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  Primatologist Signe Preuschof traces the smile back over 30 million years o evoluon to a ear grin stemming rom monkeys and apes who ofen used barely clenched teeth to portray to predators that they were harmless, or to signal submission to more dominant group members. The smile may have evolved dierently among species and especially among humans.[3] Apart rom Biology as an academic discipline that interprets the smile, those who study kinesics and psychology such as Freitas-Magalhaes view the smile as an aect display that can communicate eelings such as love, happiness, glee, pride, contempt, and embarrassment. Also, other types o primates can express this gesture as a symbol o happiness and un.Social eectsA smile seems to have a avorable inuence upon others and makes one likable and more approachable.[4] In the social context, smiling and laughter have dierent uncons in the order o sequence in social situaons:Smiling is somemes a pre-laughing device and is a common paern or paving the way to laughter;Smiling can be used as a response to laughter in the previous turn.[5]Smiling is a signaling system that evolved rom a need to communicate inormaon o many dierent orms. One o these is adversement o sexual interest. Female smiles are appealing to heterosexual males, increasing physical aracveness and enhancing sex appeal. However, recent research indicates a man's smile may or may not be most eecve in aracng heterosexual women, and that acial expressions such as pride or even shame might be more eecve. The researchers ignored the role o smiles in other sexual preerences.[6]As reinorcement and manipulaonThe inuence o smiling on others is not necessarily benign. It may take the orm o posive reinorcement, possibly or an underhand manipulave and abusive purpose.[7] See also supercial smile.Cultural dierencesIn the 19th century and early 20th century, photographs didn't ofen depict smiling people in accordance to cultural convenons o Victorian and Edwardian culture. In contrast, the  photograph Eang Rice, China reects diering cultural atudes o the me, depicng a smiling Chinese man.[8]While smiling is perceived as a posive emoon most o the me, there are many cultures that perceive smiling as a negave expression and consider it unwelcoming. Too much smiling can be viewed as a sign o shallowness or dishonesty.[9] In some parts o Asia, people may smile when they are embarrassed or in emoonal pain. Some people may smile at others to indicate a riendly greeng. A smile may be reserved or close riends and amily members. Many people inthe ormer Soviet Union area consider smiling at strangers in public to be unusual and even suspicious behavior.[10]Systemac large cross-cultural study on social percepon o similing individuals[11] documentedthat in some cultures a smiling individual may be perceived as less intelligent than the same non-smiling individual (and that cultural uncertainty avoidance may explain these dierences). Furthermore, the same study showed that corrupon at the societal level may undermine the prosocial percepon o smiling—in sociees with high corrupon indicators, trust toward smilingindividuals is reduced.DimplesA man with cheek dimples smiling.Cheek dimples are visible indentaons o the epidermis, caused by underlying esh, which orm on some people's cheeks, especially when they smile. Dimples are genecally inherited and are adominant trait. Having bilateral dimples (dimples in both cheeks) is the most common orm o cheek dimples.[12] A rarer orm is the single dimple, which occurs on one side o the ace only. Anatomically, dimples may be caused by variaons in the structure o the acial muscle known aszygomacus major. Specically, the presence o a double or bid zygomacus major muscle may explain the ormaon o cheek dimples.[13]This bid variaon o the muscle srcinates as a single structure rom the zygomac bone. As it travels anteriorly, it then divides with a superior bundle that inserts in the typical posion above the corner o the mouth. An inerior bundle inserts below the corner o the mouth. Dimples are analogous and how they orm in cheeks varies rom person to person. The shape o a person's ace can aect the look and orm as well:[12] leptoprosopic (long and narrow) aces have long and narrow dimples, and eryprosopic (short and broad) aces have short, circular dimples.[12] People with a mesoprosopic ace are more likely to have dimples in their cheeks than any other  ace shape.[12]

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Aug 24, 2019

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Aug 24, 2019
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