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  VowelsMonophthongsFront Central Back long short long short long shortClose  iː ɪ uː ʊ Mid  e ɜː ə ɔː Open  æ ʌ ɑː ɒ Diphthongs Triphthongs Clos ng /aɪ/ [aɪə]/eɪ/ [eɪə]/ɔɪ/ [ɔɪə]/aʊ/ [aʊə]/əʊ/ [əʊə] C ntr ng /eə//ɪə//ʊə/ [ɑː][æ][ʌ][e][ɜː][iː][ɪ][ɔː][ɒ][uː][ʊ][ə][i][u] a ar au ah al a u o oo e ea ai ir ur er ear ee ea ie i e i y e or a ou au aw oa al o a ou oo ue wo ew u ui oo u ou All y ie i e u [aɪ][eɪ][ɔɪ][aʊ][əʊ][ɪə][eə][ʊə][aɪə][eɪə][ɔɪə][ɑʊə][əʊə] igh ie uy y a ai ay oi oy ou ow oa ow o ear eer ier ere ea are air eir ere oor ure our ire yre ier iro oir ayer eyer eyor oya oyer oyou ower our owar ower Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal Labio-velarPlosive  pbtdk   ɡ Fricative fvθðsz  ʃ ʒ h Affricate t  ʃ  d  ʒ Nasal mnŋ Approximant rjw Lateral l  [ʃ][ʒ] [ʧ][ʤ][j][s][z][w] sh s ss t ch c s ge ch tch t j g ge d dg y eu ew ue u ui s c ss z se zz x w wh u Connected speech processes1) Assimilation a) Regressive or anticipatory 1. [t] [d] [n]  → [p] [b] [m]  when followed by [p] [b] [m] 2. [t] [d] [n]  → [k] [ɡ] [ŋ]  when followed by [k] [ɡ] 3. [s] [z]  → [ʃ] [ʒ]  when followed by [ʃ] [ʒ] or [j] b) Progressive [n]  preceded by a bilabial or a velar consonant.1) loss of the schwa in [ən]  → syllabic [n] 2) assimilation of the place of articulation of the syllabic [n] to the place of articulation (bilabial or velar) of the preceding consonant. c) Coalescence [t] + [j]  → [ʧ][d] + [j]  → [ʤ] 2) Elision Elision of [t]  and [d] .1) [t] [d]  in final position and preceded by a consonant of the same voicing.2) the following word must start with any consonant, except for [h] . 3) Liaison a) Linking -r   Words ending with “r” or “re” in the spelling are pronounced with final [r] if the next word  begins with a vowel. b) Intrusive -r - Not  possible after high vowels ([ iː ], [ ɪ ], [ uː ] or [ ʊ ]) or diphthongs ending with a high vowel (closing diphthongs ending with [ ɪ ] or [ ʊ ]).- Common after [ ə ], [ ɔː ] and [ ɑː ] and also after centring diphthongs (ending with [ ə ]) Stress ã A phrase has two stresses, a primary one on the last word and a pre-primary one on the first word. A compound tends to receive only one stress on the first element.Exceptions: compounds with double stress 1. Names of people.2. Names of places (except those ending in street).3. Names of institutions (including hotels and restaurants).4. Compounds in which the first element is an ingredient (except those ending in juice and cake).5. Compounds in which the first element indicates the time (except those ending in time).6. Compounds functioning as adverbs. ã When three stressed content words are produced one after the other, the on in the middle tends to lose the stress.  Weak forms ã Strong forms → words in isolation or emphasized. ã Weak form → in connected speech. Produced with weak vowels: [ə] [i] and [u]. When the weak forms ends with a consonant, [ ɪ] is used instead of [i]. Not all monosyllabic function words have a weak form: of [ɒ] on [ɒn] or [ɔː] my [maɪ] out [aʊt] those [ðəʊz] ã Contexts in which function words tend not to appear in its weak form. 1. Auxiliary and modal verbs at the end of the sentence2. Modal verbs at the beginning of a sentence, Auxiliary and modal verbs in contracted negative form.3. Prepositions located at the end of the sentence 4. Grammatical category or the meaning of the word. Word Strong Weak  have (has, had)main verbauxiliary verbthere adverbexistential formthatDemonstrative / adjective /pronounrelative pronoun / conjunctionsomePronoun / adjective (meaning algunos) Adjective (meaning: unos)
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