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  Chemistry   Study of matters and the changes they undergo Particles  Small portion of matter Particles Composing Matter   Molecules   Atoms   Ions   Molecules Atoms Ions    Composed of atoms    Togetherly bonded group of atoms    Smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction    Smallest particle    Smallest component of an element    Made up of subatomic particles    Electron    Proton    Neutron    Particles with charges    Molecule or atom with surplus or deficit of electrons relative to protons    Electron or proton    Elementary particles    Properties of Matter According to change involved during measurement of the property    Physical property -no change in composition takes place during the determination or measurement -melting of ice, evaporation of water    Chemical property -a change in composition occurs during the determination or measurement -rusting, digestion According to dependence on the amount of matter    Extensive property -change their value when the amount of matter or substance is changed -weight, volume    Intensive property -do not change their value when the amount of matter is changed -boiling point, density States of matter Particle Separation Particle Movement Examples solid Closely packed restricted motion Iron nail, sugar, ice liquid Far apart free movement Syrup, alcohol gas Very far apart very free movement air  Matter is classified based on the number of components present Pure substances are classified based on the number of kinds of atoms present    Elements -made up of only one kind of atoms -Iron, Gold, Mercury    Compounds -made up of two or more kinds of atoms -salt, sugar, water -composed of only one component -table sugar, table salt, distilled water, Oxygen gas (in tank) Mixtures are classified based on the uniformity of composition and properties    Homogeneous mixtures -has a uniform composition and exhibits the same properties in different parts of the mixture -rubbing alcohol, carbonated soft drink, human breathe    Heterogeneous mixtures -has a non-uniform composition and its properties vary in different parts of the mixture -mixture of water and oil, mixture of salt and pepper -composed of several components -iodized salt, brown sugar, soft drinks    Separation methods Filtration To separate a solid from a liquid in a heterogeneous mixture using a filtering membrane, like paper or cloth Distillation To separate a liquid in a homogenous mixture by continuous cycle of evaporation and condensation of the volatile components of the mixture, which have different boiling points Simple Distillation To recover water from an aqueous salt solution Magnetic separation To separate a magnetic solid from a heterogeneous mixture -salt from a mixture of iron and salt Decantation To separate a solid from a liquid in a heterogeneous mixture based on gravity Sublimation To separate a volatile solid from a non-volatile solid Sedimentation To allow the heavier particles to settle and suspend at the bottom of the container by stirring it Evaporation To separate a soluble solid from a liquid or solvent -salt from salt water Chromatography To separate and identify the components of a mixture by the different affinities of each component in a mixture for the stationary and mobile phases Series Separation -sedimentation  –  decantation  –  filtration -dissolution - decantation/filtration - evaporation
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