Chapter II

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   POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES Review on Related Literature | 10 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter discusses local and foreign literatures and studies which the researchers found relevant to the study. This is a compilation of gathered facts and information from different sources and references such as books, journals, and articles from the Internet. This reviews are systematically presented and used the APA style of writing, which is also called the author-date method of parenthetical documentation, since this method is convenient and more practical to use.   FOREIGN LITERATURE   According to Rahane and Saharkar (2014), from a study entitled Traffic Congestion  –  causes and solutions: a study of Talegaon Dabhade City, there is no single broadly accepted definition of traffic congestion. One of the principal reasons for the lack of consensus is that congestion is: a physical phenomenon relating to the manner in which vehicles impede each other’s progression as dem and for limited road space approaches full capacity.  According to Behrisch, Bieker, Erdmann and Krajzeweiz (2011) from the study on SUMO - Simulation of Urban Mobility (SUMO), when trying to improve traffic, a valid model to work with is needed. Although some people may assume traffic can be described by departure times and routes with certain durations, traffic is highly conditioned by an individual’s private wish for mobilit y  –  making up around 60% of traffic  –  and due to this, neither departure times nor fixed and earlier known routes are available. This is a great problem for modelling traffic itself especially that private transit leads to an impossibility of describing traffic by the use of mathematical formulas. Both, a modern human being’s wishes to leave and arrive at certain places and at certain times on the one hand, and the movement of the vehicle on the street on the other, influence traffic and one another: the st reet network’s work load depends on the drivers’ departure times and determines the speed of movement. Vice versa the load affects the departure times of the drivers’ as they wish to move fast and arrive at a certain time.     POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES Review on Related Literature | 11 Without traffic surveillance, nothing but fixed time control on intersections can be implemented. Various plans for different time of day or special events can be designed and optimized offline (Gazis and Potts, 1963). FOREIGN STUDY In the study on Introduction to Simulation (Ingalls, 2008), if simulation is understood and properly used it can be a powerful tool. Moreover from Ingalls (2008), as cited by Shannon (1975), “the process of designing a model of real system and conducting experiments with his model for purpose either of understanding the behavior of system or of evaluating various strategies (within the limits imposed by a criterion or set of criteria) for the operation of the system .”  This means simulation can be a discrete- event.  According to Raheen, Olawoore, Olagunju, and Adeokun (2015) on their study on the Effects and Possible Solution to Traffic Congestion on Nigeria Roads, during the reign of Roman Empire, roads are important means of transportation, romans use roads effectively compared to the existing usage of trail whereby ox, man, chariot, camel, and bull were used as major carrier in road transportation. But when motor vehicle invented, roads were no longer meant for pedestrians, chariots and animals. This invention called for improvement of the state of the roads, which led to increase speed and danger to road users. This the called a proper construction and control of traffic to increase efficiency of the roads in traffic performance. Moreover, demand of highway travel increases rapidly as the population grow, particularly in urban areas. The construction on new highways to accommodate the growth of travel has not kept the pace. When traffic demand approaches exceed to the available capacity of the road system, it result to a traffic congestion.  As stated on Traffic Volume study of Nuzhat Nueey Haque, Sachari Halder, Md.  Aminul Islam, Rana Nag, Md. Ridwan Bin Alam, Md. and Mehedi Hassan (2015) Transportation is key to brighter future, nowadays every country have their own way to   POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES Review on Related Literature | 12 deal with their needs and to solve the transportation problems within their capabilities. In building design, we need to calculate the reinforcements through determining the loads coming from the structure to provide for safe and functioning structures. Here in transportation volume place the same function. Volume is the main requirement for planning designing road transportation system. It is simply the volume of vehicle traveling from one section of a given road or traffic lane per unit of time. Calculating the volume is great importance for a smoot functioning transportation system. In a study on Road Traffic Congestion in Developing World (Vipin Jain, Ashley Sharma, Lakshminarayanan, 2012) , “c ities throughout the world have found themselves at the brink of massive traffic explosion, hence curtailing their ability to manage traffic. The situation has worsened for developing regions due to the following reasons: Unplanned cities:  Roads tend to be narrow and poorly built. As cities grow in an ad-hoc manner, no provision is made towards scaling road capacities, eventually resulting into several bottleneck roads, which remain congested for extended periods of time. Furthermore, many developing countries have witnessed an explosive growth in their vehicular population resulting in a failure of conventional traffic management strategies.   Poor discipline:   Drivers often are not trained sufficiently to follow lane discipline. The impact of poor lane disciplin e, especially at traffic junctions, deteriorates the already overcrowded junction situation. Furthermore, drivers frequently jump red light sand block the intersection, causing further traffic congestion. These problems are compounded by the fact that traffic  law enforcement is poor, thereby providing no incentive for drivers to follow the rules.  Alternate traffic means:  Countries with fast growing economies have witnessed a surge in the number of vehicles across major cities. These cities seldom have efficient  mass transit systems, forcing people cooperate private vehicles. This problem is compounded by the social stigma, where people view   POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES Review on Related Literature | 13 operating a private vehicle as a sign of prosperity, while public transport is viewed as being used by the lower echelons of society.  Archaic management:   Traffic junctions are often unmanned, thereby allowing drivers to drive in a chaotic manner. Even if a junction is controlled by a cop or a traffic light, the traffic junctions are largely independent of any traffic management s trategy, only optimizing the respective junction traffic flow, in the direction of maximum traffic build up. Furthermore, these approaches enhances traffic mismanagement in already congested roads, ac celerating congestion collapse Tighter budgets:    A significan t amount of investment is required to set up a traffic management infrastructure which can scale with the increasing traffic. Such an infrastructure not only involves measuring and analyzing real- time traffic data but also focuses towards enhancing congestion detection, solving real time congestion and forecasting congestion scenarios. In developing countries, ravaged by corruption and bureaucracy, there are multiple hurdles before the money actually progresses towards such large initiatives. In addition, according to Xu, Xi, Li and Zhou from their study, Traffic Signal Control based on Markov Decision Process (2002), t raffic congestion is a stringent issue in modern society due to increasing population and economic activity, which motivates the requirement for better utilization of the existing infrastructures and for efficiently control of the traffic flow. Among all the measures, traffic signal control is a major component whose enhancement is the most efficient way to reduce the traffic congestion. Vehicle-to-Vehicle communications provide the opportunity to create an internet of cars through the recent advances in communication technologies, processing power, and sensing technologies. A connected vehicle receives real-time information from surrounding vehicles; such inf  ormation can improve drivers’ awareness about their surrounding traffic condition and lead to safer and more efficient driving maneuvers.


Oct 7, 2019

Reverse osmosis

Oct 7, 2019
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