Chronographia - Michael Psellus

of 205
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
  Michael Psellus: Chronographia INTRODUCTION by Professor J.M. Hussey [p.1] PREFACE SOME three years ao I re! e#e$ a% e&'e((e%t ( tt(e !o(u)e #r tte% by ProfessorNor)a% *ay%es+ The He((e% st ' C ! ( ,at o% a%$ East Ro)e. I% t he )e%t o%sM 'hae( Pse((us-s fa)ous a%e'$ote about the *y,a%t %e S'(ere%a a%$ Co%sta%t %eI. *e % 'ur ous to /%o# )ore of Pse((us I bouht the *u$e e$ t o% a%$ rea$ theChro%oraph a % fu((. That s ho# th s tra%s(at o% #as bor%+ for t see)e$ to )e ap ty that E%( sh s'ho(ars #ho /%e# %o 0ree/ shou($ be $epr !e$ of theopportu% ty of rea$ % th s a$) rab(e #or/ % the r o#% (a%uae. Stu$e%ts of )e$ e!a( h story % part 'u(ar shou($ be%et. Certa %(y %o other 'o%te)poraryauthor  !es so ! ! $ a% a''ou%t of e(e!e%th2'e%tury *y,a%t u). I hope that th sp o%eer e3ort )ay %sp re others to rea$ a%$ e%4oy h ).I #ou($ ( /e here to a'/%o#(e$e )y $ebt to M. E) (e Re%au($+ #ho rsttra%s(ate$ the h story %to a )o$er% (a%uae. 5(thouh th s %terpretat o% $ 3ers % )a%y po %ts fro) the 6re%'h !ers o%+ h s %7ue%'e # (( be appare%t. I a)ratefu( too for the / %$(y %terest a%$ 'o%sta%t e%'ourae)e%t of Mr. R. H.*arro#+ C.*.E.+ a%$ of Mr. 8. 6. Ja'/so% 9% ht+ #hose s'ho(arsh p e&te%$s farbeyo%$ the : r ( a% e($ % #h 'h he espe' a((y sh %es. 8he% I rst u%$ertoo/ the#or/+ the (ate Dr. 8. H. D. Rouse a!e )e sou%$ a$! 'e+ a%$ as I %eare$ the e%$+Professor 5rthur E. 0or$o%+ of the U% !ers ty of Ca( for% a+ o3ere$ so)e !a(uab(e'r t ' s). To both of the) I a) $eep(y %$ebte$. Nee$(ess to say+ %o%e of thesee%t(e)e% 'a% be he($ respo%s b(e for the )perfe't o%s #h 'h )ust 'reep %toso (o% a #or/.5bo!e a(( I a) ratefu( to Professor J. M. Hussey+ #ho %ot o%(y 'o%se%te$ to #r tethe I%tro$u't o% to th s boo/+ but fou%$ t )e to re! se )y %otes+ a$$e$ the shortb b( oraphy+ a%$ )a$e so)e usefu( suest o%s #h 'h )pro!e$ the te&t.E. R. 5. S.Ne#bury+ *er/sh re. ; O'tober 1;<=.  INTRODUCTION 0I**ON-S (ee%$ of a $e'a$e%t East Ro)a% E)p re $ es har$ % or$ %ary E%( sh' r'(es. *ut resear'h of the (ast ha(f 'e%tury shou($ by %o# ha!e )a$e tabu%$a%t(y '(ear that *y,a%t %e ' ! ( ,at o% 'a% ho($ ts o#% % the )e$ e!a(#or($. That s %ot to $e%y that t ha$ ts ups a%$ $o#%s a%$ 'ha%e$ a oo$ $ea( % 'hara'ter % the 'ourse of )ore tha% a thousa%$ years. The e(e!e%th 'e%tury+ % #h 'h M 'hae( Pse((us ( !e$+ #as a 'ru' a( t )e+ %ot be'ause of the fa't of tsa'ute po( t 'a( $ >'u(t es 22 after a((+ the E)p re ha$ fa'e$ $a%er t )e a%$ aa %22 but be'ause t #as %o# brouht up aa %st 'erta % %e# a%$ o) %ous$e!e(op)e%ts both # th % a%$ # thout #h 'h t fa (e$ to 'o%tro(+ a%$ he%'e tstota( $o#%fa(( % the ftee%th 'e%tury )ay be tra'e$ ba'/ to th s per o$. No# a%$the% Pse((us sho#s part a( u%$ersta%$ % of su'h $a%ers+ as for %sta%'e #he%he 'o))e%ts o% the ! ta( )porta%'e of Co%sta%t %op(e-s ) ( tary $efe%ses+ buthe 'ou($ %ot forete(( the ather % )petus of the #ester% 'rusa$ % )o!e)e%t#h 'h so ! o(e%t(y $ srupte$ *y,a%t %e ( fe % the 5eea% #or($+ %or $ $ he rea( ,ethat the Se(4u/ Tur/s #ere prepar % the #ay for the a()ost 'o)p(ete (oss of theE)p re-s reat storehouse+ 5s a M %or+ or that the ru)b( %s % the *a(/a%s #ereto hera($ the ro#th a%$ e)a%' pat o% of the you% S(a! %at o%s. 5fter a((+ he#as ( ! % a%$ #r t % % the hey$ay of the e(e!e%th 'e%tury #he% the $ sastroustur% % )per a( fortu%es #as s'ar'e(y per'ept b(e+ a%$ #he% Co%sta%t %op(e'ou($ st (( to so)e e&te%t bas/ % the a''u)u(ate$ (or es of the reat $ays of thete%th 'e%tury # th ts '(ass 'a( re! !a( a%$ ts e&pa%s o% of the fro%t ers. 5%$ %$ee$ #hate!er #ea/%esses ) ht ha!e a(ar)e$ a $ s'er% % eye % the yearsto fo((o#+ sat sfa't o% 'ou($ a(#ays be fou%$ % the stea$y )a %te%a%'e a%$$e!e(op)e%t of 'u(tura( a't ! t es+ 'erta % aspe'ts of #h 'h #ere pass o%ate(y%ear to Pse((us-s heart.8hate!er h s father-s '(a )s to ar sto'rat ' forebears+ M 'hae( Pse((us re# up %the ) ( eu of a ) $$(e2'(ass fa) (y. H s #r t %s+ [=] a%$ part 'u(ar(y h s fu%era(orat o% for h s )other+ re!ea( a fa r a)ou%t about h s 'h ($hoo$ a%$ h s o#%perso%a( appeara%'e a%$ 'astes. I% phys ?ue he rese)b(e$ h s father #ho ha$)erry eyes a%$ #e(( $e%e$ eyebro#s a%$ #as ha%$so)e as a -#e((2ro#%'ypress-. *ut h s father-s e!e%2te)pere$ $ spos t o% a%$ ?u et #ay of ( fe+ )o! %fro) $ay to $ay as s (e%t(y a%$ s)ooth(y -as 7o# % o (-+ #ere %ot %her te$ by theso%. I% out(oo/ a%$ te)pera)e%t he #as )ore ( /e h s )other #ho #as '(ear(ythe )a %spr % of the fa) (y. Pse((us says that she #as attra't !e a%$ -( /e therose %ee$e$ %o further a$or%)e%t-@ she #as a(so e%eret '+ of ?u '/ %te(( e%'e+a%$ abo!e a(( a $e!out Chr st a%. She 'erta %(y be?ueathe$ her $y%a) ' ?ua( t esto her so%+ thouh h s subt(ety of approa'h #as % 'o%trast to her )ore s )p(ea$here%'e to the Chr st a% fa th+ a%$ h s a'h e!e)e%ts % %te((e'tua( e($s+ho#e!er )u'h they o#e$ to her ear(y e3orts a%$ e%'ourae)e%t+ #ere %substa%'e h s a(o%e.*or% % Co%sta%t %op(e % 1A1B he re# %to a% e&'ee$ %(y a(ert+ %te(( e%t 'h ($a%$ he #as brouht up o% Ho)er as 0ree/ 'h ($re% #ere a%$ are. H s )other)a%ae$ to pro(o% h s e$u'at o% u%t ( he #as % h s tee%s a%$ the% the %ee$ topro! $e a $o#ry for h s s ster )a$e t $ >'u(t to support h ) a%y (o%er. Hebe'a)e a '(er/ to a pro! %' a( 4u$e+ but o% the u%e&pe'te$ $eath of h s s ster heretur%e$ to Co%sta%t %op(e a%$ 'o%t %ue$ h s stu$ es. He #as tauht by Joh%  Mauropous+ after#ar$s 5r'hb shop of Eu'ha ta+ but the% a pr !ate tutor %Co%sta%t %op(e. Joh%+ both fro) Pse((us a%$ fro) other sour'es+ s re!ea(e$ as as %(e2) %$e$ s'ho(ar a%$ a )a% of reat %ter ty. He e! $e%t(y 'oa'he$ a%u)ber of '(e!er you% )e%+ a(( of #ho) (ater )a$e the r )ar/ a%$ re)a %e$r) fr e%$s # th ea'h other a%$ # th the r tutor. Joh%  ph ( %us be'a)e Hea$ of the 6a'u(ty of a# % the U% !ers ty of Co%sta%t %op(e+ the% )o%/ a%$ 5bbot of a)o%astery % 5s a M %or+ a%$ %a((y Patr ar'h of Co%sta%t %op(e. Co%sta%t %eDu'as+ a%other #e((2/%o#% )e)ber of the roup+ e!e%tua((y su''ee$e$ to thethro%e as Co%sta%t %e . Co%sta%t %e Pse((us 2 he (ater 'ha%e$ the %a)e of Co%sta%t %e for that of M 'hae( by #h 'h he s usua((y /%o#% 2 )a%ae$ to )a/eh s #ay % 'ourt ' r'(es a%$ the story of h s r se to po#er 'a% be rea$ % h sChro%oraph a a%$ ((e$ out fro) other 'o%te)porary sour'es. 6or a re'e%t short su))ary of Pse((us-s 'areer see P. Joa%%ou+ Pse((os et (e)o%astre Ta NarsoF+ *y,a%t % s'he Ge ts'hr ft !o(.  1;<1+ pp. =BK2;A. The t#o pre$o) %at % pass o%s of Pse((us-s ( fe #ere to et o% % [K] the #or($a%$ to pro)ote s'ho(arsh p a%$ (ear% %. Th s rst 'hara'ter st ' s probab(y #hate)eres )ost p(a %(y fro) h s Chro%oraph a. 8 th repeate$ apo(o es he sa(#ays $es'r b % the )porta%'e of h s o#% pos t o%+ the e&te%t to #h 'h )per a( perso%aes $epe%$ o% h )+ a%$ he ( /es to a$$ $ ress o%s $es %e$ tore!ea( h s o#% pr !ate fee( %s a%$ to u%$er( %e the s % 'a%'e of h s e3ortsto#ar$s a'h e! % )ore e3e't !e h her e$u'at o%. It )ay be $oubte$ ho#re( ab(e a% a$! ser he )a$e o% )atters of state+ but the fa't that he ser!e$ a(o% ser es of e(e!e%th2'e%tury ru(ers u%t ( 1ALL s a tr bute to h s Perso%a( ty as#e(( as to h s a$aptab ( ty. Pse((us has to a$) t to at (east o%e u%fortu%ateep so$e % h s po( t 'a( 'areer #h 'h he (osses o!er % the Chro%oraph a as besthe 'a%. Threate%e$ # th a re!ersa( at 'ourt to#ar$s the e%$ of Co%sta%t %e I-sre %+ he thouht t 4u$ ' ous to abse%t h )se(f for a t )e. The %atura( th % for a*y,a%t %e % su'h ' r'u)sta%'es #as )o%ast ' ret re)e%t #h 'h ) ht or ) ht%ot pro!e per)a%e%t. Pse((us soo% rea( ,e$ h s tota( (a'/ of !o'at o% a%$ retur%e$to the se'u(ar #or($ as soo% as t #as safe to $o so. 6ar other# se # th h s fr e%$a%$ 'o)pa% o%  ph ( %us+ #ho ha$ %$ee$ fou%$ h s #ay of ( fe. The re&per e%'es are $es'r be$ % )ore $eta ( e(se#here % Pse((us-s #r t %s. Pse((usha$ e! $e%t(y thouht of the )o%astery s )p(y % ter)s of a 'o)fortab(eba'/rou%$ for a ser es of So'rat ' $ a(oues % the '(o sters bet#ee% h )se(f a%$h s fe((o# s'ho(ar+ a%$ s ha(f tease$+ ha(f reproa'he$ by  ph ( %us for h s) sta/e.Pse((us-s t#o )ost attra't !e tra ts are h s (oya(ty to h s fr e%$s a%$ h s $e!ot o%to s'ho(arsh p. 5(( h s ( fe Pse((us stu'/ to h s ear(y fr e%$s+ )e% of 'hara'ter a%$a'h e!e)e%t !ery $ 3ere%t fro) h s o#%. Joh%+ h s o($ tea'her+ #as a()ost$rae$ to )per a( %ot 'e a%$ the% for a t )e he($ a (e'turesh p % the U% !ers tyat Pse((us-s %o) %at o%.  ph ( %us a%$ Pse((us re)a %e$ % '(ose tou'h+ thouhafter the )o%ast ' ep so$e the r paths for/e$ a%$ the r $ 3ere%'es of out(oo/be'a)e )ore appare%t+ but t e! $e%t(y 'ut Pse((us to the ?u '/ to be a''use$ by ph ( %us of u%# se 'o%'e%trat o% o% P(ato% ' stu$ es+ a%$ he #as s# ft to pro!eh s ortho$o&y a%$ re %state h )se(f % h s o($ fr e%$-s oo$ op % o%. Co%sta%t %eDu'as #he% he be'a)e E)peror % 1A<; ha$ %ot (ost tou'h # th the fr e%$ of forty years ao a%$ he e!e%tua((y sho#e$ h s 'o%$e%'e % Pse((us by )a/ %h ) h s so%-s tutor 22 u%fortu%ate(y for the E)p re as t tur%e$ out+ for the you%)a% tra %e$ up o% the ( %es of a [] ph (osopher2/ % as ! sua( ,e$ by Pse((us  pro!e$ use(ess at $efe%$ % fro%t ers aa %st %!a$ % Tur/s or Nor)a%s a%$ ha$to ab$ 'ate.Pse((us-s )ost fru tfu( e3orts #ere % pro)ot % h her e$u'at o% a%$ % the %7ue%'e of h s o#% #r tte% #or/s. H s #as the $r ! % for'e beh %$ thereora% ,at o% of the State U% !ers ty of Co%sta%t %op(e % 1A< a%$ % th s'o%%e't o% h s %7ue%'e % )per a( ' r'(es #as use$ to oo$ e3e't. There #eree! $e%t(y a!a (ab(e both a %u)ber of e$u'ate$ )e% to a't as (e'turers a%$ astu$e%t bo$y # sh % to use opportu% t es of th s / %$+ so that Pse((us-se&tra!aa%t re)ar/s % the Chro%oraph a o% h s uph (( tas/ a%$ 5%%a Co)%e%a-s'aust ' 'o))e%ts % the 5(e& a$ o% the (o# ebb to #h 'h (ear% % ha$ su%/ % thee(e!e%th 'e%tury 'a%%ot be ta/e% e%t re(y at the r fa'e !a(ue. Not that the e3e'tof Pse((us-s $y%a) ' perso%a( ty 'a% be $e% e$+ %or shou($ h s #or/ % st )u(at % %terest % P(ato% ' stu$ es be u%$erest )ate$. It #as %ot for %oth % that ph ( %us )p( e$ that he #as )a/ % a o$ of h s P(ato-. Pse((us-s ph (osoph 'a((ea% %s 'a% be $ s'er%e$ here a%$ there % the Chro%oraph a+ but t s o%(y fro)the 'o)p(ete 'orpus of h s #or/s that h s a't ! t es a%$ a'a$e) ' %terests 'a%be fu((y re'o%stru'te$. Ph (osophy+ # th spe' a( e)phas s o% P(ato% s)+ #as'o%'e !e$ as the 'ro#% a%$ su)) t of the s'ho(ar-s ( fe. et Pse((us #he%'ha((e%e$ #as the rst to a$) t that su'h a't ! ty #as ! sua( ,e$ o%(y # th %+a%$ therefore to so)e e&te%t ( ) te$ by+ the a''epte$ Chr st a% fra)e#or/. It#ou($ )oreo!er be %a''urate to )a %e that Pse((us #as %tereste$ %ph (osoph 'a( to the e&'(us o% of a(( other pursu ts. He #as 'o%'er%e$ # thChr st a% theo(oy+ # th the Chr st a% %terpretat o% of the u% !erse+ he share$+for %sta%'e+ the a()ost u% !ersa( be( ef % ) ra'(es ho#e!er )u'h he proteste$aa %st )a 'a( pra't 'es+ a%$ #as e! $e%t(y #e(( !erse$ % 'o%te)porary ! e#so% the $e)o% #or($. He ofte% '(othe$ h s thouhts % #hat see)s to us to be a7oo$ of rhetor '+ part 'u(ar(y % h s spee'hes a%$ (etters. *ut he ha$ a% eye for$eta (+ he #as a shre#$ 4u$e of hu)a% %ature+ a%$ he 'ou($ pro$u'e %e+ba(a%'e$+ a''urate prose portra ts of h s 'o%te)porar es. The Chro%oraph aspea/s for tse(f a%$ 'a% )ore tha% ho($ ts o#% # th s ) (ar 'o%te)porary( terature of the at % #or($.I% h s %tro$u't o% to the Chro%oraph a Pse((us e&p(a %s that he ha$ ofte% bee%presse$ to #r te a h story of h s o#% t )es a%$ that he %a((y aree$ to pro$u'e abr ef s/et'h at the spe' a( re?uest of a [<] reat fr e%$. Th s fr e%$+ -)ost be(o!e$of a(( )e%- as Pse((us 'a((s h ) re)a %s u%%a)e$ but )ay ha!e bee% Co%sta%t %e 'hu$es+ a 'o)pa% o% of h s stu$e%t $ays #ho ha$ r se% to h h o>'e u%$erCo%sta%t %e I a%$ ha$ be'o)e Patr ar'h of Co%sta%t %op(e % 1A<;.  'hu$es asPatr ar'h ha$ bee% persua$e$ to support those #ho a''use$ Pse((us of fa ( % toobser!e h s )o%ast ' !o#s a%$ ha$ $eta %e$ h ) % the )o%astery of Narsou%ear the #ester% #a((s of the ' ty. Pse((us )ay ha!e # she$ to 'o%' ( ate h ) by#r t % the h story #h 'h he as/e$ for. The Chro%oraph a ho#e!er oes beyo%$1AK+ the year of  'hu$es- $eath.  Cf. Chro%oraph a+ :IIa+ < p. =<+ a%$ :II'+ II p. =B<. The #or/ fa((s %to t#o $ st %'t se't o%s of #h 'h the rst ta/es up the story#here the te%th2'e%tury h stor a% eo the Dea'o% stoppe$ at *as ( II-s a''ess o%to po#er % ;L a%$ oes as far as the ab$ 'at o% of Isaa' Co)%e%us % 1A<;. Th s s the )ore )porta%t a%$ the )ore )part a( se't o%. The se'o%$ part+probab(y #r tte% (ate % M 'hae( :II-s re % 22 for Pse((us says % t that he has see%
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks