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  CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR REFERENCE GROUPS What is reference group?an actual or imaginary individual or group conceived of having significant relevance upon an individual’s evaluations, aspirations, or behaviour’. Reference groups influence consumers in threeways. Informational influence: The individual seeks information about various brands from an association of professionals/eperts, who work with the product as a profession, those friends/neighbours/!"or comparison#, testing of agency, observing what eperts do. Utilitarian influence $o that he or she satisfies the epectation of fellow work associates/ is influenced by the preferences of people with whom he or she has social interaction/ by the preferences of family members / has an impact on the individual’s brand choice. This influence best. Value-e!re""i#e influence The individual feels that the purchase or use of a particular brand will enhance the image others have of him or her. / possess the characteristics that he or she would like to have/ nice to be like the type of person that advertisements show using a particular brand/ The individual feels that the people who purchase a particular brand are admired or respected by others/ individual feels that the purchase of a particular brand would help show others what he or she is or would like to be !such as an athlete, successful business person, good parent, etc.#  The importance of reference group in marketing/ consumer behavior?%omponent of reference group?Types of reference group&'"ormal and informal' Membership vs. aspirational reference groups '(ow each component of reference group affect consumer behavior?)n what etent is reference group not effective in marketing*+
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