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Reference Manual Volume I Basic Programming Guide Quicksilver Beta March 28th 2008 CLIPS Reference Manual CLIPS Basic Programming Guide Quicksilver Beta March 28th 2008 CONTENTS License Information...................................................................................................................i Preface......................................................................................................................................iii Acknowledgements ....................
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    Reference Manual   Volume I   Basic Programming Guide   Quicksilver Beta    March 28th 2008     CLIPS Reference ManualCLIPS Basic Programming Guide i CLIPS Basic Programming Guide Quicksilver Beta March 28th 2008 CONTENTSLicense Information...................................................................................................................i   Preface......................................................................................................................................iii   Acknowledgements.................................................................................................................vii   Section 1 - Introduction............................................................................................................1   Section 2 - CLIPS Overview.....................................................................................................3   2.1 Interacting with CLIPS....................................................................................................3   2.1.1 Top Level Commands.............................................................................................3   2.1.2 Internationalization Support....................................................................................4   2.1.3 Automated Command Entry and Loading...............................................................5   2.1.4 Integration with Other Programming Languages.....................................................6   2.2 Reference Manual Syntax................................................................................................6   2.3 Basic Programming Elements..........................................................................................7   2.3.1 Data Types.............................................................................................................7   2.3.2 Functions..............................................................................................................10   2.3.3 Constructs.............................................................................................................11   2.4 Data Abstraction............................................................................................................12   2.4.1 Facts.....................................................................................................................12   2.4.1.1 Ordered Facts...............................................................................................13   2.4.1.2 Non-ordered Facts........................................................................................13   2.4.1.3 Initial Facts..................................................................................................14   2.4.2 Objects.................................................................................................................14   2.4.2.1 Initial Objects...............................................................................................16   2.4.3 Global Variables...................................................................................................16   2.5 Knowledge Representation............................................................................................16   2.5.1 Heuristic Knowledge – Rules................................................................................16   2.5.2 Procedural Knowledge..........................................................................................17   2.5.2.1 Deffunctions................................................................................................17   2.5.2.2 Generic Functions........................................................................................18   2.5.2.3 Object Message-Passing...............................................................................18   2.5.2.4 Defmodules..................................................................................................18   2.6 CLIPS Object-Oriented Language.................................................................................19   2.6.1 COOL Deviations from a Pure OOP Paradigm......................................................19   2.6.2 Primary OOP Features..........................................................................................19   2.6.3 Instance-set Queries and Distributed Actions........................................................20    CLIPS Reference Manualii Table of Contents Section 3 - Deftemplate Construct..........................................................................................21   3.1 Slot Default Values.......................................................................................................22   3.2 Slot Default Constraints for Pattern-Matching...............................................................22   3.3 Slot Value Constraint Attributes....................................................................................23   3.4 Implied Deftemplates....................................................................................................23   Section 4 - Deffacts Construct................................................................................................25   Section 5 - Defrule Construct..................................................................................................27   5.1 Defining Rules..............................................................................................................27   5.2 Basic Cycle Of Rule Execution.....................................................................................28   5.3 Conflict Resolution Strategies.......................................................................................29   5.3.1 Depth Strategy......................................................................................................29   5.3.2 Breadth Strategy...................................................................................................29   5.3.3 Simplicity Strategy...............................................................................................29   5.3.4 Complexity Strategy.............................................................................................30   5.3.5 LEX Strategy........................................................................................................30   5.3.6 MEA Strategy.......................................................................................................31   5.3.7 Random Strategy..................................................................................................31   5.4 LHS Syntax...................................................................................................................33   5.4.1 Pattern Conditional Element.................................................................................33   5.4.1.1 Literal Constraints........................................................................................34   5.4.1.2 Wildcards Single- and Multifield..................................................................36   5.4.1.3 Variables Single- and Multifield...................................................................38   5.4.1.4 Connective Constraints................................................................................40   5.4.1.5 Predicate Constraints....................................................................................43   5.4.1.6 Return Value Constraints.............................................................................45   5.4.1.7 Pattern-Matching with Object Patterns.........................................................46   5.4.1.8 Pattern-Addresses........................................................................................49   5.4.2 Test Conditional Element......................................................................................49   5.4.3 Or Conditional Element........................................................................................51   5.4.4 And Conditional Element......................................................................................52   5.4.5 Not Conditional Element......................................................................................53   5.4.6 Exists Conditional Element...................................................................................54   5.4.7 Forall Conditional Element...................................................................................56   5.4.8 Logical Conditional Element................................................................................58   5.4.9 Automatic Addition and Reordering of LHS CEs..................................................61   5.4.9.1 Rules Without Any LHS Pattern CEs...........................................................61   5.4.9.2 Test and Not CEs as the First CE of an And CE...........................................61   5.4.9.3 Test CEs Following Not CEs........................................................................62   5.4.9.4 Or CEs Following Not CEs..........................................................................63   5.4.9.5 Notes About Pattern Addition and Reordering..............................................63   5.4.10 Declaring Rule Properties...................................................................................63  

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