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BPH L-9-2

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Course Name: Bangladesh Political History (BPH-101). Course instructor- Suraiya Islam. (Lecturer) Independent University Bangladesh. Chittagong Campus. Courtesy By: Kaisar Syed. Student of Electrical & Telecommunication Engineering (ETE). Independent University Bangladesh. Email: kaisarbd@hotmail.com. Copyright ©2008-2009. All Rights Reserved.
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  L-9Bangladesh Political Historypart-II The Bengal Sultanate 1200-1576 Bengal owed its independence of being far away from Delhi and also due to thefact that the communication between these two far stretched countries were bad.Besides being inhospitable due to Bengals weather to the sultanates officials. Althoughthe Delhi government tried in vain repeatedly to assert its control over Bengal, but rarelysuccessful, it becomes an independent state as early as the thirteenth century.In fact, Ikhtiyar uddin Mohammad Bakhtiyar Khalji conquered Bengal in 1204A.D. and established Muslim rule with Lakhnauti as his capital. Bakhtiyar khalji was aTurkish adventurer and came to Delhi in search of a job in the army. As he wasunsuccessful to obtain so he went to Oudh (Luckhow). The ruler of Oudh Hesam uddinoffered him Jaigir of two Parganas in the South-west of Mirzapur. He managed asuitable army with the money he received from his Jaigir and established his power base there. He occupied Bihar and marched towards Bengal. A handful of army of 18horseman he raided Nadia and surprised and defeated Lakshmana Sena, the last of thesena kings of Bengal. The old king fled to Vikrampur in East- Bengal. That’s howBakhtiyar khalji conquered the city. Bakhtiyar khalji moved towards Lakhnauti (Gaur)and duly established his capital there. Very soon the whole tract of land comprising thegreater part of the whole northern and western Bengal was brought under his muslimdominion. Bakhtiyar territories included south Bihar, Bengal Boper, and the distriebs of Rajmahal, Maldah, Dinajpur, Rajshahi, Rangpur and Bogra in the North. However, heconsolidated his new conquests and established military outposts in the borders. For hisadministrative purposes, he assigned different areas of his territories to the princess,Nobles, military chiefs for maintenance of law and order and collection of revenues. Healso constructed mosques, Madras as and Khanqas etc for the Muslim society. His lastimportant event in his career was his expedition to Tibet. But this expedition to Tibet wasa great disaster.However, his conquest of Bengal appeared to be momentous as he founded aMuslim dominion in eastern India at a time when there was quite an unrest and turmoilin central Asia. At the same time, the dynastic change and chaos at Delhi, which led tothe immigration of Muslim chieftains, nobles, klama and various other people in thedetaic Bengal. More significant point was the foundation of the Bengal Sultanate whichlasted for more than three centuries and the independent sultans contributedenormously to the growth of an enlightened and prosperous Bengal during medievalperiod. Bakhtiyar Khalji died in 1206 A.D. which erected a great confusion and rivalrybetween his two close associates, namely Ali Mardan Khalji and shiran Khalji untilShiran Khalji was killed either by a noble or his Hindu zamindars with the death of theDelhi Sultan Kutubuddin Aibek the (Slave dynasty), Ali Mardan declared himself anindependent ruler of Bengal and assumed the title of sultan Alauddin. But due to thehighhanded oppression on his nobles in the court sultan Alauddin alienated most of his Courtesy By: Kaisar Syed 1  L-9Bangladesh Political Historypart-II countries who were united under the leadership of Hussamuddin Iwaj Khalji they killedsultan Alauddin (Ali Mardan) in 1212 A.D. and offered the throne of Lakhnauti (Gaur) tosultan Hussumuddin who took the title of Sultan Ghyasuddin Iwaj Khalji. He ruled for fifteen years as the Bengal sultanate, which is very important in the history of establishing the Muslim rule in Bengal. He extended his sultanate and moved his capitalfrom Devkot to Lakhnauti and built a big naval power to establish his position strongly inriverine Bengal. His public works included construction of good roods, wide canalswhich saved agricultural lands, houses from flood etc. Minhaj-i-Siraj a renownedhistorian, informed as that from the enlarged territories he received tribute from therulers of Orissa, Tirhut and Eastern Bengal.There had been fifteen governors who ruled Bengal from 1227 A.D. to1281 A.D. at least Ten belonged to the slave dynasty who rose to high position by their merits. Since they were Turks, their ruling period was called as “ The Turkish period of    the Bengal sultanate ”   . Balban’s invasion and conquest of Lakhnauti put an end to theinternal conflicts, which paved the way of for the extension of the Muslim kingdom. After Ghiyas uddin Iwaj khalji’s death his son Bogra khan inherited the Bengal sultanate andruled from 1281 to 1291 A.D. Bogra khan rejected the subordination of the Delhi sultanand became independent in Bengal sultanate and ruled for nine years from 1291 to1300 A.D. He was successes by Shamsuddin Feroz Shah who ruled for twenty years asthe sultan of Bengal. He brought Sonargaon (south-east of Bengal), Satgaon (South-west of Bengal), Mymensingh and Sylhet under his rule. It was during this time that themost renowned Sufi Saint “ Shah Jalal ” and the Sultan general Nasiruddin conqueredSylhet. ShahJalal and his more than three hundred disciples settled in Sylhet andpreached Islam in the rural areas.However, by 1338 A.D. the ruler Bairam Khan’s death at Sonargaon, his closefriend Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah captured power and proclaimed himself theindependent ruler with the title of Sultan Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah. This was indeedthe “ beginning of the Independent Sultanate ” in Bengal. After some initial set backs,Fakhruddin continued to rule in Sonargaon and extended his territory up to Chittagongin the east. “The Independence declared in 1338 A.D. was successfullyctainedfor next  two centuries by this dynasty. It must be mentioned that during Fakhruddin Shah Rule, the famous Traveler ‘Ibn Batuta’ of Morocco visited Bengal . He left an eye withnessaccount of Bengal and listed the princes of various items of daily necessasity. By 1342A.D. Haji Ilias killed Alauddin Ali Shah the ruler of Lakhnauti as “ Shamsuddin IliasShah ” and for the first time he united the three regions of Bengal. It was a greatachievement, and he won the grand title as the “ Shah-E-Bangalah ”. His son “ Sikandar Shah ” succeeded him and became a great ruler. He was a great patron of Architectureand built the “ famous Adina Masjid of Pandua ” built in the later part of the “ fourteenthcentury ”. His son Giyasuddin Azam Shah succeeded him and contributed cultural Courtesy By: Kaisar Syed 2  L-9Bangladesh Political Historypart-II development of his kingdom. His patronage of poets and the learned hisdevotimto theSufi Saints, Islamic culture and his foreign relations earned him a distinct place in thehistory. He also corresponded with famous Persian poet “ Hafiz ” in Iran , establishedMadrasa at Madina and Mecca and exchanged gifts and ambassadors between Chinaand Bengal were a great contribution to Medieval Bengal. In fact, after some upheavals,the latter Iliyas Shahi dynasty was revived again. These latter rulers established hencethroughout the country as they built good houses, buildings, khanqas, Gates, Palacesand tombs. They firmly established Muslim rule in Bengal and their independent statushad enlightened and liberal policy to gain support of the local people. Muslim cultureand Islam were established in rural areas. Appoinments of non-muslims to highpositions respected the Verna cular languages. “It must be said that the muslim militarystrength in Bengal combined with the cultural liberalism gave thrust, for the first time, toa new kind of society and finally helped to shape the real identify of the muslimsultanate of Bengal in the medieval period and some years to come in future” Finally,After theHabshirule of six years from 1487 to 1493 A.D. Then come the AlauddinHusain Shahi rule in Bengal history from 1493 to 1538 A.D.They srcinated fromArabia and settled in Murshidabad (west Bengal). He was the greatest sultan of thisdynasty. He established peace and prosperity to Bengal. He was a great patron of artsand learning under his liberal patronage many books were written in Bengali language. Courtesy By: Kaisar Syed 3
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