Presentations

Concentration of Lead and Cadmium in the Fosu Lagoon and Its Health Implications on Lagoon Fishermen

Description
The International Institute for Science, Technology and Education (IISTE). Science, Technology and Medicine Journals Call for Academic Manuscripts
Categories
Published
of 14
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Transcript
  Journal of Environment and Earth Science www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-3216 !a er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol.4* No.16* 2%14 6 Concentration of Lead and Cadmium in the Fosu Lagoon and its Health Implications on Lagoon Fishermen +affour-,wuah* E. 1  en/orang* E. 0. 2  1.echanical Engineering e artment* a e oast !oltechnic* !. (. +o5 , $%* a e oast* hana 2.Institute for evelo ment Studies* 7niversit of a e oast* a e oast* hana Email of the corres onding author8 emmanuel9affourawuah3:;ahoo.com Abstract an ecosstems around the world are encountering environmental ro9lems as a result of man<s activities. Such ecosstems include lagoons of which the =osu lagoon is no e5ce tion. It has 9een asserted that the lagoon water is olluted with heav metals such as lead and cadmium. =ish muscles are also olluted with lead and cadmium. his stud sought out to investigate lead and cadmium effects of tila ia consum tion on the health of fishermen who fished in the lagoon. It also loo/ed at health effects resulting from standing in the lagoon for fishing ur oses. >ealth conditions investigated include infertilit* cancer* ainful 9ones* +urton line* wrist dro * cognitive deficienc among res ondents< children and s/in diseases. Si5t fishermen were sam led for the stud. he ur osive and snow9all sam ling methods were used in the sam ling rocess. ( en and closed ended ?uestions in a ?uestionnaire were em loed. Interview and o9servation techni?ues were also em loed. he descri tive method of analsis was utili@ed using the S!SS software rogram. Aesults from the stud revealed that fishermen who fished in the lagoon might 9e at ris/ of ainful 9one conditions and wrist dro due to lead and cadmium ollution of tila ia in the lagoon. Bhile 2'.3 ercent had 9een diagnosed of wrist dro * over 33   ercent had also 9een diagnosed of ainful 9ones on more than one occasion. =ishermen might also 9e at ris/ of s/in infections as a result of dermal contact with lagoon water. hirt-five ercent had at least* on one occasion or the other* 9een diagnosed of s/in-related diseases. he stud recommends that medical ersonnel* articularl doctors* should 9e involved in educating the fishermen concerning the ris/s involved in the consum tion of tila ia from* as well as fishing in* the lagoon. Keywords:  diseasesC environmental healthC fishingC ollutionC tila ia fish-muscle. 1. Introduction he uncontrolla9le activities of man have resulted in environmental ro9lems affecting man ecosstems Essumang* odoo D endie* 2%%6#. hese ecosstem serve as ha9itats for various lants and animals and are therefore of great im ortance. hough ecosstems such as water 9odies serve the interest of humans and his activities for livelihood* ollution* dring-u and loss of these recious sstems a ear to 9e of no concern. Bater 9odies including lagoons could 9e used for agricultural activities* recreational and s orting activities* religious ur oses and fishing activities among others unningham D Saigo* 1&&:C ohammed* 1&&3#. In s ite of their im ortance* ur9ani@ation and moderni@ation with their conse?uential human desire for higher standards of living ersistentl ta/e their negative toll on these water 9odies of which the =osu lagoon is not e5cluded. he im ortance of the =osu lagoon cannot 9e ta/en for granted ohammed* 1&&3#. hough the lagoon is rich with fresh water resources* it is 9eing contaminated with all manner of waste Essumang et al* 2%%6#. his is affecting recreation* s orts and the fishing industr in and around the lagoon ohammed* 1&&3#. =ish caught from the lagoon are a great delicac to man indigenes* including fishermen who fish in the lagoon* as well as strangers who troo to the unici alit during the  Fetu  festival. ,mong the fishes caught from the lagoon and the most referred* is tila ia* locall referred to as mpatoa  +la* Jnr. D ,sa9ere-,meaw* 2%%:#. urrentl the condition of the lagoon is not encouraging. he surface area has 9een reduced to a ver large e5tent. he de th of the lagoon has also 9een reduced due to silting es eciall within the last thirt ears. he un leasant state of the lagoon is o9vious as a result of ollution and current economic activities from and around its s here of influence ,ga ong* 2%%'C ,huahe 2%%:C ohammed* 1&&3#. he gradual e5tinction of the lagoon could also 9e attri9uted to unsustaina9le settlement lanning. =or e5am le* the cam us of St. ,ugustine<s college* a second ccle institution* is located close to the lagoon. Effluent from the a e oast munici al hos ital* also located near the lagoon* discharges wastes into the lagoon un urified and uncontrolled. omestic solid and li?uid wastes from certain areas of a e oast ownshi are also discharged through +a/aano ownshi and ,disadel estate* su9ur9s of a e oast* directl into the lagoon ohammed* 1&&3#. he N/anfoa* Esue/ir* ,n/aful and ,disadel waste dis osal sites all discharge leachates into the lagoon Essumang et al* 2%%6#. he etro-mass garage* reviousl the omni9us services ,uthorit garage* located ver close to the lagoon also discharges oil* 9ituminous and other waste materials into the same sin/. Aun-off and leachates from the Siwdo automo9ile garages and wor/sho s also flow directl into the lagoon with oils and aints ,huahe* 2%%:C Essumang et al* 2%%6#. ar9age* night soil and metal scra s also find their wa into the =osu lagoon ,dFei* 1&&1#.  Journal of Environment and Earth Science www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-3216 !a er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol.4* No.16* 2%14 : It is /nown that sediments* water and fish in the lagoon are heavil infected with ollutants such as lead and cadmium ,/wansah-il9ert* 2%%:C adson* 1&&6C ,dFei* 1&&1C a 1&''C >agan 1&'6C ,llen* rimshaw* !ar/inson D Guarn9* 1&:4#. hrough the food chain these metals could 9e translocated into humans who consume tila ia from the lagoon. =ishermen who fish in the lagoon could also 9e affected through hsical s/in contact with lagoon water. Head and cadmium could 9e ver to5ic and therefore harmful to human 9eings when ingested in relativel ver small amount. Bhen accumulated the could 9e ver harmful. he can cause various health ro9lems including infertilit* cancer* ainful 9ones* +urton line* wrist-dro and s/in diseases. he can also have effect on un9orn children umar* ,99as D ,ster* 2%13#* causing cognitive-deficiencies. Head and cadmium ollutants that find their wa into the lagoon ma 9e art of the sediments or  9ecome dissolved in the water in solution. Bhichever state in which the ma 9e identified in lagoon water* a?uatic lants translocate them into their tissues which are su9se?uentl fed on 9 fishes in the lagoon. It is a fact that fishermen who fish in the lagoon feed on their fish catch* articularl the 9lac/chin tila ia ,/wasah-il9ert* 2%%:C adson * 1&&6C ,dFei* 1&&1C a* 1&''C >agan*1&'6# which constitute over &% of fish caught +affour-,wuah* 2%14 a C ,99an* ,sante D =al/* 2%%%#. , recent re ort 9 (9odai* (/eere* +oam onsem* ire/u* ,heto D Senu 2%11# shows that higher concentrations of cadmium and lead e5ist in 9lac/chin tila ia in the =osu lagoon. ila ia consum tion and hsical contact with lagoon water containing lead and cadmium ma finall result in ingestion into fishermen. 1.1 Aim and Objectives of the study he main aim of the stud was to investigate the health im lications of lead and cadmium in the =osu lagoon and its health im lications on fishermen who fish in it. he s ecific o9Fectives* however* were as follows8 1.   o investigate the health records of fishermen as to whether the have lead- and cadmium-related disease resulting from tila ia consum tionC 2.   o find out what effects fishing activit could have on the health of fishermen as a result of   hsical contact with lead- and cadmium olluted lagoon waterC 3.   o ascertain whether fishermen were re ared to sto consuming olluted tila iaC 4.   o access fishermen<s reaction to 9anning fishing activities in the lagoon. 1.2 Research questions he following research ?uestions guided the stud8 1.   >ow man fishermen have ever 9een diagnosed of infertilit* cancer* ainful 9ones* +urton line or wrist dro  2.   Bhat is the num9er of fishermen who have cognitive-deficient children 3.   >ave fishermen 9een diagnosed of s/in-related diseases 4.   Bould fishermen sto consuming tila ia from the lagoon if the /new the were olluted $.   Bould fishermen sto fishing in the lagoon if the /new it could have negative im lications on their health 1.3 Study area he stud sought to find out the lin/age 9etween concentration of lead and cadmium in the lagoon and the im lication on the health of fishermen. he lagoon is located in the a e oast metro olis. =ishermen were also located in the a e oast etro olis and conducted their 9usiness in and around the lagoon. he lagoon is located in the a e oast etro olis in the entral region of hana. It is 9ounded 9 wifuK>emangKHower en/ira istrict ulf of uinea* ,9uraK,se9uKwamen/ese istrict and omendaKEdinaKEguafoK,9irem istrict. =igure 1 shows the ma of =osu lagoon. In the 9ac/ground are the a e oast metro olis and ulf of uinea at the 9ottom edge. he maFor settlements in the metro olis include ,/oto/ir* ,9ura* ,mamoma* ,mmisano* Siwdo* ,ntem* ,n/aful* !edu* +a/aano* ,disadel* etc. Economic activities that ta/e lace are agriculture* services and industr as well as fishing. =ishing activities are on fish-catch from the sea* rivers* streams* onds and nota9l the =osu lagoon. he maFor t e of fish-catch in the lagoon is 9lac/chin tila ia.  Journal of Environment and Earth Science www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-3216 !a er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol.4* No.16* 2%14 ' =igure 18 a of a e oast metro olis showing the =osu lagoon Source8 ,rmah* Huginaah* uitunen D /andawire* 2%12# . Lead and cadmium ingestion he term heav metal is referred to an metal with relative densit higher than $* which at low concentrations could 9e to5ic to 9iological matter +Lnfalvi* 2%11#. he ma cause various dangerous non-communica9le and non-infectious diseases. he ma enter 9iological entities through air* water and food including fishes. >eav metals could 9e to5ic to lants* animals such as fishes and man through rotein controlling 9iochemical reactions. he e5hi9it either immediate or long term manifestations when the enter human 9od through the food chain +Lnfalvi* 2%11C ,/wansah-il9ert* 2%%:#. Some heav metals referred to as trace metals are essential in small ?uantities for maintenance of food meta9olism within 9iotic elements +Lnfalvi* 2%11C ,nu/wah* 2%%:#. =or e5am le @inc Mn#* iron =c#* magnesium n# and co er are ver useful to 9iotic life since their limited ?uantities could result in dire  9iological dsfunction though e5cess inta/e could also have negative conse?uences. >owever* other heav metals such as mercur >g* arsenic ,s#* titanium i#* lead !9# and cadmium d# can cause man negative medical conditions in the form of diseases. Head and cadmium* for instance* ma cause cancer* mental retardation among children and ainful 9ones umar* ,99as D ,ster* 2%13C +Lnfalvi* 2%11C +ellinger 2%%'C ido* Nogawa* >onda* suritani* Ishi@a/i* 0amada* D Na/agawa* 1&&%#. In a?uatic environments lead and cadmium can easil and readil 9e ta/en u 9 lants and animals ,nu/wah* 2%%:#. hus through the food chain humans could easil 9e e5 osed to these elements. he could  9e trans orted through roots and leaves* seeds and fruits of lants that ha9it close to a?uatic environments. Bhether water 9odies act as ha9itat or waste dis osal sin/s* lants have the ca acit to ingest chemical elements de osited in their environment. Eventuall @oological animals such as fish in these ha9itats tend to find them accumulated in their cells* tissues and other organs when the consume these lants as food +Lnfalvi* 2%11C +ellinger 2%%'C ,nu/wah* 2%%:C ido* Nogawa* >onda* suritani* Ishi@a/i* 0amada* D Na/agawa* 1&&%#. Bhen ingested into the human 9od through the food chain the are transformed 9 microorganisms to secondar to5ic su9stances ,nu/wah* 2%%:#. he half life of cadmium* for instance* can 9e more than 2% ears and this* for e5am le* can accumulate in the human 9od in a continuous or continual manner either in a long time in one<s life* or in a whole life time. =or this reason* small ingestions through contaminated foods such as fish* is one of the main sources through which humans ma 9e e5 osed to the metals >angi* 1&&6#. Studies done over the ears show that the =osu lagoon is olluted with Head and cadmiumC for e5am le* ,dFei 1&&1# recorded average concentrations of lead ranging 9etween %.%4%-1.12 m in algae in the lagoon. , stud conducted in 2%%: 9 ,/wansahil9ert confirms that the =osu lagoon is olluted with cadmium concentrations of 9etween %.:'mgK/g and 33mgK/g. Indeed the cadmium concentration was found to  9e higher than the %.:mgK/g 9eing the Interim admium arineKEstuarine Sediments uideline for the   rotection of a?uatic lives. (ne of the conclusions of the stud was that ma5imum cadmium concentrations were found at where there were redominant industrial activities including a cluster of mechanicalKautomo9ile fitting sho s and welding and s raing sho s and at laces close to where waste lead acid 9atteries were dis osed off. hus lead and cadmium eventuall find their wa into the lagoon. he metals are e5tensivel used in the roduction of vehicle 9od s raing chemicals. hese chemicals are fre?uentl used 9 vehicle 9od s raing wor/sho s near the lagoon. Headed fuels are also de osited 9 vehicles that visit the garages for re air and maintenance wor/ and for other vehicle services. It is therefore no sur rise that higher concentration of the metals find their wa into water* algae and tila ia fish-  Journal of Environment and Earth Science www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-3216 !a er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol.4* No.16* 2%14 & muscle in the lagoon (9odai et. al.* 2%11#. he ma eventuall 9e ingested 9 fishermen who fish in the lagoon and also feed on the tila ia the catch. 2.1 Heath impications of cadmium in!estion ,nimals and humans ma a9sor9 cadmium into their 9odies through the food chain +ernard D Hauwers* 1&&:#. hus through lants and animals* and contact with lagoon water* humans ingest cadmium. onse?uentl there is cadmium 9uild u in their 9odies. +ut 9iological and chemical effects of cadmium are manifold +ernard D Hauwers* 1&'6#. =or e5am le* short term im lications include cho/ing attac/s* ersistent vomiting* salivation* a9dominal ains* and loss of consciousness as well as s asm of the anal s hincter. Bhile some amount of cadmium ingestion ma 9e eliminated with time* a great fraction is tra ed ermanentl in the 9od e ort* 2%%%#. he tra ed cadmium 9ecomes rogressivel stored cumulativel 7NE!* 2%1%C erian* 2%%%C a@ant@is* 1&':#. admium in a?uatic environments can accumulate in a?uatic animals such as mussels* shrim s* lo9sters* osters and fishes. hese olluted animals when consumed directl or indirectl can cause chronic diseases to humans. Such diseases include ainful 9ones and wrist dro Hentech* 2%%'#. In the long term occu ational e5 osures to cadmium have also 9een associated with effects on 9ones Fellstrom* 1&'6#. admium can thus have health im lications on 9one directl 9 affecting calcium and vitamin meta9olism umar* ,99as D ,ster* 2%13C ido* Nogawa* >onda* suritani* Isahi@ia/i D 0amada* 1&&%#. his ma result in softening* 9ending and conse?uentl ainful 9one structure umar* ,99as D ,ster* 2%13C Nogawa* suritani* ido* >onda* 0amada D Ishi@a/i* 1&':#. he resence of such medical conditions ma therefore serve as an indication of cadmium in the human 9od. 2.2 Heath impications of ead in!estion Head has no hsiological 9eneficial role in the human 9odC it rather roduces en@mic a9ilit to act as catalst in en@matic reactions su osed to 9e erformed 9 @inc and iron in articular in the 9od osnett* 2%%6#. he removal of lead from the 9od ta/es a long time. =or this reason* lead can accumulate in human cells* tissues and organs. ,9out &$ of ingested lead in the 9od accumulates in 9ones as lead hos hate ,SA* 2%11#. Head   resence in the 9od ma give rise to infertilit* have negative im lication on cognitive intelligence# a9ilities in children* the eri heral and central nervous sstem and wea/ness of the e5terior muscle of the hand wrist dro #* occurring after several wee/s of e5 osure* umar* ,99as D ,ster* 2%13C +ellinger* 2%%'C !atric/* 2%%6C Handrigan* Schechter* Hi ton* =ahs D Schwart@* 2%%2#. enerall* lead ingestion can lead to 9luish line formation along the gums. his is referred to as +urton line Billiam* +erger D Elston* 2%%$#. Head can 9uild u in a?uatic and soil organisms. In seas* rivers and lagoons hto lan/ton is an im ortant source of food to a?uatic animals such as fish. hus through the food chain lead can 9e trans orted from a?uatic environments into humans. ontinuous consum tion of fish from the =osu lagoon 9 fishermen can therefore have negative im lication on their health. he human s/in ma rather ingest organic lead directl. Bor/ers e5 osed to lead ollution in their wor/ing environments ma therefore a9sor9 lead through the s/in. =or e5am le* it was found that 9etween %.$ and 1.$ million 7nited States wor/ers were e5 osed to lead at where the wor/ ,SA* 2%11#. =ishermen wor/ing in lead- olluted a?uatic environments ma therefore 9e at ris/ in encountering dermal health im lications resulting from direct interaction with the wor/ing environment. !. ublic attitude and en#ironmental health It is the dut of ever government in various countries to monitor the environment* its ollution and the com le5 health im lications associated with ollution of the environment. ,s an arm of government* the local government is concerned with minimi@ing ris/s to u9lic health including monitoring water ?ualit. It is therefore the onerous dut of the environmental health service to ma/e sure that the environment is safe and that acce ta9le standards of hgiene are maintained for general u9lic good (S>,* 2%12#. hough environmental health activities ma go a long wa to reduce the ris/ of ollution to u9lic health* the activities and erce tion of eo le towards the environment also has a ver rominent role to la in this regard. he ollution of the environment* including water 9odies 9egin with attitude and erce tion of waste dis osal to the environment endie* 1&&&#. enerall* attention has dwelt on government 9odies such as the environmental health service in the design of waste management technologies and their availa9ilit to the   o ulation. >owever* attitudes and erce tions toward waste and u9lic health issues concerning non-infectious diseases have not 9een given much attention endie* 1&&&C !orter* +oa/e-0iadom* afusive D ehe/o* 1&&:#. ,ccording to ,g9ola 1&&'#* modern technolog and drugs needed for treating such disease are  9eond the reach of the maForit of the o ulation in develo ing countries. >e continues that as a com osite set of 9ehavioral settings in which individuals within a communit act with diverse conse?uences* the environment and its ro9lems in man develo ing countries are rooted in cultural norms which are characteri@ed 9 attitudinal atterns in relation to the environment. hese attitudinal atterns* he e5 lains* are srcinated from the interactions with one another as a grou of eo le who have come to live together with a common o9Fective and
Search
Similar documents
View more...
Tags
Related Search
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks
SAVE OUR EARTH

We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

More details...

Sign Now!

We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!

x