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Data ONTAP 8.1 Storage Management Guide For 7-Mode

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Data ONTAP 8.1 Storage Management Guide For 7-Mode NetApp, Inc. 495 East Java Drive Sunnyvale, CA U.S.A. Telephone: +1 (408) Fax: +1 (408) Support telephone: +1 (888) 4-NETAPP Documentation
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Data ONTAP 8.1 Storage Management Guide For 7-Mode NetApp, Inc. 495 East Java Drive Sunnyvale, CA U.S.A. Telephone: +1 (408) Fax: +1 (408) Support telephone: +1 (888) 4-NETAPP Documentation comments: Information Web: Part number: _C0 Updated for Data ONTAP on 24 February 2014 Table of Contents 3 Contents Data ONTAP storage architecture overview Managing disks using Data ONTAP How Data ONTAP reports disk types Storage connection architectures and topologies supported by Data ONTAP How disks can be combined for the SAS disk connection type How disks can be combined for the FC-AL disk connection type Usable and physical disk capacity by disk size Methods of calculating aggregate and system capacity Disk speeds supported by Data ONTAP How disk checksum types affect aggregate and spare management Checksum type by Data ONTAP disk type Drive name formats Loop IDs for FC-AL connected disks Understanding RAID disk types How disk sanitization works Disk sanitization process When disk sanitization cannot be performed What happens if disk sanitization is interrupted How selective disk sanitization works Tips for creating and backing up aggregates containing data to be sanitized How Data ONTAP monitors disk performance and health When Data ONTAP takes disks offline temporarily How Data ONTAP reduces disk failures using Rapid RAID Recovery How the maintenance center helps prevent drive errors How Data ONTAP uses continuous media scrubbing to prevent media errors Increasing storage availability by using ACP Enabling ACP How you use SSDs to increase storage performance How Data ONTAP manages SSD wear life Capability differences between SSDs and HDDs... 35 4 Data ONTAP 8.1 Storage Management Guide for 7-Mode Guidelines and requirements for using multi-disk carrier storage shelves How Data ONTAP avoids RAID impact when a multi-disk carrier must be removed How to determine when it is safe to remove a multi-disk carrier Spare requirements for multi-disk carrier disks Shelf configuration requirements for multi-disk carrier disk shelves Aggregate requirements for disks in multi-disk carrier storage shelves Considerations for using disks from a multi-disk carrier storage shelf in an aggregate Adding disks to a storage system Replacing disks that are currently being used in an aggregate Replacing a self-encrypting disk Converting a data disk to a hot spare Removing disks from a storage system Removing a failed disk Removing a hot spare disk Removing a data disk Using disk sanitization to remove data from disks Removing data from disks using selective disk sanitization Stopping disk sanitization How ownership for disks and array LUNs works Reasons to assign ownership of disks and array LUNs What it means for Data ONTAP to own an array LUN Why you might assign array LUN ownership after installation How disks and array LUNs become available for use How automatic ownership assignment works for disks What automatic ownership assignment does When automatic ownership assignment is invoked How disk ownership works for platforms based on Data ONTAP-v technology Examples showing when Data ONTAP can use array LUNs Managing ownership for disks and array LUNs Guidelines for assigning ownership for disks Assigning ownership for unowned disks and array LUNs Modifying assignment of spare disks or array LUNs Verifying the existence of two paths to an array LUN Verifying the existence of two paths: storage show disk command... 65 Table of Contents 5 Verifying the existence of two paths: storage array show-config command Verifying path failover for array LUNs Verifying path failover for array LUNs in a stand-alone system Verifying path failover for array LUNs in an HA pair Guidelines for SyncMirror pool assignment How you use the wildcard character with the disk ownership commands Managing array LUNs using Data ONTAP Array LUN name format Checking the checksum type of spare array LUNs Changing the checksum type of an array LUN Prerequisites to reconfiguring an array LUN on the storage array Changing array LUN size or composition Removing one array LUN from use by Data ONTAP Preparing array LUNs before removing a V-Series system from service Commands to display information about your storage Commands to display disk and array LUN information Commands to display disk space information Commands to display storage subsystem information Enabling or disabling a host adapter Introduction to Storage Encryption What Storage Encryption is Purpose of the external key management server How Storage Encryption works Disk operations with SEDs Benefits of using Storage Encryption Data protection in case of disk loss or theft Data protection when returning disks to vendors Data protection when moving disks to end-of-life Data protection through emergency data shredding Limitations of Storage Encryption Managing Storage Encryption Displaying Storage Encryption disk information Displaying key management server information Verifying key management server links Adding key management servers... 89 6 Data ONTAP 8.1 Storage Management Guide for 7-Mode Removing key management servers What happens when key management servers are not reachable during the boot process Changing the authentication key Retrieving authentication keys Deleting an authentication key SSL issues due to expired certificates Removing old SSL certificates before installing new ones Installing replacement SSL certificates on the storage system Returning SEDs to unprotected mode Destroying data on disks using Storage Encryption Sanitizing disks using Storage Encryption before return to vendor Setting the state of disks using Storage Encryption to end-of-life Emergency shredding of data on disks using Storage Encryption How Data ONTAP uses RAID to protect your data and data availability RAID protection levels for disks What RAID-DP protection is What RAID4 protection is RAID protection for third-party storage RAID protection for Data ONTAP-v storage Protection provided by RAID and SyncMirror Understanding RAID disk types How RAID groups work How RAID groups are named About RAID group size Considerations for sizing RAID groups for disks Considerations for Data ONTAP RAID groups for array LUNs How Data ONTAP works with hot spare disks How many hot spares you should have What disks can be used as hot spares What a matching spare is What an appropriate hot spare is About degraded mode About low spare warnings How Data ONTAP handles a failed disk with a hot spare Table of Contents 7 How Data ONTAP handles a failed disk that has no available hot spare How RAID-level disk scrubs verify data integrity How you schedule automatic RAID-level scrubs How you run a manual RAID-level scrub Customizing the size of your RAID groups Controlling the impact of RAID operations on system performance Controlling the performance impact of RAID data reconstruction Controlling the performance impact of RAID-level scrubbing Controlling the performance impact of plex resynchronization Controlling the performance impact of mirror verification How you use aggregates to provide storage to your volumes Introduction to 64-bit and 32-bit aggregate formats Best practices for expanding a 32-bit aggregate to 64-bit How unmirrored aggregates work How mirrored aggregates work How Flash Pool aggregates work Requirements for using Flash Pool aggregates How Flash Pool aggregates and Flash Cache compare When you cannot use aggregates composed of SSDs How you can use disks with mixed speeds in the same aggregate How to control disk selection from heterogeneous storage Rules for mixing HDD types in aggregates Rules for mixing drive types in Flash Pool aggregates How disk checksum types affect aggregate and spare management Rules for mixing storage in aggregates for V-Series systems How the checksum type is determined for aggregates with array LUNs What happens when you add larger disks to an aggregate Managing aggregates Creating an aggregate Creating a Flash Pool aggregate Determining and enabling volume write-caching eligibility Increasing the size of an aggregate What happens when you add storage to an aggregate Forcibly adding disks to aggregates Taking an aggregate offline Bringing an aggregate online 8 Data ONTAP 8.1 Storage Management Guide for 7-Mode Putting an aggregate into restricted state Changing the RAID level of an aggregate Changing an aggregate's RAID level from RAID4 to RAID-DP Changing an aggregate's RAID level from RAID-DP to RAID Determining how the space in an aggregate is being used Destroying an aggregate Restoring a destroyed aggregate Physically moving an aggregate composed of disks Moving an aggregate composed of array LUNs Using volumes How FlexVol volumes work Differences between 64-bit and 32-bit FlexVol volumes Interoperability between 64-bit and 32-bit FlexVol volumes How traditional volumes work How the volume language attribute affects data visibility and availability How file access protocols affect what language to use for your volumes How to manage duplicate volume names Volume states and status About the CIFS oplocks setting How security styles affect access to your data How file editing with Windows applications affects UNIX permissions What the default security style is for new volumes and qtrees How Data ONTAP can automatically provide more space for full FlexVol volumes Considerations for changing the maximum number of files allowed on a volume. 166 Cautions for increasing the maximum directory size for FlexVol volumes Understanding the root volume and the root aggregate Recommendations for the root volume Special system files General volume operations Migrating from traditional volumes to FlexVol volumes Preparing your destination volume Migrating your data Completing the migration Putting a volume into restricted state Taking a volume offline Table of Contents 9 Bringing a volume online Renaming a volume Destroying a volume Changing the maximum number of files allowed in a volume Changing the language for a volume Changing the root volume FlexVol volume operations Creating a FlexVol volume Resizing a FlexVol volume Displaying the containing aggregate for a FlexVol volume Traditional volume operations Creating a traditional volume About FlexCache volumes FlexCache hardware and software requirements Limitations of FlexCache volumes Types of volumes you can use for FlexCache How the FlexCache Autogrow capability works How FlexCache volumes use space management How FlexCache volumes share space with other volumes Methods to view FlexCache statistics What happens when connectivity to the origin system is lost How the NFS export status of the origin volume affects FlexCache access How FlexCache caching works What it means for a file to be cached How data changes affect FlexCache volumes How cache consistency is achieved Cache hits and misses Typical FlexCache deployments WAN deployment LAN deployment About using LUNs in FlexCache volumes What FlexCache status messages mean How FlexCache volumes connect to their origin volume About SA systems FlexCache volume operations Creating FlexCache volumes 10 Data ONTAP 8.1 Storage Management Guide for 7-Mode Displaying free space for FlexCache volumes Configuring the FlexCache Autogrow capability Flushing files from FlexCache volumes Displaying FlexCache client statistics Displaying FlexCache server statistics Displaying FlexCache status About FlexClone volumes How FlexClone volumes work FlexClone volumes and space guarantees How to identify shared Snapshot copies in FlexClone volumes FlexClone volumes and shared Snapshot copies How you use volume SnapMirror replication with FlexClone volumes About creating a volume SnapMirror relationship using an existing FlexClone volume or its parent About creating a FlexClone volume from volumes in a SnapMirror relationship How splitting a FlexClone volume from its parent works FlexClone volumes and LUNs FlexClone volume operations Creating a FlexClone volume Splitting a FlexClone volume from its parent Determining the parent volume and base Snapshot copy for a FlexClone volume Determining the space used by a FlexClone volume Using FlexClone files and FlexClone LUNs to create efficient copies of files and LUNs Benefits of FlexClone files and FlexClone LUNs How FlexClone files and FlexClone LUNs work Considerations for planning FlexClone files or FlexClone LUNs Creating a FlexClone file or FlexClone LUN Viewing the space savings due to FlexClone files and FlexClone LUNs Features supported with FlexClone files and FlexClone LUNs How deduplication works with FlexClone files and FlexClone LUNs How Snapshot copies work with FlexClone files and FlexClone LUNs How access control lists work with FlexClone files and FlexClone LUNs How vfiler units work with FlexClone files and FlexClone LUNs Table of Contents 11 How quotas work with FlexClone files and FlexClone LUNs How FlexClone volumes work with FlexClone files and FlexClone LUNs How NDMP works with FlexClone files and FlexClone LUNs How synchronous SnapMirror works with FlexClone files and FlexClone LUNs. 226 How volume SnapMirror works with FlexClone files and FlexClone LUNs How qtree SnapMirror and SnapVault work with FlexClone files and FlexClone LUNs How volume move affects FlexClone files and FlexClone LUNs How volume copy works with FlexClone files and FlexClone LUNs How space reservation works with FlexClone files and FlexClone LUNs How an HA configuration works with FlexClone files and FlexClone LUNs Using deduplication to increase storage efficiency How deduplication works What deduplication metadata is Guidelines for using deduplication Performance considerations for deduplication Managing deduplication schedules Creating a deduplication schedule Running deduplication manually on existing data Running deduplication depending on the amount of new data written Managing deduplication operations Enabling deduplication on a volume Running deduplication operations Viewing the deduplication status on a volume Viewing deduplication space savings on a FlexVol volume Stopping a deduplication operation Disabling deduplication Using deduplication checkpoints effectively Deduplication interoperability with Data ONTAP features How Snapshot copies work with deduplication How volume SnapMirror works with deduplication How qtree SnapMirror works with deduplication How SnapVault works with deduplication How tape backup works with deduplication How SnapRestore works with deduplication How MetroCluster configurations work with deduplication 12 Data ONTAP 8.1 Storage Management Guide for 7-Mode How DataFabric Manager server works with deduplication How volume copy works with deduplication How deduplication works with data compression How FlexClone volumes work with deduplication How HA pairs work with deduplication How vfiler units work with deduplication How DataMotion for Volumes works with deduplication Using data compression to increase storage efficiency Managing data compression operations Enabling data compression Viewing data compression status of a volume Compressing existing data Viewing the progress of a data compression operation Viewing data compression space savings on a FlexVol volume Stopping a data compression operation Disabling data compression Data compression interoperability with Data ONTAP features How Snapshot copies work with data compression How volume SnapMirror works with data compression How qtree SnapMirror works with data compression How SnapVault works with data compression How tape backup works with data compression How SnapLock works with data compression How volume-based SnapRestore works with data compression How single file SnapRestore works with data compression How MetroCluster configurations work with data compression How volume copy works with data compression How aggregate copy works with data compression How deduplication works with data compression How FlexClone volumes work with data compression How FlexClone files work with data compression How HA pairs work with data compression How Performance Acceleration Module and Flash cache cards work with data compression How vfiler units work with data compression How DataMotion for Volumes works with data compression Table of Contents 13 How Flash Pools work with data compression Using space management to balance competing requirements How volume guarantees work with FlexVol volumes How file and LUN reservations work The two reserve types and when they are created How fractional reserve works How Data ONTAP can automatically provide more space for full FlexVol volumes About using thin provisioning with FlexVol volumes About qtrees When to use qtrees How qtrees compare with FlexVol volumes Qtree name restrictions Managing qtrees Creating a qtree Displaying qtree status Displaying qtree access statistics Converting a directory to a qtree Converting a directory to a qtree using a Windows client Converting a directory to a qtree using a UNIX client Deleting a qtree Renaming a qtree Managing CIFS oplocks About the CIFS oplocks setting Enabling or disabling CIFS oplocks for the entire storage system Enabling CIFS oplocks for a specific volume or qtree Disabling CIFS oplocks for a specific volume or qtree Changing security styles for a volume or qtree About quotas Why you use quotas Overview of the quota process About quota notifications Quota targets and types Special kinds of quotas How default quotas work How you use explicit quotas 14 Data ONTAP 8.1 Storage Management Guide for 7-Mode How derived quotas work How you use tracking quotas How quotas are applied How quotas work with users and groups How you specify UNIX users for quotas How you specify Windows users for quotas How default user and group quotas create derived quotas How quotas are applied to the root user How quotas work with special Windows groups How quotas are applied to users with multiple IDs How Data ONTAP determines user IDs in a mixed environment How quotas with multiple users work How you link UNIX and Windows names for quotas How quotas work with qtrees How tree quotas work How user and group quotas work with qtrees How default tree quotas on a volume create derived tree quotas How default user quotas on a volume affect quotas for the qtrees in that volume How qtree changes affect quotas How deleting a qtree affects tree quotas How renaming a qtree affects quotas How changing the security style of a qtree affects user quotas Differences among hard, soft, and threshold quotas How the quotas file works The syntax of quota entries How Data ONTAP reads the quotas file What character encodings are supported by the quotas file Sample quotas file How quotas are activated When you can use resizing When a full quota reinitialization is required How quotas work with vfiler units How quota reports work What fields quota reports contain How quota report options affect quota reports Table of Contents 15 How the ID field is displayed in quota reports How you can use the quota report to see what quotas are in effect Progressive quota examples Managing quotas Activating quotas Reinitializing quotas Deactivating quotas Canceling quota initialization Resizing quotas Deleting quotas Deleting a quota by removing resource restrictions Deleting a quota by removing the quotas file entry Managing quota message logging Displaying a quota report Using the quota report to determine which quotas limit writes to a specific file Storage limits Copyright information Trademark information How to send your comments Index 16 Data ONTAP 8.1 Storage Management Guide for 7-Mode Data ONTAP storage architecture overview Storage architecture refers to how Data ONTAP provides data storage resources to host or client systems and applications. Data ONTAP distinguishes between the physical layer of data storage resources and the logical layer. The physical layer includes disks, array LUNs, virtual disks, RAID groups, plexes, and aggregates. Note: A disk is the basic unit of storage for stora
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