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Challenges of water services in the favelas of Sao Paulo

Challenges of water services in the favelas of Sao Paulo Content Brazil and São Paulo Sanitation History in Brazil The favelas Water issues in the favelas Solutions Conclusion Brazil and São Paulo Population
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Challenges of water services in the favelas of Sao Paulo Content Brazil and São Paulo Sanitation History in Brazil The favelas Water issues in the favelas Solutions Conclusion Brazil and São Paulo Population is concentrated in urban areas: 1/3 of Brazil s population lives in 9 cities (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Salvador de Bahia, Porto Alegre, Recife, Fortaleza, Belém e Curitiba) municipalities in Brasil, 645 in the state of São Paulo 17,5 Mio. habitants live in São Paulo and its suburbs The greater metropolitan area responds for 45,7% of the GNP of the state of Sao Paulo and 16,7% of Brasil Water stress in the São Paulo region (demand as a percentage of total supply) Sanitation History in Brazil First project in 1783: Aqueduct called Arcos da Lapa, in Rio de Janeiro During the 19 th Century: concession to foreign companies 20 th Century: nationalization of the services due to their bad quality 50 s and 60 s: creation of the mixed capital companies 70 s: Militar Dictatorship, decisions centralization 1971: PLANASA and CESB s 90 s: Crisis of the CESB s Model - tendency: participation of private companies, that start to substitute the CESB s Dominant model of water Water supply services in Brazil 71% of the municipalities (3921 municipalities) have delegated the service to Federate States Companies (CESBs) 28% of municipalities manage the service themselves 1% of municipalities have given a concession (complete or partial) of services to private companies. Waste water treatment 84,5% of municipalities manage it directly or they do not have one. 14,5% of municipalities have delegated the service to Federate States Companies (CESBs) 1% of municipalities have let the services to private companies. Evolution of Drinking Water Access ratio in Brazil Indicadores water supply. urban housing distribution network 60,5 79,2 86,3 89,8. rural housing distribution network 2,6 5,0 9,3 18,1 waste water treatment.urban housing collection network 22,2 37,0 47,9 56,0.urban housing septic tanks 25,3 22,9 20,9 16,0.rural housing collection network 0,45 1,4 3,7 3,3.rural housing septic tanks 3,2 7,2 14,4 9,6 Fonte: IBGE, Censos Demográficos 1970, 1980, 1990 e 2000. Access to urban water supply and sewage collection in selected metropolitan areas Geographic region Sewage collection 1992 Sewage collection 2006 Metropolitan area % urban households % urban households Belo Horizonte Southeast São Paulo Southeast Salvador Northeast Rio de Janeiro Southeast Curitiba South Fortaleza Northeast Recife Northeast Porto Alegre South Belém North Recent Data of São Paulo- SABESP (2009) Population served 26,7 millions Municipalities served 365 Water supply in urban areas 99% Sewage collection in urban areas 80% Sewage Treatment 75% The favelas The dimensions Over 2,5 million habitants in precarious dwellings: without urbanization and constructed by the owners Today, about 20% of the municipal area is occupied illegally A third of illegal settlements is in protected areas of manacial, affecting the quality of water that supplies the city The favelas The situation Large population growth Poor infrastructure Surrounded by the public network but even so deprived of water supply Only 50% of the favelados have access to an inhouse toilet facility Water issues in the favelas Water supply Before the 70`s, the favelas had no running water at all Access to open water sources is often difficult and implies long waiting times Collection of rainwater in wood gallons emerged a parallel market Access through tapping into water main pipes In the 70 s/80 s the government launched programs that target water systems for some favelas The sewage system Sewerage runs through open ditches Contamination of the groundwater, which is often used as water source The situation worsens during rainy days, when the floods mix with waste water Floods and deseases Increasing number of floods because of increasing impermeability of the soil Floods transmit diseases to the riverside populations The most common desaese is leptospirosis, transmitted through the urine of rats Solutions urbanization of favelas (needs huge investments and participation of the local population) World Bank project in Jardim Souza Favela, 2007 Solutions Protection of areas near to water sources Increase percentage of treated waste water illegal occupation depollution of the rivers environmental awareness building Flotation System in the Pinheros River Conclusions We can give run water to favelas but this will cause a investment recovery problem if people remain illiteracy and unemployed because they will not be able to pay their bills. Therefore, a social policy is strongly recommended to be applied simultaneously. There is not going to be a real generation of water services in favelas without the economic collaboration of the middle class. References Bittencourt, Alceu: Water and Sewerage Services in low-income Urban Areas in Brazil. Washington, 2007 Lanegran, David: Favelas (lecture). St. Paul Moura de Santa Inez, José Ronal: Les transformations des pratiques de l eau et d assainissement des favelados de São Paulo. Paris, 1985 Ana Lucia Britto : Gouvernance de l eau dans les métropoles brésiliennes: nouvelles perspectives de coopération interinstitutionnelle Porto, Monica: Relações entre Água e as Favelas (habitações subnormais) nas Grandes Cidades Thank you for your attention Merci pour votre attention Questions?
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