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Doctorate in Architectural Design, Theory and Technology Department of Architecture ICAR/12 Tecnologia dell'Architettura (Technology of Architecture

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Doctorate in Architectural Design, Theory and Technology Department of Architecture ICAR/12 Tecnologia dell'Architettura (Technology of Architecture
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   Alatawneh, B. (2016) Th e Perforated Building’s Envelope: Guiding the early design phases . Ph.D. dissertation . d’Arch, University of Palermo, Italy.   Page |   I    Doctorate in Architectural Design, Theory and Technology Department of Architecture ICAR/12 Tecnologia dell'Architettura (Technology of Architecture) THE PERFORATED BUILDING’S ENVELOPE:  GUIDING THE EARLY DESIGN PHASES DOCTOR COORDINATOR BADER MOHAMMAD KHALIL ALATAWNEH PROF. MARCO ROSARIO NOBILE TUTOR CO TUTOR PROF. MARIA LUISA GERMANÀ PROF. RABEE MOHAMED REFFAT CYCLE XXIX YEAR OF TITLE ACHIEVEMENT 2016-2017   Alatawneh, B. (2016) Th e Perforated Building’s Envelope: Guiding the early design phases . Ph.D. dissertation . d’Arch, University of Palermo, Italy.   Page |   I    Dottorato in Progettazione Architettonica, Teoria e Tecnologia Dipartimento di Architettura Tecnologia dell'Architettura ICAR/12 THE PERFORATED BUILDING’S ENVELOPE:  GUIDING THE EARLY DESIGN PHASES DOCTOR COORDINATOR BADER MOHAMMAD KHALIL ALATAWNEH PROF. MARCO ROSARIO NOBILE TUTOR CO TUTOR PROF. MARIA LUISA GERMANÀ PROF. RABEE MOHAMED REFFAT CYCLE XXIX YEAR OF TITLE ACHIEVEMENT 2016-2017   Alatawneh, B. (2016) Th e Perforated Building’s Envelope: Guiding the early design phases . Ph.D. dissertation . d’Arch, University of Palermo, Italy.   Page |   II  THE PERFORATED BUILDING’S ENVELOPE: GUIDING THE EARLY DESIGN PHASES   ___________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2016 by Bader Alatawneh.  All rights reserved. This dissertation or any portion thereof may not be reproduced, transmitted, or used in any manner whatsoever without the prior written permission of the author, except for the use of brief quotations or citations.   Alatawneh, B. (2016) Th e Perforated Building’s Envelope: Guiding the early design phases . Ph.D. dissertation . d’Arch, University of Palermo, Italy.   Page |   III  DEDICATION This challenging work needed an eternal strong will, as well as a very strong outstanding support. Therefore, I dedicate this work to my ever supporters: my fabulous father, my great wife and sweet sons, my brothers and sisters, my extended family, my friends in Palestine, Jordan, Iraq, Lebanon, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Italy, and in the other countries. I dedicate this work to my wonderful tutors and my colleagues at University of Palermo. Furthermore, I dedicate this work to the spiritual supporter, my mother, who has the greatest role of support through all my previous challenges in life. ___________________________________________________________ ACKNOWLEDGMENT Firstly I thank the Italian government, University of Palermo, and particularly the Department of  Architecture (d’Arch) for awarding me the scholarship and for supporting me to conduct this dissertation. I specially thank Prof. Maria Luisa Germanà (My tutor) and Prof. Rabee Reffat (My co-tutor from the  Department of Architecture at Assiut University, Egypt) for their major help in developing this work. Secondly, I thank the Ph.D. program ’s  committee: Prof. Andria Sciascia (The director), Prof. Marco  Rosario Nobile (The coordinator), Prof. Francesco Lo Piccolo (The last coordinator), Prof. Giuseppe Pellitteri (The vice-coordinator of architectural design curriculum), Prof. Rossella Corrao (one of my tutors during the 1 st   year), Prof. Filippo Schilleci (The vice-coordinator) and Prof. Paola Barbera (The  program secretary), and also I thank other professors who have any role in developing this work. Thirdly, I thank the Department of Architecture at Polytechnic University of Valencia in Spain for hosting me during the period of research development. I specially thank Prof. José Luís  Higón Calvet and Prof. Valentina Cristini (the contact proffessors). Also, I thank Prof. Nuno Simões from the University of Coimbra in Portugal for his assistance in orienting the research approach. Finally, I thank everybody who has any role in developing this work.   Alatawneh, B. (2016) Th e Perforated Building’s Envelope: Guiding the early design phases . Ph.D. dissertation . d’Arch, University of Palermo, Italy.   Page |   IV  TOWARDS A TAO BUILDING ’S  ENVELOPE: THE IMPORTANCE OF THE VOID Forward by Prof. Maria Luisa Germanà  _______________________________________________________________________________ «Thirty spokes share the wheel's hub; It is the centre hole that makes it useful. Shape clay into a vessel; It is the space within that makes it useful. Cut doors and windows for a room; It is the holes which make it useful. Therefore profit comes from what is there; Usefulness from what is not there». [Tao Te Ching -Lao Tzu - chapter 11]. “  Architecture is the learned game, cor  rect and magnificent, of forms assembled in the light” . This famous  phrase by Le Corbusier couldn’t be expressive without the existence of voids/spaces between forms. The architectural forms are revealed by the “light   and shade ”, deriving a certain sense of the relationships between solid and void. Nevertheless, the general architectural attention is mostly focused on the materials, with a certain negligence to what happens within the voids. The void is more than a ‘negative’ effect that  formally features the architecture. The void is paradoxically  full of elements those deeply influence the quality of the built environment: the fresh air for healthy breathe which in turns conveys the solar heat; and the essential healthy natural light. But also our socio-cultural relationships with the external environment those are woven through the voids of the building ’  s envelope, making us feel threatened or shielded, bothered or reassured, veiled and revealed. The architectural void, ultimately, is more than a physical status and it is featured by both the quantitative and qualitative aspects. This PhD thesis has focused on both the “ solid  ”  and the “ void  ”  components of the perforated building ’s  envelope, where the researcher has pinpointed some important links between the traditional architecture of the Middle East and the Mediterranean region, and  –  above all  –   the significant and the globally widespread trend in the contemporary architecture that it is important to be addressed towards a more conscious and responsible architectural design. The solid components of perforated building ’s  envelope can be referred to the building materials (concrete, bricks, stone, ceramic, metal, plastic, wood, reeds) and to the different general or detail design solutions (single or several perforated layers; perforated layer thickness, dynamism techniques). The void component of the perforated building ’s  envelope can be referred to the perforation pattern shape, the perforation sizing and ratios, the perforation configuration, and the air cavity parameters (in the double skin envelopes). The learned game of solid and void in a perforated facade reproduces, in a detailed scale, the learned game of volumes and forms that is indicated by Le Corbusier as an essential basis for Architecture, but this new learned game doesn’t produce only the formative consequences, but also the environmental performances those affect the behaviour and the habits of the building’s  users, on both of the individual and the community levels. The contemporary challenges in Architectural Design need to be faced through managing properly the technological tools, avoiding any separating between the physical form and the environment, paying attention to the material and immaterial features of the built environment, and obtaining the usefulness  from the inexistent: the void.
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