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         P     a     g     e       1       3 IMPORTANT!!!  DO, DOES, DID + bare infinitiveTags:  emphasis  infinitive   past    present   simple The auxiliary verbs do, does  and did   are followed by the bare infinitive to  form negative and interrogative sentences in the past simple and present simple tenses: Do  you  take  any vitamins?He doesn't live  here any more. Did you ask  the shop assistant?  Do, does  and did can also be used in affirmative sentences to express emphasis: I do know  what you mean.He does travel  a lot.I did want  to write, but I forgot . Cleft sentencesTags:  clausesit + be + phrase + defining relative clauseCleft sentences (also called it -clefts) result from changing the normalsentence pattern to emphasise a particular piece of information. The emphasis in the resulting cleft sentence is on the phrase after it + be. Look at the following example:  János Irinyi  invented  the non-explosive match in 1836. We can transform this sentence in different ways depending on which part of it we want to bring into focus: It was  János Irinyi  who / that  invented the non-explosive match in 1836. It was the non-explosive match which/that /(-) János Irinyi invented in 1836. It was 1836 when  János Irinyi invented the non-explosive match. 1         P     a     g     e       1       3  In the clauses that follow it + be + phrase    , we can use the same relative pronouns ( who, whom, whose, which, that    ) and relative adverbs (where, when, why    ) that we normally use in defining relative clauses. However, if we bring a whole adverbial phrase into focus, we use that: It was  in 1836 that János Irinyi invented the non-explosive match.  If we use a personal pronoun after it + be, it will be in the object  form: It was him who  invented the non-explosive match in 1836.  It is also possible to expand the phrase in focus with a non-defining relative clause: It was János Irinyi, who was  a Hungarian chemist, that   invented the non-explosive match in 1836. what-clause + be + phrase Pseudo-cleft sentences (also called wh -clefts) are similar in function to cleft sentences, but they are formed with the pronoun what (= the thing(s) that/which). The emphasis in a pseudo-cleft sentence is on the phrase after the what -clause + be :  What  you need is a good sleep.  What I didn't like was the end of the movie.What changed his mind was a book he'd read.I  f we want to refer to a person, we say The person/people who/that: The people who/that  I met were members of the delegation.If we want to emphasise an action, the verb after be usually takes the form that corresponds to the form used in the what-clause:  What you should do is  write a letter to the manager.What I need to do is get some rest. What they were doing was arguing about which train to take.What I can do is call for a taxi.  In the following examples, the verb after be takes the form that the verb in the what-clause is normally followed by: 2         P     a     g     e       1       3 What I want is  to sleep.  Future time clausesTags:  clauses  completion  duration  emphasis   future   point in time   present  In time clauses that refer to future time (clauses with if, when, after, before, as soon as, once, until, while etc.) we use the present tenses: Say hi from me if you see him. (present simple)Will you wait for me until I get back? (present simple)As soon as I arrive, I'll give you a call. (present simple) You can play in the garden when you have finished your homework. (present perfect)I'll be waiting outside while you are speaking to the doctor. (present continuous)  HARDLY, SCARCELY, BARELY, NO SOONERTags:  emphasis  inversion   past    perfect hardly / scarcely / barely ... whenno sooner ... thanWhen a story is told in the past tense, the adverbials hardly, scarcely, barely and no sooner are often used to emphasise that one event quickly followed another. The verb describing the earlier event is usually in the past perfect tense. If hardly, scarcely, barely and no sooner are in the initial position, the subject and auxiliary are inverted: 3         P     a     g     e       1       3 Hardly had I arrived  home when my phone rang. (I had hardly arrived home when my phone rang.) Scarcely had she finished reading    when  she fell asleep. (She had scarcely finished reading when she fell asleep.)Barely had they won the match when the coach had a heart attack. (They had barely won the match when the coach had a heart attack.) No sooner had  the company launched its new product than  it went bankrupt. (The company had no sooner launched its new product than it went bankrupt.)Note that hardly, scarcely and barely are followed by when, while no sooner is followed by than. (Sooner is the comparative form of soon.) IF, EVEN IF, ONLY IF, AS LONG AS, PROVIDED, SUPPOSING, UNLESS, BUT FOR, IF NECESSARY, IF SO, IN CASE etc. Tags:  clauses  conditionals  emphasis  inversion  IF IF and WHEN When  can replace if   in zero conditionals: If  you heat water to 100 degrees Celsius, it boils.  When  you heat water to 100 degrees Celsius, it boils.In the other types of conditionals, we cannot use when  instead of if  . EVEN IF Even if   emphasises that something will happen, would happen or would have happened whatever the condition: Even if we leave right now , we still won't catch the train.I wouldn't go into the water even if I could swim . Even if we had booked our flight earlier , it wouldn't have been cheaper. ONLY IF Only if   makes the condition more restrictive:  Acetaminophen is dangerous to children only if   dosage is too high. 4
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