andsmall network intrusions are designed to target certain companies just to steal or uploadconfidential information without being noticed, NA should always scan all the systems for such activities, and all the systems should be shut down when they are not in use. 3.1.2 Reasons of Security Issues to Networks There are multiple reasons for any network to get victimized by viruses, malware,worms and other security threats. Most common reasons for such security attacks insmall sized companies are not using proper, licensed versions of anti-virus software. Andof course, using risky sites also download dangerous malware when network is notproperly secured, which infects the entire network.When any network uses non-genuine, non-licensed or cracked versions of anti-virusand similar software, they do not update the latest virus signature file to protect thesystem till date. When new viruses are launched, this software doesn’t have latestviruses threats defined in their signature files. Hence, it exposes the entire network tothese virus threats, and more often or a not network does get infected. As much as NA
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