Bonnys Theoriesof Guided Imageryand Music

Bonnys Theoriesof Guided Imageryand Music
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  RE7*"9 1:elen BonnySs 'oundational Theories @# 9uided *%agery nd Music I9*MJ Kenneth E. Bruscia 9uided *%agery and Music I9*MJ is a %odel o# therapy and healing de!eloped by :elen Bonny in the 1-0s(initially based on her &or$ on a tea% o# A+7 psychotherapy researchers at the Maryland Psychiatric *nstitute.There are t&o #or%s, the indi!idual #or% Iso%eti%es called the VdyadXJ and the group #or% Iso%eti%es calledVMusic and *%ageryX or V9roup 9*MXJ. Bonny I1-/J de#ined the indi!idual #or% as,he conscious use o# i%agery that has been e!o$ed by rela=ation and %usic ]listening^ to e##ect sel#)understanding and personal gro&th processes in the indi!idual. sed one)to)one &ith a trained guide( 9*M %aybe a po&er#ul unco!ering process to e=plore le!els o# consciousness not usually a!ailable in nor%al a&areness.To#acilitate the process( !arious ele%ents o# %usicinstru%ental ti%bre( !ocal color( rhyth%( dyna%ics o# pitch(intensity( har%onyare used to contribute subtly and po&er#ully to %ood( e%otional in!ol!e%ent( and insightintrospection. The %usical selections used are chosen on the basis o# their ability to initiate and continue a%ood andKor e=periential state. Progra%%ing o# these selections on a cassette tape ]or C7^ not only in!ol!es anunderstanding o# %atching the generaliHed %ood state but considers %usical Nualities &hich %ay #acilitate theproduction o# i%agery in its %any #or%s. Ip. 26JBonnySs 9roup 9*M is di##erent #ro% the indi!idual #or% in that each client does not dialogue &ith the guideduring the %usic)i%aging e=perience( and in that e##orts are %ade to contain the clientSs le!el o# sel#)e=ploration.This is done by %ore directi!e guiding( shortening the %usic progra%( and li%iting the rela=ation inductionIBonny( 1--3J.Bonny has been a proli#ic &riter( and though she has ne!er laid out an organiHed( co%plete theory( her &ritingsdo contain %any i%portant theoretical concepts. The purpose o# this chapter is to organiHe these &ritings andtheoretical concepts by the%e. @ntology 9*M is such an e=pansi!e( ine##able process that it is natural to &onder &hat its #ounder belie!ed about thenature o# things( or &hat her philosophy o# li#e &as. *nterestingly( the #irst #ull discussion o# these topics ca%e ina speech that Bonny ga!e to the %erican ssociation o# Music Therapy in 1-/( titled VCycles o# E=perience,Past( Present( and 'uture.X This section on ontology lays out the central philosophical belie#s that Bonny hade!ol!ed to that ti%e I1-/J( as e=pressed in this speech( recently published #or the #irst ti%e IBonny( 2002J.Bonny I1-/J belie!ed that all things in the uni!erse are interconnected. VEach e!ent in our li!es has an e##ecton e!ery other subseNuent e!ent( on our en!iron%ent( and on e!ery other being in our en!iron%entX Ip. 2J.Thus( all beings are interconnected &ith all other things in the uni!erse( and as the least one o# these changes(e!erything else changes. Thus( li#e is ne!er constant or stable( e!erything is constantly changing and beingchanged by e!erything else. This gi!es e!ery person the po&er to change hi%Khersel# and the &orld in a%utually reciprocal &ay.Change is there#ore inherent in the uni!erse. Ta$ing #ro% PrigogineSs theory( Bonny proposes that our uni!erseis constantly e=panding and dissipating.@urs is a sel#)organiHing uni!erse. +tructures are #or%ed &hich shed their #or%s as they outgro& the%. s theenergy &ithin the% dissipates( ne& creati!e #or%s e!ol!e as a conseNuence. These are %ore co%ple=( &ithshorter periods o# stability. 8a!eli$e( cyclical #or%s o# gro&th( stability( and change are the nor%. 7iseNuilibriu%is a prelude to creati!e brea$throughW tension precedes satis#ying rela=ation. IBonny( 1-/( p. 233JChange is not linearW rather( it is cyclic and cu%ulati!e. t e!ery repetition through a cycle o# change Igro&th)dissipation)gro&th or tension)release)tensionJ( %ore in#or%ation is integrated into increasingly %ore co%ple=cycles IBonny( 1-/J. Thus e!ery gro&th cycle is %ore co%ple= and %ore integrated than the pre!ious oneWe!ery ne& #or% is %ore co%ple= and %ore integrated than the pre!ious one.@ne o# the greatest precipitators o# change is consciousness. Consciousness is a gi#t to hu%anity( a tool tochange oursel!es and the uni!erse. VBy being conscious( by  being here no&(  &e can a##ect change. 8e canchange our en!iron%entX IBonny( 1-/( p. 23J. nd one o# the greatest #acilitators o# consciousness is %usic.Music is the %ediu% par e=cellence #or e=ploring and changing consciousness IBonny( 1-/J.Bonny I1-/J lin$s PrigogineSs theory o# dissipati!e structures to +heldra$eSs notions o# %orphic resonance.8hile Prigogine dealt only &ith energy and #or% I%atterJ( +heldra$e proposed that all syste%s or structures areregulated not only by energy and %atter( but also by in!isible organiHing #ields( called %orphic #ields. Morphicields are created &hen any e!ent or beha!ior is learned and then repeated. These %orphic #ields arecon#igured as causati!e lin$s that resonate throughout the uni!erse( a##ecting the entire species. Thus( &hate!er one person disco!ers creates a %orphic #ield that others ha!e access to through resonance. This idea rea##ir%she notion o# the interconnectedness in the uni!erseall change is per!asi!e throughout the syste%( and all$no&ledge or consciousness is shared through resonance. :u%an co%%unication is beyond the senses andbeyond energyW it also ta$es place through %orphic resonance. The collecti!e unconscious( then( does notconsist o# %e%ories stored in the brain #ro% generation to generationW rather( it is the cu%ulati!e e=perience o# he species continuing to resonate in these %orphic #ields. +heldra$eSs theory also e=plains &hy %usical  %eanings &ithin a culture are shared by all o# those in the culture.'inally Bonny sees the uni!erse as hologistic. E!ery part o# a &hole is part o# another &hole( &hich is part o# another &hole( and so #orth( so that e!erything e=ists as part o# e!erything. E!ery cell o# the body is enclosed inanother cell( &hich is enclosed in another cell( ad in#initu%( so that a personSs body is enclosed in the species(&hich is enclosed in the uni!erse. *n each person is all( and in all is e!ery person. Consciousness Bonny I1-/J belie!ed that there are %any le!els o# indi!idual( collecti!e( %editati!e( and spiritualconsciousness. sing a Vcut logX as a %etaphor( Bonny I1-6J described consciousness in ter%s o# concentriccircles %o!ing out #ro% the obser!ing or directing ego in the center. The center is ordinary( alert( or a nor%alstate o# consciousness( and the layers or circles around it are !arious states o# consciousness that beco%eincreasingly altered or e=panded as they %o!e out&ard. Those around the i%%ediate center are preconsciousstates( layers o# a&areness that are easily accessed by the conscious %ind. These circles include %ind)setsduring study( then co%e #antasies( daydrea%s( %e%ories( drea%s( and participation in the arts. t the ne=tle!els are alpha brain &a!es( then i%agination( prayer( #asting( %ythical e=periences( and creati!ity. Thenco%es regression to childhood( orgas%( and theta &a!es. Mo!ing out&ard to&ard layers that are increasinglyless accessible to the conscious %ind( the ne=t states are sensory bo%bard%ent( ecstasy( unity( satori( noetics(anesthesia( then bliss( %ystical e=periences( sa%adhi( and the collecti!e unconscious. These layers o# consciousness continue in#initely out&ard to %ore e=panded states( approaching the +el# Ill)that)isJ.ltered states o# consciousness are essential to the 9*M process. They are agent( %ediu%( and outco%e( and(as such( not only #acilitate the process( but also co%prise one o# its i%portant bene#its. s an agent( alteredstates prepare the client to recei!e and absorb the %usic %ore #ully IBonny( 1-/J. s a %ediu%( altered statespro!ide a holistic perspecti!e #ro% &hich to access and &or$ through proble%s. s the person %o!es a&ayro% the nor%al ego( through increasingly deeper states( consciousness e=pands out&ard( relating the sel# IegoJ to the +el# Ill)that)isJ. This gi!es &ide access to %any #acets o# sel# and +el# and to the %anyperspecti!es and resources &ithin each( &hile also connecting the% to one another. 'inally( as outco%e(learning ho& to deepen( e=pand( and utiliHe oneSs o&n consciousness %ore #ully can enhance nor%al states o# a&areness by pro!iding %ore easy and i%%ediate access to the richness o# oneSs i%agination and inner li#eIBonny( 1-/J( to the collecti!e unconscious( and to the !alues o# spirituality IBonny( 2001J.ltered or e=panded states o# consciousness can be achie!ed through high sti%ulation and states o# hyperarousal or through rela=ation and states o# hypoarousal. The %ethods used in BM9*M are rela=ation(concentration( and %usic listeningW ho&e!er( other %eans are sleep( %editation( e=haustion( drugs( hypnosis(bio#eedbac$( se=( and aesthetics IBonny( 1-6J. Co%paring %usic( hypnosis( and drugs( Bonny and TansillI1-J #ound that %usic had %any ad!antages. *n hypnosis( the therapist has #ore$no&ledge o# the proble% andits potential solutionW the dra&bac$ is that it accesses a relati!ely s%all portion o# total consciousness. 7rugsplu%%et the person into %any di##erent areas and le!els o# consciousness and #orce direct access to proble%areas o# the psyche. *n contrast( %usic can e!o$e %any layers and areas o# consciousness and access proble%areas in a po&er#ul yet gentle &ay. nd &hen supported in a nondirecti!e and per%issi!e &ay by a therapist or guide( clients ha!e %ore control and help in &or$ing through the %aterial. Co%paring %usic and %editation(Bonny I1-/J points out that %usic occurs in the auditory %ediu%( consisting o# both sound and silence( &hile%editation occurs in co%plete silence. Concepts o# Music @ne cannot #ind a &riting &herein Bonny does not address the nature o# %usic and its therapeutic potentials. synthesis o# her &ritings re!eals these general concepts o# &hat %a$es %usic listening therapeutic( andparticularly in an altered state o# consciousness &hile i%aging,Music acts directly upon the entire body( reaching the brain not only through the ear but through the s$in( bones(issues( !iscera( and so #orth. *t releases endorphins( and it e!o$es speci#ic physiological responses( &hich inurn sti%ulate e%otions and i%ages IBonny( 1-/;J. Music also sti%ulates di##erent senses at the sa%e ti%e(hereby #acilitating synesthesia. *t also helps to create associational lin$s bet&een and a%ong the senses(hereby pro!iding a %eans o# integrating oneSs e=periences IBonny( 1-/;J.Music induces an entrain%ent response( &here the periodicities in its rhyth%ic structure elicit the sa%eperiodicities in the personSs body rhyth%s( %ood states( e%otions( and so #orth. The rhyth%s o# %usic arerelated to the rhyth%s o# the body( &hich are in turn related to the rhyth%s o# the uni!erse IBonny( 1-/;J.Bonny I1-/J subscribed to the !ie& o# Merleau)Ponty( the pheno%enologist( regarding the #our le!els o# Vli!edXsound e=perience. They are, I1J obGecti!e sound that re!erberates &ithin its source Ie.g.( instru%entJ( outsidehe listenerW I2J at%ospheric sound that e=ists bet&een the source obGect and the listenerSs bodyW IJ the soundhat resonates in the listenerW and I3J the a#ter presence o# sound as change in the body.Music pro!ides continuity to the e=perience &hen the sense o# ti%e is altered( pro!iding an anchor or stabiliHingpoint o# re#erence IBonny F Pahn$e( 1-2J. *t encapsulates ti%e and space and allo&s the si%ultaneouse=perience o# past( present( and #uture IBonny( 1--J.Music holds the listener in the here)no& o# ll)that)is. *t is a language o# i%%ediacy( &hich helps us to stay &ithhe %o%ent( the no&W it #acilitates a total attune%ent to the present and constant #ocusing and re#ocusing on the  unending no&s o# e=istence. Ai$e %editati!e practice( %usic can open the person to all aspects o# sel# &hilealso opening doors to the spiritual &orld IBonny( 1-/J.Music helps to #ocus the clientSs attention on the inner &orld o# e=periences IBonny F Pahn$e( 1-2J and toattend to &hat is %ost signi#icant to the person at the ti%e. *n its continuous alternation bet&een tension andrelease( diseNuilibriu% and eNuilibriu%( %usic &or$s li$e radar( scanning to detect the Vpsychic i%balances o# e=perience and to resol!e these i%balances &ith the #ull support o# the conscious %indX IBonny( 1-/( p. 232J.V'urther( it ]%usic^ helps to #ocus high energy input and so a%pli#ies the possibility o# positi!e #luctuations andallo&s #or uniNue integration at ne& le!els o# &ellness ... *n other &ords( %usic is a gi#t #or our integrationIBonny( 1-/( p. 232J.Music has %ind)e=panding properties IBonny( 1-/J and is a pri%ary tool #or opening( un#olding( and changingconsciousness IBonny( 1-6J. The %ultidi%ensional aspects o# %usic re#lect and acti!ate the %ultidi%ensionallayers o# consciousness( as they un#old seNuentially and as they relate to one another si%ultaneously. s the%any layers o# %usic un#old in ti%e( it scans and acti!ates the %yriad layers o# consciousness( &hich alsoun#old in ti%e IBonny( 1-6J. *t is the %o!e%ent o# %usicits e=pectations( dri!es( surprises( andresolutionsthat literally s&eeps o!er the !arious layers o# consciousness( scanning the% to gain an o!er!ie&o# the personSs past( present( and #uture.Music helps one to relinNuish oneSs usual controls and thereby allo&s a deeper e=ploration o# the unconscious.*t is %ore success#ul than &ords in pre!enting resistance to sel#)e=ploration IBonny F Pahn$e( 1-2J.Music e!o$es di!erse #eeling states IBonny( 1-6J and #acilitates the release o# intense e%otions( both positi!eand negati!e IBonny( 1-2J. t the sa%e ti%e( %usic also allo&s the listener to establish e%otional distanceIBonny F Pahn$e( 1-2J( through the %echanis% o# proGection or attributing the e%otion to the %usic rather than to the sel#. The parado= o# %usic( then( is that it can at once be close and #ar a&ay #ro% the core e%otionsIBonny F Pan$e( 1-2J. Music also in#luences %ood IBonny( 1--J and can carry the listeners into %anydi##erent states.Music sti%ulates associations( i%ages( %e%ories( and #antasies IBonny( 1-/;J. *t also induces spontaneousregressions to i%portant e!ents and circu%stances o# childhood IBonny( 1--J. Vssociati!e or %e%ory recall(#acilitated by %usic listening( is less a photographic coding and i%aging o# the srcinal scene than a holologicrepresentationX o# all aspects o# it IBonny( 1-/( p. 2J. Music does not si%ply e!o$e reduced or condensed!ersions o# the %e%ory( but brings bac$ the entire %e%ory e=perience.Music directs and structures e=perience( e!en &hile arousing e%otion IBonny F Pahn$e( 1-2J. The order o# %usic also pro!ides the #ra%e&or$ needed to e=plore con#licts and di##icult aspects o# the sel# IBonny( 1--J. *tpro!ides a supporti!e sound presence to the listener and a sa#e container #or e=ploring con#licts( disparities( or ineNualities in the personality IBonny( 1-/-J. *t can also ground the person and pro!ide a center or core that cananchor the personSs e%otions IBonny( 1-/-J.Music presents a%biguity and is open to %any interpretations( allo&ing the listener to #ind and build alternati!e&ays o# percei!ing and understanding onesel# and the &orld IBonny F Pahn$e( 1-2J.Music pro!ides a non!erbal %ediu% #or establishing rapport &ith the client IBonny( 1--J.Music contributes to pea$( cos%ic( or transcendental e=periences IBonny F Pahn$e( 1-2J. Music #osterspositi!e( oceanic( and spiritual e=periences that can be li#e)changing IBonny( 1--J.Music #acilitates spiritual gro&th. Both reNuire discipline and concentration( and both suggest %editati!e states.Music unco!ers our depthsour %e%ories( e%otions( and strugglesall o# &hich pro!ide #oundations #or spiritual gro&th. Music and spirituality are &ays o# &or$ing through con#licts and reaching #orgi!eness. Musicalso re%inds us that there are e!en deeper things to beholdW there is %ore than &e can i%agine in the beyond. Principles o# Music Progra%%ing Bonny had three %ain considerations in selecting %usic #or use in BM9*M and seNuencing the% to createprogra%s. 'irst( Bonny I2002J relied upon her o&n intuition( Va $ind o# direct and i%%ediate $no&ing or learning&ithout the conscious use o# reasoningX Ip. 01J. +he achie!ed this intuition by listening to %usic in an alteredstate( so%eti%es using %ind)e=panding drugs. :er intuitions &ere then e!aluated according to &hether other practitioners had si%ilar #indings in their &or$.+econd( she considered the role o# culture in responding to %usic. Bonny I1-/bJ e=plained,lthough %usical !ariables %ay not ha!e uni!ersal connotations( there see% to be culturally deri!ed V%eaningsX&hich can deter%ine therapeutic use#ulness. *t &as upon these %eanings that &e based our choices. 'or the8estern( %erican( or European &hite( %iddle) to upper)class listener( &e #ound that certain ele%ents insa%ple %usic consistently sti%ulated generaliHed %eanings. These %usical selections ser!ed as the a##ecti!ebuilding bloc$s( &hich in turn suggested a direction #or the 9*M taped progra%s and their correspondinge%otional responses. IBonny( 2002( pp. 01)02JThird( she analyHed each piece o# %usic using standard %usical techniNues. 'ro% these analyses( shedeter%ined that the %usical !ariables that see%ed to be o# greatest signi#icance in BM9*M &ere pitch( rhyth%and te%po( %edia I!ocal or instru%entalJ( %elody and har%ony( and ti%bre. Each o# these &as then e=a%inedon a continuu% ranging #ro% one e=tre%e to another#or e=a%ple( pitch Ihigh to lo&J( rhyth% Iregular todi!erseJ( te%po I#ast to slo&J( and so #orth. 'ro% these analyses( Bonny created an intensity pro#ile #or each  piece and progra%. The 9*M Process Bonny I1-/-J !ie&ed BM9*M as a %ode o# Vbeing &ith %usic ... literally allo&ing onesel# to step into or tobeco%e one &ith the %usicX Ip. 1J. The $ey to success is to let go and allo& the %usic to ta$e the clienthere!er she or he needs to go IBonny( 2001J. *n technical ter%s( the clientSs ego needs to be recepti!e toe=ploring all areas o# the psyche( including those that are proble%atic IBonny( 1--J. This ability to let go isacilitated by a rela=ation induction( &hich leads the client into an altered state o# consciousness. The alteredstate o# consciousness( in turn( opens the i%agination( #rees the person #ro% usual patterns o# consciousness(and #urther encourages the ego to be recepti!e to &hate!er e%erges. s this happens( the %usic e!o$esi%agery o# all $inds Ie.g.( %e%ories( sensory e=periences( %etaphors( sy%bols( #antasiesJ and( %ost i%portant(heir conco%itant e%otions. ll i%ages are re#lections o# the i%ager and hold i%portant %essages #ro% theunconscious. Through the %usic i%aging e=perience( the client has an opportunity to release e%otions andeelings that ha!e been repressed or suppressed( gain ne& insights into proble% areas( generate alternati!eays o# being in the &orld and handling proble%s( and act upon the insights gained( #irst &ithin the session andhen in the clientSs &orld.ll aspects o# the person are allo&ed to e%erge in BM9*M( because all hu%an e=periences are o# !alue and allare interconnected. The clients are( there#ore( al&ays accepted as they are and &here!er they are in their ourney to&ard healing and sel#)actualiHation.'or Bonny( all healing co%es #ro% &ithin. That is( each person has an inner $no&ing o# &hat he or she needs(and each person also has the inner &ill and resources needed to be &hole and healthy. Thus( the source o# healing is the sel#.Because the healing process is sel#)directed( BM9*M is nondirecti!e. The client has control and decideshether to enter or not enter di##icult and challenging i%aging e=periences. Thus( the client leads thee=perience( and the therapist #ollo&s.The therapist and %usic &or$ in tande% as co)therapists. The %usic is the co)therapist( and its role is togenerate i%ages( integrate e=periences( and pro!ide a supporti!e structure #or di##icult e=periences(The change process in 9*M is a$in to those described in hu%anistic and transpersonal theories. Rather thanre#erring to VtherapeuticX change( Bonny described BM9*M as leading to healing( sel#)actualiHation( and gro&th.The client %o!es through the change or gro&th process by achie!ing three i%portant steps, I1J a release o# e%otions and #eelings that ha!e been repressed or suppressedW I2J insightW and IJ action.The process o# healing %o!es to&ard sel#)actualiHation in a holistic &ay. *t addresses all aspects o# thepersonbody( %ind( and spirit( and both positi!e and proble%atic areas. The %usic acts on the body bysti%ulating its entirety( acti!ating the central ner!ous syste%( e!o$ing sensory e=periences( inducing physicalentrain%ent and resonance bet&een itsel# and the client( and operating on its energy #ields and syste%sIBonny( 1-/;J. The %usic acts on the %ind by continually shi#ting the locus and #ocus o# consciousness(sti%ulating the i%agination( presenting and &or$ing through li#e %etaphors( inducing regression and %e%ories(and e=ploring alternati!e &ays o# being. The %usic acts on the spirit by #ostering positi!e transpersonale=periences that ha!e li#e)changing potentials IBonny( 1--J( by reNuiring discipline and concentration neededor spiritual li#e( by #ostering %editation s$ills( by pro!iding a !enue #or &orship and adoration( by suggestingorgi!eness( and by suggesting that there are deeper things in li#e IBonny( 2001J.*n addition to being holistic( the process o# healing is spiraling rather than linear( %o!ing in and out( #ro% outsideo inside( along the sa%e path&ays( and centered in the heart. +i%ilarly( li#e and gro&th %o!e in nonlinear &aysro% personal to transpersonal( #ro% ego to spiritual concerns( #ro% sel# to other to &orld to uni!erse. Role o# the Therapist Bonny I1-/aJ listed se!eral Nualities that &ere essential #or BM9*M therapists. *n relation to the client( theherapist needs listening s$ills( e%pathy( sensiti!ity( trust&orthiness( intuition( and a desire to ser!e. sindi!iduals( they also need to be sel#)con#ident( courageous( i%aginati!e( and #le=ible. BM9*M therapists ha!e tobe co%#ortable being nondirecti!e( and they ha!e to ha!e e=perience &or$ing through their o&n proble%sbe#ore they can ser!e others.The #unctions o# the guide are both traditional or general and speci#ic. Traditional #unctions are to,Re#lect and resonate the clientSs a##ectEnter the e%otional space o# the client and be co%pletely presentAead the client( &hen ready( into ne& and %ore producti!e &ays o# being:elp the client to rela=Aisten to and con!erse &ith the client and &hat he or she brings into the session@bser!e and record all aspects o# the session+peci#ic #unctions are to,@pen the client to ne& e=periences:elp the client to recogniHe and &or$ through issues that arise in the sessionPro!ide a contact &ith consensus reality:elp the client to deepen the e=perience &hen needed  :elp the client to re!ie& and integrate %aterial #ro% each session Closing Co%%ents The theoretical ideas o# :elen Bonny are !ery %uch li$e the %ethod she de!eloped. Both are holistic in scope.BonnySs theories and 9*M as a %ethod recogniHe and honor the &holeness o# the indi!idual( the #ullness o# li#e(and the !astness o# the uni!erse. *n addition( both are !ery &ell)integrated( in #act( so integrated that it is di##icultto brea$ do&n her theories or %ethod into discrete topics. E!ery one o# BonnySs ideas are integrally related tothe others. :er notions about %usic are inseparable #ro% her notions about consciousness &hich areinseparable #ro% her notions about therapy( &hich are inseparable #ro% her notions about li#e in this uni!erse.+i%ilarly( the ele%ents o# her %ethod are integrally related i# not o!erlapping. @ne cannot isolate any o# thetherapeutic VagentsX and analyHe their role and respecti!e e##icacy( and one cannot isolate any o# theVproceduresX to identi#y precisely &hen or ho& therapeutic change ta$es place. @ne si%ply cannot tal$ aboutone aspect o# BonnySs theories or %ethod &ithout i%plicating all the others. Re#erences Bonny( :.( F Pahn$e( 8. I1-2J. The use o# %usic in psychedelic IA+7J psychotherapy.  ournal o# Music Therapy( -I2J(  ;3/.Bonny( :.( F +a!ary( A. I1-J.  Music and our Mind, Aistening 8ith a "e& Consciousness.  "e& or$,:arper F Ro&.Bonny( :. I1-6J. Music and consciousness.  ournal o# Music Therapy(  2IJ( 121)16.Bonny( :.( F Kellogg( . I1-J. Mandalas as a %easure o# change in psychotherapy.  %erican ournal o# rt Therapy( 1;(  12;)10.Bonny( :.( F Tansill( R. I1-J. Music Therapy,  Aegal :igh. *n 9. 8aldor# IEd.J(  Counseling Therapies and the ddicti!e Client   Ipp. 11)10J. Balti%ore( M7, ni!ersity o# Maryland +chool o# +ocial 8or$ andCo%%unity Planning.Bonny( :. I1-/aJ.  9*M Monograph b1, 'acilitating 9*M +essions.  +alina( K+, Bonny 'oundation.Bonny( I1-/bJ.  9*M Monograph b2, The Role o# Tape Music Progra%s in the 9*M Process.  +alina( K+,Bonny 'oundation.Bonny( I1--J. 9*M, Mirror o# Consciousness or !oidance o# Reality, Processes and Pro%ises in the 9*Mpproach. Paper presented at the 9*M sy%posiu% at the ni!ersity o# Cali#ornia( +an 'rancisco( May( 1--.+ee Bonny( 2002( pp. -)102.Bonny( :. I1-/0J.  9*M Monograph b, Past( Present( and 'uture *%plications.  +a!age( M7, *nstitute #or Musicand *%agery.Bonny( :. I1-/J. Cycles o# e=perience, Past( present( and #uture. Keynote address presented at the nationalcon#erence o# the %erican ssociation #or Music Therapy( March( Philadelphia( Pennsyl!ania.Bonny( :. I1-/;J. Music and :ealing.  Music Therapy, ournal o# the %erican ssociation #or Music Therapy(;ImJ(  )12.Bonny( :. I1-/J. Re#lections, Music, The Aanguage o# *%%ediacy.  The rts in Psychotherapy( 12IJ(  266)2;2.Bonny( :. I1-/-J. +ound as +y%bol, 9uided *%agery and Music in Clinical Practice.  Music Therapy Perspecti!es( ;(  )10.Bonny( :. I1--J. Body Aistening,  "e& 8ay to Re!ie& the 9*M Tapes.  ournal o# the ssociation #or Music and *%agery( 2(  )1.Bonny( :. I1--3J. T&enty)@ne earsAater,  9*M pdate.  Music Therapy Perspecti!es(  12I2J( 0)3.Bonny( :. I2001J. Music and spirituality.  Music Therapy Perspecti!es( 1-I1J(  6-);2.Bonny( :. I2002J.  Music and Consciousness, The E!olution o# 9uided *%agery and Music.  Edited by Aisa+u%%er. 9ilsu%( ":, Barcelona Publishers.

Simplio Green

Feb 2, 2019
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