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boletim_campineiro_2014_creuz.pdf

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A partir da dinâmica e expansão do circuito superior da economia urbana em direção aos atores do circuito superior marginal e inferior, novos nexos são travados e relações de subordinação são reforçadas. Observa-se o aumento da participação
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   enovadas articulações entre oscircuitos da economia urbana atravésdas finanças: especificidades deBuenos Aires e São Paulo Villy Creuz   villy.creuz@gmail.com Resumo A partir da dinâmica e expansão do circuito superior da economiaurbana em direção aos atores do circuito superior marginal einferior, novos nexos são travados e relações de subordinação sãoreforçadas. Observa-se o aumento da participação nanceira entremicro e pequenos atores, com baixos graus de capitaliação,tecnologia e capital. A capilaridade do circuito superior nosterrit!rios nacionais se manifesta por meio dos correspondentesbanc"rios #correios, casas lot$ricas % &rasil - e a incorporação daprestação de serviços banc"rios em micro e pequenos com$rcios,por meio da 'apipago e (ago )"cil % Argentina*. O artigo, numprimeiro momento, fa um breve percurso sobre a preocupação dainterface entre geograa e economia, passando, posteriormente, aalguns atributos da esfera nanceira e, por m, trata sobre novassituações emp+ricas nas cidades de &uenos Aires #Argentina* e ão(aulo #&rasil*.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE  circuitos da economia, nanças, cidades,t$cnica, globaliação. 491 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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3                                                                                                                           ,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       3                                                                                                                           .  Villy Creuz Introdução /m meados dos anos 0123, estudos ligados 4 c5amada 6eograa /con7micaeram desenvolvidos a partir de certos enfoques localiação de atividades e seusrespectivos centros produtores, naturea das riqueas e do valor e a maneira pelaqual eram determinados preços e forças denidoras de remunerações. /m geral, foiescassa a contribuição pelas relações entre preços, demanda e oferta. 8o rol de autores desse per+odo, 9ic5ael :5is5olm #0122, pp. ;0-;;* elaboraa necessidade em faer <uma an"lise te!rica da localiação #...*. 8ão obstante, otransporte $ considerado um input   #fator de produção*, mas nunca se inclui comoum output   #produto*=. >entro desse contexto de ideias, o autor assinala que caberiaaos ge!grafos trabal5os <em torno da forma e estrutura das sociedades urbanas, eem torno das esferas de in?u@ncia urbana= #:BOC9, 0122, p. ;D*. /stariapresente a+, desse modo, a noção com a qual se aproximaria a vida urbana, em seuprocesso, mais a consolidação #em germe* decorrente de atividades nanceiras,ligadas ao c5amado setor terci"rio e quatern"rio na formação de cidadesE uma ideiaimpl+cita, embora F" latente. O pensamento geogr"co estava em meio 4s questões econ7micas, e, por isso,teorias de localiação, formas e estruturas urbanas, evidenciavam aos ge!grafoscomo prossionais indicados 4 compreensão total das causas e <da naturea dasinter-relações entre fen7menos em um lugar determinado= #:BOC9, 0122, G;*./ntre os economistas, sens+veis ao peso das determinações das localiações,oover #012G, p. 01*, pondera que esse dado $ <importante, porque o 5omem, não$ apenas um animal produtor, mas tamb$m consumidor=. Ao considerar o mapalocacional, o autor entende que esta Hltima est", em grande medida, relacionada amaneira com a qual indiv+duos e empresas se relacionam. O acesso ao mercado $,em grande medida, relacionado aos fatores de produção #venda ou troca deinsumos 4 empresa, mão de obra, transporte e vias de acesso, rede de comunicaçãoe energia etc.*, localiação dos concorrentes e volume da demanda.A relevância dos estudos geogr"cos nesse contexto $, em grande parte, pelapreocupação aos n+veis de consumo e formas de produção <a maior parte de nossocon5ecimento sobre geograa econ7mica concerne 4 geograa da produção=#9::A'IJE CB8>&/'6, 0122, p. 0K*.O ge!grafo Albert >emangeon #01K2, p. GK*, ao apreender o processo deacumulação de riqueas, arma o crescimento inconsiderado e geral da produção cria uma pletora de 492 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 Renovadas articulações entre os circuitos da economia urbana através das finanças… bens e, precisamente, neste excesso de riquea #...* v@-se surgir amis$ria e a pobrea. /ste paradoxo da economia moderna #...* seestendeu ao mundo inteiro. /, sem dHvida, pela primeira ve na5ist!ria, todos os pa+ses da terra sofrem FuntosE nunca antes se 5aviasentido de uma maneira tão violenta a solidariedade que une 4s8ações e que tende a faer do mundo um s! e grande mercado. :onsiderar a totalidade dos atores inclui pensar, tamb$m, a totalidade dosistema econ7mico, enquanto modo de acesso 4 leitura do movimento do espaçogeogr"co. O que compreende, entre outros, abarcar <quadros Fur+dicos #direitopHblico e direito privado* da atividade econ7mica e seu quadro geogr"co, asformas desta atividade, os procedimentos t$cnicos utiliados, seus modos deorganiação e, por Hltimo, um fator psicol!gico, a unidade dominante que animaaos agentes da produção= #CALM6B/, 011G N01KD, p. 2*. (reocupações pelamultiplicidade dos fatores de localiação, distribuição, renda da população, c"lculodo consumo, escala de produção e distribuição, oferta e demanda, e, recursosmateriais, foram por muito tempo a ocupação central das an"lises dos ge!grafosque pensavam os fatores econ7micos.O economista )rançois (erroux, no livro  A industrialização do Século XX  ,escreve A produção $, em si mesma, essencialmente uma transformação deobFetos materiais que se tornam Hteis ou mais Hteis. /m uma funçãode produção, escrevem-se as vari"veis capital e trabal5oE F" menos, ainovação. O trabal5o $ um esforço penoso que tende 4 utilidadeE ocapital, um conFunto de bens indiretos submetidos a um plano deutiliação. A inovação redu os custos do produto corrente e entregaum produto novo #novo absolutamente e de uma qualidade nova*. L"bastante tarde o economista descobre que as inovações de produçãoestão imersas em inovações de organiação # organizationalinnovations * que colocam em Fogo os equil+brios sociais #(/''OMP,012Q, p. 0;Q*. A grande transformação, no atual per+odo, aconteceu sob o pilarorganiacional das empresas, autoriadas pelas tecnologias de transmissão dainformação e uma mais complexa repartição de funções e tarefas. >a+ a ideia deque <a sociedade moderna se caracteria pela burocratiação e por uma divisão dotrabal5o extremamente desenvolvida= #/IRBO8B, 012D, p. 0QS*. /ssa mudançaestrutural da organiação dos atores foi acompan5ada, igualmente, pelaremodelação normativa nas formações socioespaciais. O problema dos equil+brios sociais que (erroux aponta, evidencia leituras eobFetivos comuns entre ge!grafos e economistas. O mercado, consumo, estruturas e 493 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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3                                                                                                                           ,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       3                                                                                                                           .  Villy Creuz formas urbanas, condições de produção, demandas e ofertas convertem-se emproblemas sociais transpassados por disciplinas diversas a partir dos mesmosmateriais emp+ricos.(olanTi #;300 N01KD, p. 00S* assegura que antes de nossa $poca os mercados não foram Famais outra coisa que acess!rios daecon7mica. (ela regra geral, o sistema econ7mico cava absorvidono sistema social e, qualquer que fosse o princ+pio decomportamento que predominava na economia, a presença dopadrão dos mercados resultava compat+vel com o sistema social. O problema reside, 5oFe, na extrema articialidade da economia de mercado./ssa deriva do fato de que o pr!prio processo de produção se tornou organiadomediante a forma da compra e venda. >e sorte que, em uma sociedade comercial,escreve (olanTi #;300 N01KD, p. 0;Q*, <não se pode organiar a produção para omercado em nen5uma outra forma=. O peso das relações sociais de produção deveser pensado a partir da escasse 5umana manifesta no sentido da produção do valorecon7mico. /ste Hltimo <assegura a utilidade dos bens produidosE deve existirantes da decisão de produi-losE $ um arranFo xo da divisão do trabal5o. ua fonte$ a necessidade e a escasse 5umana= #(OCA8JB, ;300 N01KD, p. G01*. 8esse sentido, os meios para explicar os conteHdos do territ!rio atravessam aexplicação do seu uso pelos atores #A8IO, 0112*. A novidade do atual momento5ist!rico $ que a l!gica de produção das riqueas, discursos, obFetos e ações são,agora, tornados globais. <As novas bases t$cnicas e as novas bases econ7micascriam condições materiais e pol+ticas de uma ampliação do contexto que interessaprimordialmente 4s atividades mais importantes= #A8IOE BCU/B'A, ;330, p.;1Q*.(or meio de t$cnicas que autoriam a ação, atrav$s da instalação de sistemasde engen5aria capaes de criar uma comunicação planet"ria, diferentes rincões doplaneta acol5em l!gicas nanceiras ex!genas 4s formações socioespaciais. 9ar+a Caura ilveira #;33D, p. K* indaga que o fen7meno da <tecnoci@ncia,informação e nanças são os motores da divisão territorial do trabal5o 5egem7nica,rosto mais concreto da globaliação=. (arafraseando a autora, cultivou-se aconfusão entre mercado global e l!gica individual empresarial, porquantoressaltar-se-ia certo status aut7nomo da esfera nanceira. 8esse movimento, oprocesso mascara a ação pol+tica de um pun5ado de agentes cuFa maiorpreocupação reside no aumento da mais-valia e na produção de convicções sociaisque Fustiquem ações coletivas de car"ter individualista #BCU/B'A, ;331, p. 2*. 494 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 Renovadas articulações entre os circuitos da economia urbana através das finanças… A busca pela mais-valia universal, concomitante 4 unicidade das t$cnicas e 4converg@ncia dos momentos #A8IO, 0112* contribuiu 4 ampliação do processode internacionaliação do fen7meno nanceiro. :omo tudo se mundialia, isto $, a<produção, o produto, o din5eiro, o cr$dito, a d+vida, o consumo, a pol+tica e acultura= #A8IO, 0112, p. 02G*, nomeamos globaliação ao conFunto de coisasque se retroalimentam e dão forma ao per+odo.8esse sentido, a mais-valia universal, tornada poss+vel pela globaliação,desvirtua a concentração de poder em uma quantidade cada ve mais diminuta deatores. /sse fen7meno $ descrito por Lacques Attali #01S0*, no livro V  Les troismondes’  , como a passagem de um regime de regulação concorrencial para umregime de regulação monopolista. :5esnais #0112, p. G2*, por sua ve, fala-nossobre a oligopoliação em n+vel global, ou <oligop!lio mundial=. (ara outro autor,arveT #;33K, p. 033*, a partir do grande alargamento na d$cada de 0113, <osmercados nanceiros passaram por uma forte onda de inovação e desregulaçãointernacionalmente, e, al$m de se tornarem instrumentos bem mais importantes decoordenação, ofereciam meios de obtenção e concentração de riquea=./sse entrosamento do sistema deu-se em função de condições pol+ticas et$cnicas #o que inclui t$cnicas da ação, como a produção de informação econvicções em toda sociedade* adequadas 4 circulação de capitais internacionais. A esfera nanceira se converte em ponto cardeal absoluto sobre atividadesecon7micas internacionais. /ssas possibilidades t$cnicas e pol+ticas instalamcondições prop+cias ao comando dos agentes 5egem7nicos, não apenas relativas 4economia, mas sobre diversas outras instâncias da sociedade, inclusive o territ!rio#A8IOE BCU/B'A, ;330, p. 0SK*. Impactos do Sistema Financeiro A esfera nanceira engloba o conFunto de atores do circuito superior daeconomia #A8IO, 01D1*, que no territ!rio brasileiro e estabelecem novasdinâmicas. O /stado encabeça papel fundamental ao criar condições normativasconvidativas. :omo arma :ontel #;332, p. 01G*, <governos nacionais sãoconvidados a alterar os conteHdos normativos de seus territ!rios #...* constru+dos aolongo de d$cadas de esforço de planeFamento=. A reforma nanceira brasileira de012Q, por meio da lei n. Q.K1K, assinalou a abertura de um processo intenso defusões banc"rias. )oram 02; incorporações e ;G fusões entre 0122 e 01D;. A partir de0113, a autoriação, por parte do poder pHblico, do ingresso e daparticipação acion"ria de ;Q bancos estrangeiros renova as 495                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        B                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 o                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   l                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 e                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  t                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      i                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                m                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             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