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Bps4423-Occuptional Epidemiology&Disease 11213

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this subject related to exposure disease for workers in industrial sector and population. the disease have two types which are communicable and non-communicable disease.
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  j Universiti Malaysia P H NG Engineering Technology Creativity FACULTY OF TECHNOLOGY   FINAL EXAMINATION COURSE   CCUPATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGY AND   DISEASE COURSE CODE   PS4423 LECTURER   R. NORAZURA BINTI ISMAIL DATE   5 JANUARY 2013 DURATION   HOURS SESSION SEMESTER :   ESSION 2012/2013 SEMESTER I PROGRAMME CODE :   PS INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATE: This question paper consists of TWO 2) sections. 2 Answer ALL questions. 3 All answers to a new question should start on new page. 4 All the calculations and assumptions must be clearly stated. 5 Candidates are not allowed to bring any material other than those allowed by the invigilator into the examination room. DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO   This examination paper consists of FOUR 4) printed pages including front page.  CONFIDENTIAL   PS/12 13 /BPS4423 SECTION A QUESTION 1 A case control study was conducted among men in Malaysia in order to find out whether a mother's use of hormones during pregnancy influenced her son's risk of developing testicular cancer later in life. Investigators selected 45 cases who were hospitalized for testicular cancer and 85 controls. The study found that 95 cases's mothers and 55 controls's mothers had used hormones during pregnancy. a) Set up two-by-two table for these data  4 Marks) b) Calculate the odds ratio (2 Marks) c) State in words your interpretation of this odds ratio  2 Marks) QUESTION You are the Occupational Safety and Health Officer in a paint manufacturing industry. Year end report for burden of diseases among the workers in the factory shows remarkable increase in the number of neurobehavioral problem such as numbness among the workers exposed to chemical used mainly organic solvents. You were given a task to produce a report and make the conclusion on the factors contributing to respiratory health effects among the workers In preparing the proposal for the study; a) Identify the appropriate study design for this case.  1 Mark) b) Describe the reason for the type of study selected in (a)? (2 Marks) c) Explain the measurements obtained from the type of study selected in (a). 3 Marks) d) Discuss the limitations of the study.  3 Marks) e) Identify a potential confounder and discuss how you control the confounder. (3 Marks) 2  CONFIDENTIAL   PS/12131 /BPS4423 SECTION B Instruction: answer ALL questions QUESTION 1 a Discuss the following types of research design in terms of strengths and limitations in determining cause-effect relationships: i Case-control study ii Prospective cohort study iii Experimental study  12 Marks) b Identify and explain the appropriate study design to determine the prevalence of restrictive lung impairment among workers exposed to carbon black in a tyre manufacturing industry. Your explanation must include sample selection, advantages and disadvantages of the study design.  8 Marks) QUESTION a Discuss the epidemiologic triad of disease. Explain a factor relating to host and agent that influence disease transmission.  8 Marks) b Describe FOUR 4) levels of prevention for communicable disease. Give an example of action at each level which would be appropriate as part of a comprehensive programme to prevent tuberculosis.  12 Marks) 3   ONFIDENTI L   PS/12131 1BPS4423 QUESTION 3 a) Based on Table 1, smoking and exposure to asbestos interact, creating exceedingly high lung cancer rates for workers who both smoke and are exposed to asbestos dust. Discuss the contribution of asbestos exposure and smoking to the risk of lung cancer. Table 1: Age-standardized lung cancer death rates per 100 000 population) in   relation to cigarette smoking and occupational exposure to asbestos dust Exposure to asbestos History of cigarette smoking Lung cancer death rate per 100 000 No No   YesNo  8 NoYes 123 YesYes 6 2 6 Marks) b) Based on Table 2, explain which age group is more susceptible to the effects of lead. Discuss which effect is the more sensitive indicator of lead exposure. Table 2: Lowest blood lead levels ig/l) at which effects on health have been reported   in children and adults EffectChildren Adult Decreased haemoglobin 40 5 levels Changes in 25 4 neurobehavioural function  6 Marks) c)Define systematic error in epidemiological studies. Explain TWO 2) types of systematic error and how to reduce their effects.  8 Marks) END OF QUESTION PAPER
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