Concentration of Lead and Cadmium in the Fosu Lagoon and Its Health Implications on Lagoon Fishermen

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  Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol.4* No.16* 2%14 6 Concentration of Lead and Cadmium in the Fosu Lagoon and its Health Implications on Lagoon Fishermen +affour-,wuah* E. 1  en/orang* E. 0. 2  1.echanical Engineering e artment* a e oast !oltechnic* !. (. +o5 , $%* a e oast* hana 2.Institute for evelo ment Studies* 7niversit of a e oast* a e oast* hana Email of the corres onding author8 emmanuel9affourawuah3:; Abstract an ecosstems around the world are encountering environmental ro9lems as a result of man<s activities. Such ecosstems include lagoons of which the =osu lagoon is no e5ce tion. It has 9een asserted that the lagoon water is olluted with heav metals such as lead and cadmium. =ish muscles are also olluted with lead and cadmium. his stud sought out to investigate lead and cadmium effects of tila ia consum tion on the health of fishermen who fished in the lagoon. It also loo/ed at health effects resulting from standing in the lagoon for fishing ur oses. >ealth conditions investigated include infertilit* cancer* ainful 9ones* +urton line* wrist dro * cognitive deficienc among res ondents< children and s/in diseases. Si5t fishermen were sam led for the stud. he ur osive and snow9all sam ling methods were used in the sam ling rocess. ( en and closed ended ?uestions in a ?uestionnaire were em loed. Interview and o9servation techni?ues were also em loed. he descri tive method of analsis was utili@ed using the S!SS software rogram. Aesults from the stud revealed that fishermen who fished in the lagoon might 9e at ris/ of ainful 9one conditions and wrist dro due to lead and cadmium ollution of tila ia in the lagoon. Bhile 2'.3 ercent had 9een diagnosed of wrist dro * over 33   ercent had also 9een diagnosed of ainful 9ones on more than one occasion. =ishermen might also 9e at ris/ of s/in infections as a result of dermal contact with lagoon water. hirt-five ercent had at least* on one occasion or the other* 9een diagnosed of s/in-related diseases. he stud recommends that medical ersonnel* articularl doctors* should 9e involved in educating the fishermen concerning the ris/s involved in the consum tion of tila ia from* as well as fishing in* the lagoon. Keywords:  diseasesC environmental healthC fishingC ollutionC tila ia fish-muscle. 1. Introduction he uncontrolla9le activities of man have resulted in environmental ro9lems affecting man ecosstems Essumang* odoo D endie* 2%%6#. hese ecosstem serve as ha9itats for various lants and animals and are therefore of great im ortance. hough ecosstems such as water 9odies serve the interest of humans and his activities for livelihood* ollution* dring-u and loss of these recious sstems a ear to 9e of no concern. Bater 9odies including lagoons could 9e used for agricultural activities* recreational and s orting activities* religious ur oses and fishing activities among others unningham D Saigo* 1&&:C ohammed* 1&&3#. In s ite of their im ortance* ur9ani@ation and moderni@ation with their conse?uential human desire for higher standards of living ersistentl ta/e their negative toll on these water 9odies of which the =osu lagoon is not e5cluded. he im ortance of the =osu lagoon cannot 9e ta/en for granted ohammed* 1&&3#. hough the lagoon is rich with fresh water resources* it is 9eing contaminated with all manner of waste Essumang et al* 2%%6#. his is affecting recreation* s orts and the fishing industr in and around the lagoon ohammed* 1&&3#. =ish caught from the lagoon are a great delicac to man indigenes* including fishermen who fish in the lagoon* as well as strangers who troo to the unici alit during the  Fetu  festival. ,mong the fishes caught from the lagoon and the most referred* is tila ia* locall referred to as mpatoa  +la* Jnr. D ,sa9ere-,meaw* 2%%:#. urrentl the condition of the lagoon is not encouraging. he surface area has 9een reduced to a ver large e5tent. he de th of the lagoon has also 9een reduced due to silting es eciall within the last thirt ears. he un leasant state of the lagoon is o9vious as a result of ollution and current economic activities from and around its s here of influence ,ga ong* 2%%'C ,huahe 2%%:C ohammed* 1&&3#. he gradual e5tinction of the lagoon could also 9e attri9uted to unsustaina9le settlement lanning. =or e5am le* the cam us of St. ,ugustine<s college* a second ccle institution* is located close to the lagoon. Effluent from the a e oast munici al hos ital* also located near the lagoon* discharges wastes into the lagoon un urified and uncontrolled. omestic solid and li?uid wastes from certain areas of a e oast ownshi are also discharged through +a/aano ownshi and ,disadel estate* su9ur9s of a e oast* directl into the lagoon ohammed* 1&&3#. he N/anfoa* Esue/ir* ,n/aful and ,disadel waste dis osal sites all discharge leachates into the lagoon Essumang et al* 2%%6#. he etro-mass garage* reviousl the omni9us services ,uthorit garage* located ver close to the lagoon also discharges oil* 9ituminous and other waste materials into the same sin/. Aun-off and leachates from the Siwdo automo9ile garages and wor/sho s also flow directl into the lagoon with oils and aints ,huahe* 2%%:C Essumang et al* 2%%6#. ar9age* night soil and metal scra s also find their wa into the =osu lagoon ,dFei* 1&&1#.  Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol.4* No.16* 2%14 : It is /nown that sediments* water and fish in the lagoon are heavil infected with ollutants such as lead and cadmium ,/wansah-il9ert* 2%%:C adson* 1&&6C ,dFei* 1&&1C a 1&''C >agan 1&'6C ,llen* rimshaw* !ar/inson D Guarn9* 1&:4#. hrough the food chain these metals could 9e translocated into humans who consume tila ia from the lagoon. =ishermen who fish in the lagoon could also 9e affected through hsical s/in contact with lagoon water. Head and cadmium could 9e ver to5ic and therefore harmful to human 9eings when ingested in relativel ver small amount. Bhen accumulated the could 9e ver harmful. he can cause various health ro9lems including infertilit* cancer* ainful 9ones* +urton line* wrist-dro and s/in diseases. he can also have effect on un9orn children umar* ,99as D ,ster* 2%13#* causing cognitive-deficiencies. Head and cadmium ollutants that find their wa into the lagoon ma 9e art of the sediments or  9ecome dissolved in the water in solution. Bhichever state in which the ma 9e identified in lagoon water* a?uatic lants translocate them into their tissues which are su9se?uentl fed on 9 fishes in the lagoon. It is a fact that fishermen who fish in the lagoon feed on their fish catch* articularl the 9lac/chin tila ia ,/wasah-il9ert* 2%%:C adson * 1&&6C ,dFei* 1&&1C a* 1&''C >agan*1&'6# which constitute over &% of fish caught +affour-,wuah* 2%14 a C ,99an* ,sante D =al/* 2%%%#. , recent re ort 9 (9odai* (/eere* +oam onsem* ire/u* ,heto D Senu 2%11# shows that higher concentrations of cadmium and lead e5ist in 9lac/chin tila ia in the =osu lagoon. ila ia consum tion and hsical contact with lagoon water containing lead and cadmium ma finall result in ingestion into fishermen. 1.1 Aim and Objectives of the study he main aim of the stud was to investigate the health im lications of lead and cadmium in the =osu lagoon and its health im lications on fishermen who fish in it. he s ecific o9Fectives* however* were as follows8 1.   o investigate the health records of fishermen as to whether the have lead- and cadmium-related disease resulting from tila ia consum tionC 2.   o find out what effects fishing activit could have on the health of fishermen as a result of   hsical contact with lead- and cadmium olluted lagoon waterC 3.   o ascertain whether fishermen were re ared to sto consuming olluted tila iaC 4.   o access fishermen<s reaction to 9anning fishing activities in the lagoon. 1.2 Research questions he following research ?uestions guided the stud8 1.   >ow man fishermen have ever 9een diagnosed of infertilit* cancer* ainful 9ones* +urton line or wrist dro  2.   Bhat is the num9er of fishermen who have cognitive-deficient children 3.   >ave fishermen 9een diagnosed of s/in-related diseases 4.   Bould fishermen sto consuming tila ia from the lagoon if the /new the were olluted $.   Bould fishermen sto fishing in the lagoon if the /new it could have negative im lications on their health 1.3 Study area he stud sought to find out the lin/age 9etween concentration of lead and cadmium in the lagoon and the im lication on the health of fishermen. he lagoon is located in the a e oast metro olis. =ishermen were also located in the a e oast etro olis and conducted their 9usiness in and around the lagoon. he lagoon is located in the a e oast etro olis in the entral region of hana. It is 9ounded 9 wifuK>emangKHower en/ira istrict ulf of uinea* ,9uraK,se9uKwamen/ese istrict and omendaKEdinaKEguafoK,9irem istrict. =igure 1 shows the ma of =osu lagoon. In the 9ac/ground are the a e oast metro olis and ulf of uinea at the 9ottom edge. he maFor settlements in the metro olis include ,/oto/ir* ,9ura* ,mamoma* ,mmisano* Siwdo* ,ntem* ,n/aful* !edu* +a/aano* ,disadel* etc. Economic activities that ta/e lace are agriculture* services and industr as well as fishing. =ishing activities are on fish-catch from the sea* rivers* streams* onds and nota9l the =osu lagoon. he maFor t e of fish-catch in the lagoon is 9lac/chin tila ia.  Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol.4* No.16* 2%14 ' =igure 18 a of a e oast metro olis showing the =osu lagoon Source8 ,rmah* Huginaah* uitunen D /andawire* 2%12# . Lead and cadmium ingestion he term heav metal is referred to an metal with relative densit higher than $* which at low concentrations could 9e to5ic to 9iological matter +Lnfalvi* 2%11#. he ma cause various dangerous non-communica9le and non-infectious diseases. he ma enter 9iological entities through air* water and food including fishes. >eav metals could 9e to5ic to lants* animals such as fishes and man through rotein controlling 9iochemical reactions. he e5hi9it either immediate or long term manifestations when the enter human 9od through the food chain +Lnfalvi* 2%11C ,/wansah-il9ert* 2%%:#. Some heav metals referred to as trace metals are essential in small ?uantities for maintenance of food meta9olism within 9iotic elements +Lnfalvi* 2%11C ,nu/wah* 2%%:#. =or e5am le @inc Mn#* iron =c#* magnesium n# and co er are ver useful to 9iotic life since their limited ?uantities could result in dire  9iological dsfunction though e5cess inta/e could also have negative conse?uences. >owever* other heav metals such as mercur >g* arsenic ,s#* titanium i#* lead !9# and cadmium d# can cause man negative medical conditions in the form of diseases. Head and cadmium* for instance* ma cause cancer* mental retardation among children and ainful 9ones umar* ,99as D ,ster* 2%13C +Lnfalvi* 2%11C +ellinger 2%%'C ido* Nogawa* >onda* suritani* Ishi@a/i* 0amada* D Na/agawa* 1&&%#. In a?uatic environments lead and cadmium can easil and readil 9e ta/en u 9 lants and animals ,nu/wah* 2%%:#. hus through the food chain humans could easil 9e e5 osed to these elements. he could  9e trans orted through roots and leaves* seeds and fruits of lants that ha9it close to a?uatic environments. Bhether water 9odies act as ha9itat or waste dis osal sin/s* lants have the ca acit to ingest chemical elements de osited in their environment. Eventuall @oological animals such as fish in these ha9itats tend to find them accumulated in their cells* tissues and other organs when the consume these lants as food +Lnfalvi* 2%11C +ellinger 2%%'C ,nu/wah* 2%%:C ido* Nogawa* >onda* suritani* Ishi@a/i* 0amada* D Na/agawa* 1&&%#. Bhen ingested into the human 9od through the food chain the are transformed 9 microorganisms to secondar to5ic su9stances ,nu/wah* 2%%:#. he half life of cadmium* for instance* can 9e more than 2% ears and this* for e5am le* can accumulate in the human 9od in a continuous or continual manner either in a long time in one<s life* or in a whole life time. =or this reason* small ingestions through contaminated foods such as fish* is one of the main sources through which humans ma 9e e5 osed to the metals >angi* 1&&6#. Studies done over the ears show that the =osu lagoon is olluted with Head and cadmiumC for e5am le* ,dFei 1&&1# recorded average concentrations of lead ranging 9etween %.%4%-1.12 m in algae in the lagoon. , stud conducted in 2%%: 9 ,/wansahil9ert confirms that the =osu lagoon is olluted with cadmium concentrations of 9etween %.:'mgK/g and 33mgK/g. Indeed the cadmium concentration was found to  9e higher than the %.:mgK/g 9eing the Interim admium arineKEstuarine Sediments uideline for the   rotection of a?uatic lives. (ne of the conclusions of the stud was that ma5imum cadmium concentrations were found at where there were redominant industrial activities including a cluster of mechanicalKautomo9ile fitting sho s and welding and s raing sho s and at laces close to where waste lead acid 9atteries were dis osed off. hus lead and cadmium eventuall find their wa into the lagoon. he metals are e5tensivel used in the roduction of vehicle 9od s raing chemicals. hese chemicals are fre?uentl used 9 vehicle 9od s raing wor/sho s near the lagoon. Headed fuels are also de osited 9 vehicles that visit the garages for re air and maintenance wor/ and for other vehicle services. It is therefore no sur rise that higher concentration of the metals find their wa into water* algae and tila ia fish-  Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol.4* No.16* 2%14 & muscle in the lagoon (9odai et. al.* 2%11#. he ma eventuall 9e ingested 9 fishermen who fish in the lagoon and also feed on the tila ia the catch. 2.1 Heath impications of cadmium in!estion ,nimals and humans ma a9sor9 cadmium into their 9odies through the food chain +ernard D Hauwers* 1&&:#. hus through lants and animals* and contact with lagoon water* humans ingest cadmium. onse?uentl there is cadmium 9uild u in their 9odies. +ut 9iological and chemical effects of cadmium are manifold +ernard D Hauwers* 1&'6#. =or e5am le* short term im lications include cho/ing attac/s* ersistent vomiting* salivation* a9dominal ains* and loss of consciousness as well as s asm of the anal s hincter. Bhile some amount of cadmium ingestion ma 9e eliminated with time* a great fraction is tra ed ermanentl in the 9od e ort* 2%%%#. he tra ed cadmium 9ecomes rogressivel stored cumulativel 7NE!* 2%1%C erian* 2%%%C a@ant@is* 1&':#. admium in a?uatic environments can accumulate in a?uatic animals such as mussels* shrim s* lo9sters* osters and fishes. hese olluted animals when consumed directl or indirectl can cause chronic diseases to humans. Such diseases include ainful 9ones and wrist dro Hentech* 2%%'#. In the long term occu ational e5 osures to cadmium have also 9een associated with effects on 9ones Fellstrom* 1&'6#. admium can thus have health im lications on 9one directl 9 affecting calcium and vitamin meta9olism umar* ,99as D ,ster* 2%13C ido* Nogawa* >onda* suritani* Isahi@ia/i D 0amada* 1&&%#. his ma result in softening* 9ending and conse?uentl ainful 9one structure umar* ,99as D ,ster* 2%13C Nogawa* suritani* ido* >onda* 0amada D Ishi@a/i* 1&':#. he resence of such medical conditions ma therefore serve as an indication of cadmium in the human 9od. 2.2 Heath impications of ead in!estion Head has no hsiological 9eneficial role in the human 9odC it rather roduces en@mic a9ilit to act as catalst in en@matic reactions su osed to 9e erformed 9 @inc and iron in articular in the 9od osnett* 2%%6#. he removal of lead from the 9od ta/es a long time. =or this reason* lead can accumulate in human cells* tissues and organs. ,9out &$ of ingested lead in the 9od accumulates in 9ones as lead hos hate ,SA* 2%11#. Head   resence in the 9od ma give rise to infertilit* have negative im lication on cognitive intelligence# a9ilities in children* the eri heral and central nervous sstem and wea/ness of the e5terior muscle of the hand wrist dro #* occurring after several wee/s of e5 osure* umar* ,99as D ,ster* 2%13C +ellinger* 2%%'C !atric/* 2%%6C Handrigan* Schechter* Hi ton* =ahs D Schwart@* 2%%2#. enerall* lead ingestion can lead to 9luish line formation along the gums. his is referred to as +urton line Billiam* +erger D Elston* 2%%$#. Head can 9uild u in a?uatic and soil organisms. In seas* rivers and lagoons hto lan/ton is an im ortant source of food to a?uatic animals such as fish. hus through the food chain lead can 9e trans orted from a?uatic environments into humans. ontinuous consum tion of fish from the =osu lagoon 9 fishermen can therefore have negative im lication on their health. he human s/in ma rather ingest organic lead directl. Bor/ers e5 osed to lead ollution in their wor/ing environments ma therefore a9sor9 lead through the s/in. =or e5am le* it was found that 9etween %.$ and 1.$ million 7nited States wor/ers were e5 osed to lead at where the wor/ ,SA* 2%11#. =ishermen wor/ing in lead- olluted a?uatic environments ma therefore 9e at ris/ in encountering dermal health im lications resulting from direct interaction with the wor/ing environment. !. ublic attitude and en#ironmental health It is the dut of ever government in various countries to monitor the environment* its ollution and the com le5 health im lications associated with ollution of the environment. ,s an arm of government* the local government is concerned with minimi@ing ris/s to u9lic health including monitoring water ?ualit. It is therefore the onerous dut of the environmental health service to ma/e sure that the environment is safe and that acce ta9le standards of hgiene are maintained for general u9lic good (S>,* 2%12#. hough environmental health activities ma go a long wa to reduce the ris/ of ollution to u9lic health* the activities and erce tion of eo le towards the environment also has a ver rominent role to la in this regard. he ollution of the environment* including water 9odies 9egin with attitude and erce tion of waste dis osal to the environment endie* 1&&&#. enerall* attention has dwelt on government 9odies such as the environmental health service in the design of waste management technologies and their availa9ilit to the   o ulation. >owever* attitudes and erce tions toward waste and u9lic health issues concerning non-infectious diseases have not 9een given much attention endie* 1&&&C !orter* +oa/e-0iadom* afusive D ehe/o* 1&&:#. ,ccording to ,g9ola 1&&'#* modern technolog and drugs needed for treating such disease are  9eond the reach of the maForit of the o ulation in develo ing countries. >e continues that as a com osite set of 9ehavioral settings in which individuals within a communit act with diverse conse?uences* the environment and its ro9lems in man develo ing countries are rooted in cultural norms which are characteri@ed 9 attitudinal atterns in relation to the environment. hese attitudinal atterns* he e5 lains* are srcinated from the interactions with one another as a grou of eo le who have come to live together with a common o9Fective and
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