Business policy and Strategic management
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  Q1 Explain the evolution of E-Commerce and M-Commerce. The evolution of e- commerce is traced back to 1970’s with the emergence of internet. E -commerce was developed for the business community in the early 1970s to facilitate processing high volume and high value transactions electronically. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) was the first business-to- business (B2B) application. Subsequently, internet added a prodigious new dimension to e-commerce. The power of the internet as a global access was realized with the arrival of the World Wide Web (WWW) in 1994. Never in the history of mankind has a popular innovation spread as fast as internet. United States (US) has been considered the leader in the application of e-commerce. The quick spread of internet in US can be gauzed from the fact that it took 16 years for telephones to be used by a quarter of all US households and 133 years for the cell-phones to be so widely used, but Internet has made similar penetration in less than 5 years. By 2006, the digital economy has overtaken the traditional economy in U.S. So far only 8 per cent of manufacturing sector in US is applying e-commerce and, thus, remaining 92 per cent have yet to realise its benefits. Further, e-commerce in US is taking place more in the service-oriented activities than the product-oriented ones. This is because of the fact that no two products are the same. But, services have a commonality that makes maxim for more general applicable whether it is hospitality or airlines, transport services, banking, reading of books and alike. After its fast debut in US, e-commerce is rapidly spreading beyond US boundaries and is growing speedily global.  Numerous e-commerce success stories abound in Europe. The srcin of e-commerce in India coincides with the introduction of Internet connectivity in the country in 1989. As such, e-commerce in India is in its infancy. Historically, Rediff-on-the-net, one of India’s leading online services, set up India’s first e -commerce on August 13, 1998. Then, India entered the age of e-commerce the day the government deregulated the Internet Service Provider (ISP) policy in November 1998. Since then, there is no looking back and the country is proliferating in Internet. The rate of growth of penetration of Internet has been spectacular. It took radio 50 years to have 50 million owners. Tele Vision (TV) 16 years and personal computers 17 years. But it has taken Internet only 4 years to reach that figure after the invention of WWW and browsers. Till now, Internet penetration in India is about 0.5 per cent of the population against 50 per cent in Singapore. Nevertheless, India is fast emerging as the largest country for registering domain names in the entire Asia-Pacific region. According to the latest dotcom index for the year up-to February 2000, India occupies 11 th  place in it after US. UK, Korea, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, China, Spain and Italy. Presently, India has nearly 35 ISPs in various stages of operations. Added to these are 187 more ISPs granted licences. The popular ISPs already providing access to internet in the country are the Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL), Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL). Satyam Online. BT Internet, Intel India, Max India, Quark, HCL Perot, Infosys, Future Divices and Dishnet. Sa tyam Online, India’s largest ISP mega corporation got over 1, 15,000 subscribers across the country.  As of March 31, 2000, there were 7.5 lakh Internet connections in the country with 3.2 million Internet users. According to Forrester Research, over 27 million households in India will access the Internet by 2003. National Association of Software and Service Companies (NASSCOM), the apex body and Chamber of Commerce of India’s software -driven IT industry, has recently released findings of its survey to evaluate the E-Commerce scenario in India. As per the findings of the survey, the total volume of e-commerce transactions in India was about Rs. 131 crore in the year 1998-99. Out of this volume, about Rs. 12 crore were contributed by retail Internet or business-to- consumer transactions and about Rs. 119 crore were contributed by business-to- business (B2B) transactions. The figure for the year 1999-2000 was estimated to reach Rs. 450 crore. Here, it is significant to note that India’s experience in e -commerce transactions is compatible with that of US and other countries where percentage share of B2B remained much larger than that of Business-to-Customer (B2C). This implies that businesses are more willing and able than individuals to use e-commerce technology. This is attributed to the fact that in B2B transactions, both buyers and sellers are known to each other and enjoy sufficient mutual trust. Added to it is that B2B transactions are relatively of higher value in nature and companies trading on Internet offer very high and attractive cost-saving options. But, such a situation is not obtainable in case of B2C transactions. Very possibly, the same explains why e-commerce in this area has still not taken off. That this trend is also expected to continue in future as well is indicated by a serious study forecasting B2B transactions’ share of the order of 79 per cent of the total e -commerce business in India during the next five years. Another point worth mentioning is that the expansion of e-commerce in India, so far, has been uneven concentrating in a few metropolitan cities, namely. Bangalore, Hyderabad, Mumbai and Delhi. The common man residing in rural areas of the country is, however, still unaware of happening in Information Technology (IT) sector. Obviously, much progress in e- commerce cannot be achieved until the country’s vast rural sector is not brought within the folds of internet. Hence, hitherto untouched rural sector by Internet so far offers a great potential for e-commerce in India. The former US P resident, Bill Clinton during his visit to India in March 2000 also hailed India’s remarkable progress in IT sector and also remarked that India has the potential to become the world’s largest economy using the power of Internet.  It is a matter of great satisfaction that today India is the fifth largest market in the world in terms of purchasing power. About 8 per cent of India’s population has a per capita income exceeding US$ 3,500 which is 80 million people. In nutshell, e-commerce has set in but much is yet to be tapped in this respect in the country.   Mobile Commerce is the subset of e-commerce, which includes all e- commerce transactions, carried out using a mobile (hand held) device. This paper deals with the relevance and potential role that m-commerce can play in the development of business environment. Today, in India, there are more than 76 cores mobile users available. It is also increasing day by day Therefore, mobile commerce has very vital role in modern business. In the today s technology world, we can say that, without mobile, we could not live comfortably. Similarly, in business, without mobile commerce, it is impossible to survive in the competitive commerce world. Mobile commerce was born in 1997 when the first two mobile-phones enabled Coca Cola vending machines were installed in the Helsinki area in Finland. The machines accepted payment via SMS text messages. The first mobile  phone-based banking service was launched in 1997 by Merita Bank of Finland, also using SMS. In 1998, the first sales of digital content as downloads to mobile phones were made possible when the first commercial downloadable ringtones were launched in Finland by Radiolinja. Two major national commercial platforms for mobile commerce were launched in 1999: Smart Money in the Philippines, and NTT DoCoMo's i-Mode Internet service in Japan. I-Mode offered a revolutionary revenue-sharing plan where NTT DoCoMo kept 9 percent of the fee users paid for content, and returned 91 percent to the content owner. Mobile-commerce-related services spread rapidly in early 2000. Norway launched mobile parking payments. Austria offered train ticketing via mobile device. Japan offered mobile purchases of airline tickets. The first conference dedicated to mobile commerce was held in London in July 2001. The first book to cover mobile commerce was Tomi Ahonen's M-profits in 2002. The first university short course to discuss mobile commerce was held at the University of Oxford in 2003, with Tomi Ahonen and Steve Jones lecturing. As of 2008, UCL Computer Science and Peter J. Bentley demonstrated the potential for medical applications on mobile devices. Q.2 What are the factors influencing success of E-Commerce? E Commerce is always been a never ending race to earn and retain Consumers. To be successful and profitable you need to continuously improve your Consumer’s Experience of Online Shopping. But Business Owners must need to understand the focus factors, areas where if they concentrate can convert a Visitor into a Buyer. The most important factor (56%) for influencing a Visitor into a Buyer is the Quality Products and Quality Information. Being a Business Owner you need to identify the products which are popular in: Different Geographic/Regions Different Occasions Different Culture Promoting/Selling Good Quality Products and at right time are the key to success.Product Description (Long/Short), Specifications, Demo Videos, PDF Catalog (If it’s machinery) all influence to consumer’s purchase decision, and well representation means better results. If you are targeting Europe/Americas, better to have Multi Lingual Product Description. With a contribution of almost 49%, Free Shipping is the second largest factor in influencing eCommerce Consumer’s Purchase Decision. Free Shipping often attracts customers who purchase very often from Online Shops, it is to them Shipping Costs matters most and Free Shipping can retain these customers for a long time. You can add a fraction of these shipping costs into basic Product Price, but remember your price need to be competitive too.  Defined and Easy return policy contributes 35% and the third largest factor in influencing Buying Decision. Return Policy need to be well written in a very simple language, really helpful if it’s in favor of the Consumers. It’s a must have if you are selling Apparels and Electronic Goods/Computer Accessories, if you are selling Bike/Auto Parts. In a business where faulty goods can often appear or size of the product can mismatch, Easy Return Policy makes the consumer feel more trust to your website and brand. Fourth Largest factor with almost 33% importance in influencing Buying Decision, Customer Reviews often proved to be a good source depicting the trial results. Award Consumers with Free Gifts who post positive reviews, resolve the problems of products for consumers who  post negative reviews, both will encourage them to most regular reviews and this motivation will  provide you positive results for sure. E-commerce needs good marketing efforts such as sales promotion and advertisement to introduce their websites to consumers. Additionally, after sales service is necessary to maintain customer satisfaction. When clients are satisfied with the quality of the services, they are more likely to be loyal to products or services of that particular website. Despite the fact that the sellers and buyers do not actually meet and there is no proof of authentication, effective after sales service helps businesses sustain customer trust and satisfaction. Besides, good targeting and expansion to new markets are indispensable for the growth of e-businesses.Doing business via the Internet frequently involves the transport of goods to customers at distant locations or in foreign countries. Consequently, the entrepreneurs will have to consider the importance of packaging and transporting their products. Research indicates that B2C e-commerce will be more successful if the company can deliver the products in perfect shape and in a timely manner. Other websites management includes human resource management and organizational restructuring. Website owners will not fully benefit from e-commerce unless they have an appropriate structure to deal with the changing way of doing business. It is also necessary that their employees learn management know-how and how to give the best service to their clients. E-commerce owners might want to have business alliance in order to reduce their management costs. An external factor that can promote the long- term growth of e-commerce is the favourable policy of the government to support online business and consumer’s protection . Government supports are among the most crucial forces affecting adoption of electronic commerce by consumers. The government can greatly contribute to e-commerce by the implementation of such facilitating measures and regulations as legal infrastructure, consumer protection, taxation and other laws concerning e-commerce. Q-3 What is organisational culture? An organization is nothing but a common platform where individuals from different backgrounds come together and work as a collective unit to achieve certain objectives and targets. The word organization derived from the Greek work “organon” is a set up where people join hands to earn a living for themselves as well as earn profits for the company. An organization consists of individuals with different specializations, educational qualifications and work experiences all working towards a common goal. Here the people are termed as employees. The employees are the major assets of an organization and contribute effectively in its successful functioning. It is essential for the employees to be loyal towards their organization and strive hard in furthering its brand image. An organization can’t survive if the employees are not at all serious
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