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  Quest Review Center 1 CRIM. 6: CRIMINOLOGICAL RESEARCH AND STATISTICS   Meaning of Research  = scientific investigation of phenomena which includes collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of facts that links man’s speculation with reality.  = systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical proposition about the presumed relations among natural phenomena. KINDS AND CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH   A. According to Purpose   1. Predictive or Prognostic Research    –  has the purpose of determining the future operation of the variables under investigation with the aim of controlling or redirecting such for the better    2. Directive Research    –  determines what should be done based on the findings this is to remedy an unsatisfactory condition, if there is any 3. Illuminative Research    –  is concerned with the interaction of the components of the variable being investigated, as for example, “interaction of the components of educational systems and aims to show the connections among, for example, students’ characteristics, organizational pattern and policies, and educational consequences B. According to Goal   1. Basic or pure Research  –  is done for the development of theories and Principles. 2. Applied Research  –  is the application of the results of pure search. This is testing the efficacy of theories and principles. aims to test theories and concepts developed for verification, application, development and support and their relationship to the existing fund of knowledge C.   According to the Level of Investigation   1. Exploratory Research    –  the researcher studies the variables pertinent to a specific situation. 2. Descriptive Research    –  the researcher studies the relationships of the variables. 3. Experimental Research    –  the experiment studies the effects of the variables on each other. D. According to the Type of Analysis   1. Analytical Research    –  the researcher attempts to identify and is isolate the components of the research situation. 2. Holistic Research    –  begins with the total situation. Focusing attention on the system first and then on its internal relationships. E. According to Scope  –  Under this category is Action Research . This type of research is done on a very limited scope to solve a particular problem which is not so big. It is almost problem solving. F.   According to Choice of Answers to Problems  1. In Evaluation research , all possible courses of action are specified and identified and the researcher tries to find the most advantageous. 2. In developmental research , the focus is on finding or developing a more suitable instrument or process than has been available. G. According to Statistical Content 1. Quantitative or statistical research    –  is one in which inferential statistics are utilized to determine the results of the study. Inferential statistics such as correlation, chi-square, analysis of variance, etc. are used to test the hypothesis. This type of research usually includes comparison studies, cause-and-effect relationships, etc.  2. Non-quantitative research    –  This is research in which the use of the quantity or statistics is practically nil. This is especially true in anthropological studies where description is usually used. Descriptive data are gathered rather than quantitative data. H.   According to Time Element   1. Historical research describes what was . 2. Descriptive research  describes what is . 3. Experimental research  describes what will be.   Steps in Scientific Method of Research (Sequential)  1. Determining (recognizing) the problem 2. Forming a hypothesis 3. Doing the library search 4. Designing the study  Quest Review Center 2 5. Developing the instruments for collecting data 6. Collecting the date 7. Analyzing the data 8. Determining implications and conclusions fro the findings 9. Making recommendations for further research. Standard format of Thesis Writing  1. The Problem and the Setting 2. Related Literature and Studies 3. Methods of Research and Procedures 4. Analysis, Presentation, and Interpretation of Data 5. Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations. Principles of the Scientific Method  1. Rigid control  –  is the manipulation of the research variables. 2. Objectivity  –  is that there should be no bias or partiality in treating the result of inquiry. 3. Systematic organization  –  refers to proper and accurate tabulation of data as well as presenting them in statistical tables ready for interpretation. 4. Rigorous standards  –  refers to the setting up of standards or principles which serve as Basis for the evaluating the findings of a study. This also refers to the accurate statistical computation and interpretation of qualified data. Three (3) Major Research Methods  Historical Descriptive Experimental methods of research Attributes of Good Research Problem   S = Specific  –  specifically stated   M = Measurable  –  easy to measure by using research instrument in collection of data   A = Achievable  –  data are achievable using correct statistical treatment/techniques to arrive at precise results   R = Realistic  –  real results are not manipulated   T = Time-bound  –  time frame is required in every activity because the shorter completion of the activity the better Capsulizing Research Problem into Title  1. It should clearly and specifically stated 2. Variables investigated should by all means be written as part of the title 3. Relationship between and among variables should be indicated 4. Target population should be indicated in the title to achieve specificity 5. It should have a maximum of twenty substantive words. 6. Function words should not be placed at the end of each line 7. Title must take the form of an inverted pyramid Note:  Avoid redundancies like “A Review of…”, “An Analysis of…”, An Evaluation of…”, “An  Assessment….” and the like because even without those terms, the researcher will review, evaluate, assess or analyze the problem posted in the study. Avoid Plagiarism   Plagiarism is an act of incorporating into one’s work the work of another without indicating the source   = the unacknowledged used of somebody else’s words or ideas  = an act wherein the writer uses passages, ideas, writings, and statements of others without giving due credit Construction of the Main Problem and Sub-problem of the Study  1. The main problem of the study may be stated by briefly pointing out the objectives, the subject and the coverage of the study. Ex. The study aimed to assess the acceptance of an accurate polygraph results as evidence in court.  2. Specify the sub-problems of the main problem. Ex. Specifically, it sought to answer the following sub-problems:   1. To what extent does the application of polygraph examination affect the attainment of an accurate results to be presented as evidence in court in terms of:   1.1. examiner’s competency;    Quest Review Center 3 1.2. facility and instrument;   1.3. techniques and procedures; and    1.4. subject’s condition? Theoretical Framework     Theoretical framework is the foundation of the study.   The theory should have a relationship with the issues posted in the study Types of Theories   1. Descriptive Theory = seeks to describe a phenomenon 2. Prescriptive Theory = seeks to tell how and sometimes why one should or ought to behave in certain ways Guidelines in Choosing Theory  1. Research must be well-founded on universally accepted, known and tested theory, principles or concepts. 2. Research may be anchored on several theories available. Presentation of Theoretical Framework   Ex. The framework of the study is anchored on …………..…………… Conceptual Framework  = an illustration of how research problems are generated from the theoretical framework of the study = it may be some sort of modification of the theoretical framework or personally conceptualized by the researcher Presentation of Conceptual Framework/Paradigm  1. The research paradigm must clearly show the major impact of the cited theory on the variables (dependent and independent variables) of the study. 2. An existing theory may be capsulized in a research paradigm which may be adopted with some modifications. 3. There must be textual explanations of the variables in the paradigm. Textual explanations should come before the figure or paradigm. Assumption and Hypothesis   1. Assumption = self-evident truth which is based upon known fact or phenomenon. it is not usually answered or proven because it is assumed true or correct which are beyond the control of the researcher  .   Note: In historical and descriptive researches, it is often times not explicitly expressed but left implicit, that is, unwritten 2. Hypothesis  = tentative conclusion or answer to specific question raised at the beginning of the investigation. It is an educated guess about the answer to a specific question. Types of Hypothesis   1. Descriptive Hypothesis = use to answer descriptive questions Ex. Sub-problem: 1. What is the profile of the polygraph examiners of law enforcement agencies in terms of:   1.1. age;   1.2. marital status;   1.3. educational attainment; and    1.4. Length of Service Ex. Hypothesis “Majority of the respondents belong to the age bracket of 30 to 40, male, college graduate and about 20 years in service.” 2. Statistical Hypothesis = use to answer questions on the relationship or differences of data obtained in descriptive questions. Forms of Statistical Hypothesis   1. Null Form = always the first temporary solution to a problem = basis of the action of acceptance or rejection = the word null in mathematics means empty zero = asserts that there is no significant difference or relationship between the variable = stated in negative  Quest Review Center 4 Ex. There is no significant difference between   2. Operational/Alternative (Ha) = stated in affirmative Three forms of alternative hypothesis:  1. non-directional hypothesis 2. positive directional hypothesis 3. negative directive hypothesis Nondirectional Hypothesis  –  i  ndicates that the researcher is not interested on whether one variable is greater or lesser than the other, but only in the difference. Ex. Drug A and Drug B have significant effects on the cure of fever. Ha: A = B Positive Directional Hypothesis  Ex. Drug A is more effective than Drug B on the treatment of fever. Ha: A > B Negative Directional Hypothesis   Ex. Drug B is more effective that Drug A on the treatment of fever. Ha: A < B Formulating Hypothesis   A hypothesis is formulated after the problem has been stated and the literature study has been concluded. It is formulated when the researcher is totally aware of the theoretical and empirical background of the problem. Guidelines in the Formulation of Explicit Hypothesis  In experimental investigations, comparative and correlational studies, hypothesis has to be explicit or expressed. In descriptive and historical investigations, hypothesis are seldom expressed if not entirely absent. The specific questions serve as the hypothesis. Hypotheses are usually stated in the null form because testing a null hypothesis is easier than a hypothesis in the operational form. Hypotheses are formulated from the specific questions upon which they are based. Ex. of Statistical Hypothesis Sub-problem: Is there any significant difference on the assessment of the groups of respondents with regards to the extent of application of polygraph examination in the attainment to be accurate results to be presented as evidence in court in terms of examiner’s competency, facility and instrument, techniques and  procedures, and subject’s condition? Hypothesis: The is no significant difference on the assessment of the groups of respondents with regards to the extent of application of polygraph examination in the attainment of accurate results to be presented as evidence in court in terms of examiner’s competency, facility and instrument, techniques and  procedures, and subject’s condition. Research Designs   A. Qualitative Research Design  = involves in depth analysis of the problems. Its focused is to provide accurate description of problems w/o attempting to treat or employ sophisticated statistical tools or describe problems. Types of Qualitative Research   1. Historical = systematic and critical inquiry of the whole truth of past events using the critical method in the understanding and the interpretation of facts, which are applicable to current issues and problems. 2. Ethnographic = aims to provide a holistic view of the problem. Data are gathered through observation, interview and participation 3. Case Study = intensive investigation of a particular individual, institution, community or any group considered as a unit which includes the development, adjustment, remedial, or corrective procedures that suitably follow diagnosis of the causes of maladjustment or of favorable development. B. Quantitative Research Design = its focused is to describe problems descriptively and numerically. It utilizes more statistical tests to explain the nature, characteristics, relationships and differences of variables.


Sep 10, 2019
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