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Corpus and Concordancing. A comparative analysis of students' written text with target texts.

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The use of a concordance programme on a L2 corpus to map the lexical and syntactic choices made in writing. Results demonstrate features such as a less frequent use of necessity and predictive modals, more causative yet fewer adversative
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  I thought you knew, I am only a student Corpus and Concordancing. A comparative analysis of students ‘   written text with target texts. 1.   Abstract The use of a concordance programme on a L2 corpus to map the lexical and syntactic choices made in writing. Results demonstrate features such as a less frequent use of necessity and predictive modals, more causative yet fewer adversative conjunctions, fewer passives, less subordination and complementation and fewer nominalisations etc to the target text. Lower lexical density, complexity and lexical specificity was not identified. This would suggest weak performance in the use of cognitive skills such as comment and abstraction as opposed to prescriptive grammar competence, The hypothesis is that as there is no direct linearity between grammaticization and communicative competence and that this will be reflected in the cognitive functions in interlanguage. The implications for teaching methodology are that these skills need to be reinforced in performance related activities. A set of worksheet activities were produced with that goal in mind. 2.   Background a.   Halliday 1985 - modality function projected within incongruent separate hypotactic clause complexes b.   Rutherford 1987 - U turns in the relationship between grammaticization and interlanguage c.   Biber 1988 - algorithms and functions of linguistic features and major categories d.   Sinclair 1991 - corpus, concordance and collocation patterns in evaluating instances e.   Hoey 1991 - conjuncts as cohesive devices in non adjacent sentences to highlight contrast packages f.   Hunston and Francis 1998 - a corpus driven pedagogic grammar g.   Richards, Ross and Seedhouse 2012  –   research methods for applied language studies 3.   Sources of data  1.   127,000 words of scanned L2 text by third year advanced university students of English. Take Home Task to update journalistic articles as part of final written exam 2.   25,000 words of scanned text from a 1993 Financial Times supplemen ton the second Berlusconi Government 3.   1 million words from the Micro Concord Corpus of Journalistic Texts Corpus B consisting of samples of  journalistic text from the British newspaper, The Independent 4.   Biber ‘ s  16 categories of individual linguistic features 4.   Inferential Steps i.   Hypothesis 1: significant diversification of frequencies of categories between two databases ii.   Category lists: show different patterns of collocation frequencies iii.   Extend arena of investigation: statistical analysis of frequency patterns iv.   Hypothesis 2: exists unmarked order for categories v.   Investigate stability of order 5.   Procedure i. Define set of categories on basis of:  a. Biber’s 16 categories  b. Frequency tables of category elements ii. Obtain frequencies of each possible order of categories 6.   The Logical Structure of the Category Sequence of Frequency 1 = [Non Finite Verbs] 2 = [Negation] 3 = [Complementation] 4 = [Passives] 5 = [Tense and Aspect] 6 = [Modulisation] 7 = [Modal Adjuncts] 8 = [Adverbial Clauses] 9 = [Modals] Categories L2 L1 Average Frequency Differential Absolute Absolute Order of Categories 1 Nominalisations 1,175.0 1,302.0 1238.0 36% 0.00571 0.00311 Vnf 2 Passives 75.2 48.0 61.6 28% 0.01333 0.02083 Negation 3 Tense and Aspect 3,085.5 1,954.0 2519.75 29% 0.00032 0.00051 Modal Adjuncts 4 Adverbial Clauses 26.9 2,116.0 1071.45 78% 0.03703 0.00047 Passives 5 Vnf 140.0 164.0 152 9% 0.00714 0.00609 Tense and Aspect 6 Modal Adjuncts 206.0 400.0 194 47% 0.00485 0.00250 Nominalisation 7 Modals 0.0 1,494.0 747 100% 0.0 0.00066 Modal Adjuncts 8 Complementation 283.0 188.0 235.5 25% 0.00353 0.00531 Adverbial Clauses 9 Negation 536.0 430.0 483 12% 0.00186 0.00232 Modals         
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