Recruiting & HR

Characterizing Global Value Chains

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Chaacezg Global ale Cha Zh Wag, Ued Sae Ieaoal Tade Commo Shag-J We, a Deelopme ba Xdg ad Kf Zh, Uey of Ieaoal e ad Ecoomc, Cha (Daf fo comme) Th eo: ach 6, 2016 bac Sce he exe of offhog ad podco hag ae
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Chaacezg Global ale Cha Zh Wag, Ued Sae Ieaoal Tade Commo Shag-J We, a Deelopme ba Xdg ad Kf Zh, Uey of Ieaoal e ad Ecoomc, Cha (Daf fo comme) Th eo: ach 6, 2016 bac Sce he exe of offhog ad podco hag ae by eco ad coy, we deelop meae of GC em of legh, ey, ad podco le poo of pacpao a he coy-eco, ad blaeal-eco leel, ad dgh amog pe domec, decly aded, ad decly aded podco ace. Ug hee meae, we chaaceze co-coy podco hag pae ad GC elaed ade ace fo 35 eco ad 40 coe oe 17 yea. We fd ha he podco cha fo he wold a a whole ha become loge. Whle he elae ag of he legh a he eco leel able aco coe, he aeage legh fo a ge coy-eco, of boh he domec ad eaoal compoe, ad he pacpao ad poo GC geeal, do eole gfcaly oe me. The el cobe o a bee deadg of Chaace of global ale cha ad pae of pacpao by ddal coy-eco. Key Wod: Podco legh, Poo ad Pacpao Global ale Cha JE Nmbe: F1, F6 The ew he pape ae hoe of he aho ad do o ecealy eflec he ew ad polce of he a Deelopme a o oad of Goeo o he goeme hey epee, he USITC ad Commoe, o ay ohe ogazao ha he aho ae afflaed wh. Zh Wag acowledge he eeach ad facal ppo by Safod Cee fo Ieaoal Deelopme whe he wa g hee Spg 1. Iodco The emegece of global ale cha (GC) ha chaged he pae of eaoal ade ece decade. Dffee age of podco ow ae ofe codced by mlple podce locaed eeal coe, wh pa ad compoe cog aoal bode mlple me. Whle he defcecy (.e., de o ade emedae) of offcal ade ac a a decpo of e ade pae ha bee well ecogzed, meae of global ale cha baed o eqeal podco ae ll de deelopme. ale cha epee ale added a ao age of podco, whch fom he al phae ch a R&D ad deg o he deley of he fal podc o come. ale cha ca be aoal f all age of podco occ wh a coy, o global f dffee age ae place dffee coe. I pacce, mo podc o ece ae podced by a global ale cha. Podco legh, a a bac meae of GC, defed a he mbe of age a ale cha, eflecg he complexy of he podco poce. a e al. (2012) belee ha ch a meae of elae podco-le poo f ad foemo he qaae dcao eceay o ae pecalzao pae of coe elaely peam e doweam age of global podco pocee. The peame ad doweame dexe dced ece leae (ee alo lle ad Temhoe, 2015) ae mecal emae baed o podco legh o meae a eco/coy poo a global podco poce. Fally (2012) popoe wo meae, dace o fal demad,.e., he aeage mbe of age bewee podco ad fal compo, ad he aeage mbe of podco age emboded each podc o qafy he legh of podco cha. The f meae, alo efeed o a peame he leae fhe decbed a e al. (2012); he ecod meae, alo efeed o a doweame he leae fhe exploed a ad Cho (2013). Howee, hee ae wo commo cocepal caea fo hee meae dced peo leae: f, hey all a fom a eco go op, whch clde o oly fal good ad ece, b alo emedae p. aged by E (2005, 2007), a podco cha m a fom he eco pmay p (o ale added) ch a labo ad capal, o 2 go op. 1 Secod, ce peame ad doweame meae do o mply each ohe, ad may dcae coe podco le poo fo he ame coy/dy pa. Theefoe, h pape we defe podco legh a he dace fom pmay p o fal podc. We how ha dexe bl o ch defo ae moe coe ad wh bee ecoomc epeao. We demoae ha he aeage podco legh of ay ale cha alway eqal he ao of he poo of go op ad he coepodg ale-added ha dce he op. o mpoaly, baed o he go ade accog famewo popoed by Koopma, Wag, ad We (o be beqely ced a KWW, 2014) ad Wag, We, ad Zh (o be beqely ced a WWZ, 2013), we fhe pl he oal podco legh o a pe domec egme, a egme elaed o dec ale-added ade, ad a egme elaed o GC ha eflec deepe co coy podco hag ace. Th allow o defe he GC podco legh moe clealy fo he f me he leae. We how ha hee a cocepal dffeece bewee podco legh meae ad podco le poo meae. Oce we defe he podco legh by egme a he blaeal ad eco leel, dexe epeeg a coy-eco poo o a GC ca be ealy coced a ao leel of daggegao. Wh h, we ca gage whehe a coy o a dy lely o be locaed he peam o doweam pa of a pacla global ale cha. We alo modfy he global ale cha pacpao dex defed by Koopma e al. (2010), edefg boh he fowad ad bacwad dal lage baed pacpao dexe by codeg o oly expo podco b alo podco ha afe domec fal demad hogh eaoal ade. We apply hee ew meae o he ecely aalable Ie Coy Ip Op (ICIO) daabae ad oba ome eeg el. We how ha Fally el o he legheg of podco cha o globally epeeae. oe pecely, h ma empcal el ha he podco cha ha become hoe, ad h ma hypohe ha ale-added ha gadally hfed owad he doweam age, cloe o he fal come, ae boh qe o he US p-op able. We oe h el wh o ewly defed GC podco legh dex 1 I mpoa o bea md ha go op ae edogeo aable, whle pmay p ad fal demad ae exogeo aable he adad eoef model. Coeg go op (go expo ae pa of ) o fal demad he ey echcal ep o eablhg he go ade accog famewo boh Koopma, Wag, ad We (2014) ad Wag, We, ad Zh (2013). 3 ad global ICIO daabae. F, we how ha emegg ecoome le Cha hae a gadal legheg of he oeall podco cha ad he legheg of podco by hee coe domae hoeg of podco by ohe, o ha he wold a a whole expeece a legheg of he podco poce. Secod, we decompoe chage oal podco legh o chage he pe domec egme, chage he egme elaed o dec ale-added ade, ad chage he egme elaed o global ale cha. y fhe epaag he podco legh of GC o domec ad eaoal egme, we how ha he ao of eaoal podco legh e oal podco legh of GC ha ceaed fo all coe. Thd, we how ha all coe he wold ceaed he GC pacpao dg d fally, we e he hee ype of ewly defed GC dexe a explaaoy aable o aalyze he ole GC hae played amg ecoomc hoc he ece global facal c ad fd ha a coy/eco GC poo ha gfca mpac. The fhe he coy/eco pa locaed fom he fal compo ed, he lee he mpac of he global ecoomc hoc. I addo, he mpac of he facal c ceae wh he legh of he eaoal poo of he elea global ale cha. KWW ad WWZ hae peeed a complee go ade accog famewo a he coy, blaeal, eco, ad blaeal-eco leel. Whle he accog exece codced he wo pape pode efl ew meae of podco hag ad co bode ade, he deema ad coeqece of podco hag ad hee doble coed compoe ae o addeed. To mae he decompoo efl fo ecoomc aaly, a mpoa f ep o coc ao dexe ha ca meae a coy/dy poo ad pacpao GC ad yemcally ag all coy/dy pa aalable ICIO daabae ad ecoomecally dyg he deemae of hee dexe oe me a gded by ecoomc heoy. The GC podco legh, poo ad pacpao dexe defed h pape ae pa of o effo h deco. The e of he pape ogazed a follow: Seco 2 fomally defe he GC podco legh, poo ad pacpao dexe; Seco 3 epo majo empcal el baed o WIOD; ad Seco 4 exploe he mplcao of o fdg ad coclde. 2. egh of Podco Cha ad GC Poo ad Pacpao Idexe 4 2.1 The legh of podco cha a cloed ecoomy e f defe he podco legh meae a N-eco cloed ecoomy. Table 1 Ip-Op able a cloed ecoomy Iemedae Ue Fal e Op Toal (Compo ad Ip 1, 2,, Op Capal Fomao) 1 N Iemedae 2 Ip Z X ale-added a Toal p X whee X deoe he go op eco, deoe he fal good eco, Z deoe he emedae good flow max, a deoe he ale added eco, ad deoe max apoe opeao. I he eoef model (eoef, 1936), he p coeffce max ca be defed a = ZX 1, whee X deoe a dagoal max wh he op eco X dagoal. The ale added coeffce eco ca be defed a = ax 1. Fom he op de, go op ca be pl o emedae good ad fal good, X + = X. Reaagg em, we ca each he clacal eoef eqao, X =, whee = (I ) 1 he well-ow eoef ee max. The ale added ad fal podc ae led by he followg eqao: a = X =. I obo ha pmay p (ale added) of eco oly ca be decly emboded fal podc of eco j f eco ad eco j ae he ame. Theefoe, he f age of ay podco poce, he ale added of eco emboded fal podc of eco j ca be qafed a δ j y j, whee δ j a dmmy aable. If ad j ae he ame, δ j eqal 1, ohewe eqal 0. h age, he legh of he podco cha 1. 5 I he ecod age, he ale added of eco decly emboded go op ha ed a emedae o podce fal podc of eco j ca be meaed a a j y j, whch he ale added of eco he f od dec ale-added emboded fal podc of eco j. Up o h age, he legh of he podco cha 2. The dec ale added fom eco ca be emboded emedae good fom ay eco. I he hd age, he ale added of eco decly emboded go op ha ed a emedae all eco o podce he go op whch ae ed a emedae o podce fal good of eco j ca be meaed a a a j y j. Th he ecod od dec ale-added fom eco emboded emedae good ad abobed by fal good of eco j. h age, he legh of he podco cha 3. The ame goe fo he cceedg age. Geealzg he aboe poce o clde all od of ale-added eco decly ad decly emboded fal good of eco j, we oba he followg: 1, j j y j aj y j aaj y j... j (1) 0, j Expeg (1) max oao = (I ) = (I ) 1 = (2) The eleme of ow ad colm j he max a he gh de of eqao (2), b j y j, he oal ale added of eco emboded he fal good of eco j. Ug he legh of each age a wegh ad mmg aco all podco age, we oba he followg eqao ha ge he legh of a pacla podco cha (eco o eco j): = (I ) = ( ) = (3) I cape he foop of eco ale added each podco age. The eleme of ow ad colm j he max a he gh de of eqao (3) b b j y j. Ddg by b j y j, he aeage legh of ale added fom eco emboded he fal good of eco j ca be comped a: 6 yl j b b j b y j j y j b b j b j 1 ( bj ) bbj (4) Reaagg eqao (4) ge: yl j * bj bbj (5) Deog ={yl j }x a he max of podco legh fom ale added o fal good, eqao (5) ca be expeed max oao a # = (6) whee # a eleme-we max mlplcao opeao, 2 a by max of podco legh. The dealed deao ge ppedx. ggegag eqao (4) oe all podc j, we oba he oal podco legh of ale added geeaed eco,.e., he podco legh meae baed o fowad dal lage: l x j 1 j b j b b b y j j y y j x b b j 1 b j b x j b b b j y y j (7) whee b y x ad bj y j x j. Expeg max oao ge: = X 1 X = X 1 X (8) whee a 1 N eco wh all eleme eqal o 1. We defe he op coeffce max a H = X 1 Z, ad he fal podc coeffce eco a F = X 1 a Ghoh (1958). Fom he p de, go p ca be pl o emedae p ad ale added, X H + a = X. Reaagg em, we ca each he 2 Fo example, whe a max mlpled by a x1 colm eco, each ow of he max mlpled by he coepodg ow eleme of he eco. 7 clacal Ghoh ee eqao, X = ag, whee G = (I H) 1 he Ghoh ee max. The lage bewee ale added ad fal podc ca alo be expeed a: = X F = agf. I eay o dee he lage bewee he p ad op coeffce mace a: X 1 X = X 1 Z = H. Smlaly, he lage bewee he eoef ee ad he Ghoh ee mace ae: X 1 X = X 1 (I ) 1 X = [X 1 (I )X ] 1 = (1 X 1 X ) 1 = (1 H) 1 = G (9) aed o eqao (9), we ca fhe mplfy fom (8) a = X 1 X = X 1 X = G (10) I he m alog he ow of he Ghoh ee max, whch eqal he oal ale of go op ha ae elaed o oe of ale added ceaed by pmay p fom a pacla eco. Theefoe, eqao (10) meae oal go op dced by oe of ale added a he eco leel, whch ae he foop of each eco ale added he ecoomy a a whole. The loge he podco cha, he geae he mbe of doweam podco age a eco ale added coed he ecoomy. Th mea ha pmay p of he eco ae moe o he peam de of he podco cha. To bee dead h po, le e he dagoal max of ecoal ale added o mlply wh, obag: a = a X 1 X = X = X + X + X + X + (11) I h eleme eqal a l a x 1 b x b x x a x j a j a j x... O he gh de of eqao (11), he f em he ale added decly emboded ow eco op, ad we may ame a he foop of he eco ale added ow eco go op; he ecod em he ale added emboded ow eco go op ed by all eco a emedae o podce op, ad we may ame a he foop of he eco ale added decly ad decly emboded oal go op of h ecod age podco poce. Smmg p all em o he gh had de of (11), we oba foop of eco ale added he whole ecoomy, whch eqal he oal ale of go op ha elae o he eco 8 ale added ceaed by pmay p fom a pacla eco. Theefoe, eqao (11) alo ca be we a 3 a = a X 1 X = X = X = X whee X he go op dced by eco ale added. Theefoe, he aeage podco legh of eco baed o fowad dal lage eqal he ao of eco ale added dced oal go op he whole ecoomy ad he eco ale-added. Ug he hae of ecoal ale added GDP a wegh o aggegae eqao (11) oe all eco, we oba: (ax 1 X ) (a) = (X) GDP = (X) GDP (12) whee ax 1 =, X = X ad =. Eqao (12) dcae ha he aeage legh of he podco cha a cloed ecoomy eqal he ao of oal go op o GDP, 4 whch ca be egaded a a fom of complexy of he podco poce he ecoomy,.e., he hghe h ao, he moe complex he ecoomy. ggegag eqao (4) oe ale-added fom all eco ha hae cobed o he fal good ad ece podced by eco j, we oba he podco legh meae baed o bacwad dal lage a: whee b bj bj y j yl j bbj b (13) j bj bj y j b j b 1. Expeg max oao = (14) Th he m alog he colm of he eoef ee max, whch eqal he oal ale of p dced by a of fal podc podced a pacla eco. Theefoe, eqao (13) meae oal emedae p dced by a ale of a pacla fal podc 3 Pleae oe ha X = X ad X = X. They ae he ow ad colm m of he GN by GN max X, epecely. I ow m he go op (aco dffee de he whole ecoomy) dced by a pacla eco ale-added; colm m he go op wh ale-added emboded fom eey eco he ecoomy. Theefoe X doe o eqal X a he eco leel, b eqal each ohe a he aggegae. 4 Th alo ecogzed by Fally (2012). 9 hogho all peam eco he ecoomy, whch called he foop of fal good ad ece he leae. The loge he podco cha, he geae he mbe of peam podco age a pacla fal podc coed he ecoomy, he moe o he doweam he podc ae locaed. Ug he ecoal ao of fal good o GDP a wegh o aggegae eqao (13) oe all eco, we oba: ( ) () = () GDP = (X) GDP (15) whch ge he ame go op o GDP ao a eqao (12) ad heefoe ha he ame ecoomc epeao. I woh og ha he legh of a podco cha baed o fowad dal lage a expeed eqao (10) mahemacally eqale o he peame dex defed by Fally (2012a, 2012b, 2013) ad a e al. (2012, 2013); 5 O he ohe had, he legh of a podco cha baed o bacwad dal lage expeed eqao (13) mahemacally eqale o he doweame dex defed by a ad Cho (2013). Howee, hee ae wo oable dffeece. F, mla o lle ad Temhoe (2013), we defe o peam o doweam dexe by he m of he ow/colm of he Ghoh/eoef ee mace epecely, whch ae mple mahemac ad ae pa of he clac p-op leae; Secod, ad mo mpoa, we meae a podco cha legh fom pmay p eco o fal podc of eco j, ag fom pmay p (ale added), o go op (a Fally ad a dd), ad pode ey clea ecoomc epeao fo boh he meao ad deomao he podco le poo dexe dced aboe. 2.2 The legh of podco cha wh ad aco aoal bode e ow expad he cloed-ecoomy model o a ICIO model. The ce wh coe ad N eco decbed by Table 2: 5 The poof poded ppedx. 10 Ip Iemedae Ip Op Table 2 Geeal Ie-Coy Ip-Op able 11 1 Z 21 2 Z Iemedae Ue Fal Demad Toal Op m Z Z m Z Z m 1 X 1 22 m 2 X 2 m1 Z m2 mm Z Z m1 m2 mm X m ale-added ( ) 1 ( 2 ) m ( ) Toal p ( ) X 1 ( X 2 ) m ( X ) whee Z a N N max of emedae p flow ha ae podced coy ad ed coy ; a N 1 eco gg fal podc podced coy ad comed coy ; X alo a N 1 eco gg go op coy ; ad deoe a N 1 eco of dec ale added coy. oh he p coeffce max = ZX 1 ad ale added coeffce eco = ax 1 ca be defed a mla way a dced he cloed ecoomy model Podco ace wh ad who co-coy podco hag aageme The go op podco ad e balace, o he ow balace codo of he ICIO able Table 2 ca be we a: X X X X E X E * (16) whee a N N domec p coeffce max of coy (bloc dagoal), a N N foeg p coeffce max of coy (bloc off dagoal), ad N 1 eco of oal go expo of coy. Reaagg he gh had de of (16) yeld X 1 1 * ( I ) ( I ) E (17) E * G E he Wh a fhe decompoo of go expo o expo of emedae/fal podc ad he fal deao of abopo, ca be how ha 11 ( I 1 ) E * ( X ), (18) 6 whee ee. ( I ) 1 he local eoef ee. ae bloc mace he global eoef Ieg (18) o (17) ad pe-mlplyg wh he dec ale-added dagoal max, we ca decompoe ale-added geeaed fom each dy/coy (GDP by dy) o dffee compoe: a X ( ) (1 D _ D) ( ) ( ) (1 D _ D), (3bD _ GC _ RD _ F ) ( (2D _ RT ) (2D _ RT ) ) E (3cD _ GC _ ) (3D _ GC ) (3aD _ GC _ ) X (19) Thee ae fe em h decompoo, each epeeg domec ale-added geeaed by he dy podco o afy dffee egme of he global mae. Thee domec ale-added o oal GDP coy ae geeaed fom he followg hee ype of podco ace: (1) Podco of domecally podced ad comed ale-added ( ). Th domec ale added o afy domec fal demad ha o elaed o eaoal ade, ad o co coy podco hag oled. We label a D_D fo ho. (2) Podco of decly aded ale-added, cldg ale-added emboded boh fal ad emedae good ad ece wh domec faco coe emboded hee expo 6 dealed mahemacal poof of eqao (18) poded ppedx C. 12 ha ae decly abobed by adg pae. D coe he bode oly oce, wh o dec expo a hd coe o e-expo oled. We label a D_RT fo ho. 7 (3) Podco of decly aded ale-added. I emboded emedae good ad ece expo ha he oce coy cobed o global ale cha. We label a D_GC fo ho. I meae he amo of domec ale added ha geeaed fom he podco of ch emedae expo egadle of whee hee ale-added ae fally abobed. I ca be fhe pl o hee caegoe accodg o he dffee fal deao of abopo: 3a. Idecly abobed by pae coy. ale-added emboded emedae expo o a hd coy ha ed o podce emedae o fal podc expo ha ae fally comed coy (.e., domec ale added o afy mpog coy fal demad decly, podco hag bewee he wo pae coe, ad, o bewee he mpog coy wh ohe hd coe, o amog,, ad hd coe, D_GC_); 3b. Reed (e-mpoed) o expog coy ad fally comed hee. ale-added emboded emedae expo ha ae ed by pae coy o podce ehe emedae o fal good ad ece ad hpped bac o he oce coy (pobly a hd coe he podco cha) a mpo ad comed hee (.e., domec ale-added o afy domec fal demad ha elaed o eaoal ade, podco hag bewee home ad foeg coe; D_GC_); 3c. Re-expoed o a hd coy ad fally comed hee. ale-added emboded emedae expo ha ed by pae coy o podce emedae p fo ow o ohe coe podco of fal good ad ece ha ae eeally e-expoed o hd coe (.e., domec ale added o afy a hd coy fal demad, podco hag amog a lea hee coe, D_GC_). Sch a doweam decompoo baed o fowad dal lage ccal o deadg he meae of eaoal podco legh o Podco egh of he Global ale Cha (PGC) ha we wll defe h pape. I meae he mbe of podco age he la hee pa of he domec ale-added wold ae o each he fal come a 7 o ad ac (2015) hae ecogzed he dffeece bewee (2) ad (3) ad efe o (2) a Rcada Tade. Howee, ce we dc ale-added ade ad o good ade hee, Rcada ade hold oly be efeed he ee ha h pa of ale-added coe bode oly oce a adoal good ade. They ae o exacly he ame, o aod cofo. 13 pacla coy/eco pa, cldg he home coy. Howee, exclde domec aleadded meaed by he f wo em of eqao (19) becae hoe podco ace ae accomplhed ehe compleely wh he aoal bodae o decly abobed by adg pae. Theefoe, hey ca be eaed a pe domec podco ace (he f em eqao (19)) ad podco ace elaed o dec ale-added ade (he ecod em eqao (19)), epecely. Noe ha we e he em GC elaed ade hee aowly o efe o ale added emedae good ha coe bode a lea wce. boade defo of global ale cha ade cold alo clde ay ale added embedded emedae good expo ee f hey co bode oly oce. Ideed, he boade defo of GC hold alo clde ome of he domec ale added expo ha ae embedded he fal good expo abobed aboad a log a he podco of he fal podc ole foeg ale added. Fo h dy, we decde o gop ale added emedae podc expo ha coe bode oly oce a pa of he dec ale-added ade o Rcada Tade he em ed by o ad ac (2015). Wh h, we eee he em GC elaed ade o ade ale added ha coe aoal bode a lea wce. Noe alo ha he mmao he la fo em dcae ha he domec ale-added geeaed by expo podco ca be fhe pl a he blaeal leel o each adg pae mae. The m of em 2, 3a, ad 3c ge he amo of ale-added expo a defed by Joho ad Negaa (2012), whch he oal (dec ad dec) domec ale added o afy foeg fal demad, whle he m of 1 ad 3b he oal domec ale-added o afy domec fal demad. Fally, he m of (2) ad (3) ge he meae domec ale-added (GDP) go expo a defed KWW ad WWZ, o D elaed podco ad ade ace o he mo boadly defed global ale cha. Th fowad-lage baed decompoo alo llaed Fge 1. 14 Fge 1 Decompoo of GDP by dy Whch ype of podco ad ade ace belog o global podco ewo? coy/eco oal ale-added (GDP by dy) I podco of fal podc o domec mae decly 1-D_D I podco of dec ale added expo 2-D_RT I podco of GC (dec) ale-added expo 3-D_GC I fal podc expo 2a-D_FIN I emedae decly abobed by dec mpoe 2b-D_INT_RT I emedae decly abobed by dec mpoe 3a.D_GC_ I emedae ha fally e o home coe 3b.D_GC_= RD_F I emedae e-expoed o hd coe 3c.D_GC_ egh of pe domec podco e f code he egme of domec ale added ha geeaed ad abobed by podco ace eely wh he coy a each age of podco. We ow fom eqao (19), a fe podco poce, domec ale added of coy emboded fal podc ha afy domec fal demad eqal D_ D ). ( Followg a mla logc a eqao (3) he cloed ecoomy,.e., g he legh of each podco age a wegh ad mmg p all podco age, we oba a eqao ha ge he podc of he ale-added ad domec podco legh a follow: X _ d (20) ( I ) ( I ) whee I... ( I ) 1 8 dealed mahemacal poof of eqao (20) poded ppedx D. 15 ecae podco ace ha geeae h pa of domec ale-added hae o elao wh co bode ade, we defe podco legh a ha of pe domec podco. I eqal he poo of go op of coy geeaed by he podco of he coy GDP who ay co-bode ade ace. Theefoe, he aeage pe domec podco legh of coy eqal he ao of h poo of go op o he coepodg domec ale added, ad ca be expeed a 9 P X _ d D_ d _ D (21) The podco legh of dec ale-added ade 10 e ow code he egme of domec ale added ha geeaed
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We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

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We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!

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