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Design of a resilient optical fibre network for the multiplexing of sensors

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Design of a resilient optical fibre network for the multiplexing of sensors
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      2 Contents  Abstract 4   List of Acronyms 5   Chapter 1. Introduction 6   1.   Overview 6   2.   List of general definitions 7   Chapter II. Physical operation of the sensor node 10   1. General principles of operation of the sensor node. 10   2. Principles of operation of the used components. 13   3. Analogue operation 26   4. Conclusions 35   Chapter III. Principles of physical operation of the network 36   1.   General principles of operation 36   2.   Network Components 37   3.   Signal properties 45   4.   Conclusions 46   Chapter IV. Types of Network Topologies 47   1.   Bus 47   2.   Star 48   3.   Tree 49   4.   Mesh 51   5.   Ring 53   Chapter V. Survivability and resilience 55   1.   Sub-Network Connection Protection (SNCP) Ring 56   2.   Improving survivability using digital packets 60   3.   Conclusions 63   Chapter VI. Power budget 64   1.   Evaluation of the power losses per sensor node 64     32.   Evaluation of the power of λ i   and λ N arriving in the transceiver of the i th and N th node67   3.   Evaluation of the pow er of the modulated wavelengths λ i   and λ 1 at the headnode 72   4.   Analogue operation 76   5.   Conclusions 78   Chapter VII. General Conclusions 79   Bibliography 81   Appendix 84     4 Abstract The subject of this report is the design of an optical network that serves sensor nodes whichis able to operate at full capacity, even if one or more failures occur inside the network (linebreakage, component failure, or node failure), without using optical amplification. Wepresent numerous advantages of a ring network over bus, tree and mesh topologies for datatransmission over great distances, by using passive optical components as a medium forcommunication. The task of this project is to prove the advantages of a ring network forsensing, its flexibility and resilience. We discuss both types of signal - digital and analogue.We present the advantages and disadvantages of various different optical components, bothelectrically passive and active, signal characteristics such as data rate, types of multiplexing.We also propose a simple structure for digital data packets.   5 List of Acronyms CWDM  – Coarse Wavelength Division MultiplexingDWDM  – Dense Wavelength Division MultiplexingFBG  – Fibre Bragg GratingFEC  – Forward Error CorrectionFFC  – Fused Fibre CouplerOTDR - Optical Time-Domain ReflectometryTDM  – Time Division MultiplexingWDM  – Wavelength Division MultiplexingPON  – Passive Optical NetworkSN  – Sensor NodeFTTH  – Fibre to the HomeFTTB  – Fibre to the BusinessFTTC  – Fibre to the CurbBER  – Bit Error CorrectionPPC  – Photovoltaic Power ConverterPOF  – Power Over FibreWDC  – Waveguide Directional CouplersSMF  – Single-Mode FibreMMF  – Multi-Mode FibreUV  – Ultra VioletMEMS  – Micro Electro-Mechanical SystemsOADM  – Optical Add-Drop MultiplexerPDL  – Polarization Dependant LossLED  – Light Emitting DiodeSWF  – Surface Wave FilterPLL  – Phase Locked LoopSDH  – Synchronous Digital HierarchySONET - Synchronous Optical NetworkingSNCP  – Sub-Network Connection Protection
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