Religious & Philosophical

Dynasty and State Building in the Spanish Habsburg Monarchy: The Career of Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy (1588-1624), Journal of Early Modern History 20 (2016) 267-292

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The Spanish Habsburg Monarchy was a composite state that needed several individuals of royal blood other than the ruler to govern its constituent parts. Since the dynasty was one of few central institutions, the participation of relatives in rule can
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  © 󰁫󰁯󰁮󰁩󰁮󰁫󰁬󰁩󰁪󰁫󰁥 󰁢󰁲󰁩󰁬󰁬 󰁮󰁶, 󰁬󰁥󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮, 􏿽󿿽�󰀶 | 󰁤󰁯󰁩 �󰀰.��󰀶󰀳/�󰀵󰀷󰀰󰀰󰀶󰀵󰀸-�􏿽󰀳󰀴􏿽󰀵�􏿽  󰁊󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁯󰁦 󰁥󰁡󰁲󰁬󰁹 󰁭󰁯󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁮 󰁨󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁹 􏿽󰀰 (􏿽󰀰�󰀶) 􏿽󰀶󰀷-􏿽󰀹􏿽 brill.com/jemh Dynasty and State Building in the Spanish Habsburg Monarchy: The Career of Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy (1588-1624)  Liesbeth Geevers Leiden University   Abstract The Spanish Habsburg Monarchy was a composite state that needed several individuals of royal blood other than the ruler to govern its constituent parts. Since the dynasty was one of few central institutions, the participation of relatives in rule can be seen as part of state building at an imperial level. This essay analyzes the increasing involvement of relatives and thus the “patrimonialization” of dynastic rule in the seventeenth century.  We focus on the career of Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy (1588-1624), nephew of Philip 󰁉󰁉󰁉. His career shows 󰁦󰁩rst, how and why the Spanish monarchy went through a phase of increased involvement of royal relatives during his lifetime; and second, how the employment of nephews (and thus the functioning of the Habsburg composite state) took shape in the fraught context of dynastic interests, honor and diplomatic relations  with the paternal families of the nephews. Keywords Dynastic rule – state building – Spanish Habsburg Monarchy – Duchy of Savoy – Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy  * This research was carried out as part of the 󰁎󰁗󰁏-Horizon research program “Eurasian Empires. Integration Processes and Identity Formations. A Comparative Program” and parts of it were presented at the conference “Heirs and Spares” at Kellogg College, Oxford, September 19-20, 2013. I would like to thank the reviewers at the  Journal of Early Modern  History , all the participants at the conference, and my colleagues in the Eurasian Empires program for their insights, help, and encouragement.  󰀲󰀶󰀸 󰁇󰁥󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁳 󰁊󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁯􀁦 󰁥󰁡󰁲󰁬󰁹 󰁭󰁯󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁮 󰁨􀁩󰁳󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁹 󰀲󰀰 (󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀶) 󰀲󰀶󰀷-󰀲󰀹󰀲  Introduction  When Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy died in 1624, aged only thirty-six, his cousin King Philip 󰁉󰁖 of Spain had his remains interred in the Habsburg family crypt in the Escorial. There Filiberto—as he was commonly known—would rest next to his great-grandfather Charles 󰁖, grandfather Philip 󰁉󰁉, uncle Philip 󰁉󰁉󰁉 and elder brother Filippo Emanuele. The Escorial burial meant going against the wishes of Filiberto’s family, who wanted to bring him home, but since Filiberto had left the choice of his burial place up to Philip, the king prevailed.􀀱 The burial of two Savoyard princes in the Escorial testi󰁦󰁩es to the close dynastic ties between the Habsburgs and the Savoys in the late sixteenth and early sev-enteenth centuries: grandsons of Philip 󰁉󰁉, Filippo Emanuele died while being educated at the Spanish court, while Filiberto was Grand Prior of Castile in the order of Malta, general of the Spanish Mediterranean 󐁦􀁬eet and Viceroy of Sicily at his death.  As his o󰁦󰁩ces show, Filiberto was more than just a royal cousin; he had played a signi󰁦󰁩cant role in ruling the Habsburg Monarchy. Analyzing this role can give us useful insights into how dynastic rule worked in a composite state  where the dynasty was one of the only unifying forces holding a multitude of  very diferent territories together.󐀲 Such a question builds on recent historiog-raphy on early modern states which takes the interests of ruling dynasties, but also those of lower-tier dynasties of aristocrats and bureaucrats, into account as an important driving force of early-modern state building. Instead of focus-ing on more dominant institutional narratives of bureaucratic expansion and the development of a professional military establishment, historians conceive of early modern states as primarily “dynastic states” that served the needs of the dynasties of rulers, aristocrats, bureaucrats and military o󰁦󰁩cers who popu-lated and stafed them.􀀳 The Spanish Habsburg Monarchy was equally home 󐀱 Archivio di Stato, Torino (󰁁󰁓󰁔), Corte, Lettere ministri Spagna, 151.25, mazzo 18, nr. 217:  Anastasio Germonio to Carlo Emanuele, 16 October 1624.􀀲 John H. Elliott, “A Europe of Composite Monarchies,”  Past & Present   137 (1992): 48-71; Harald Gustafsson, “The Conglomerate State: A Perspective on State Formation in Early Modern Europe,” Scandinavian Journal of History 23  (1998): 189-213. Other unifying sources were for instance the Order of the Golden Fleece, which included aristocrats from many territories in its membership.󰀳 Most notably Guy Rowlands, The Dynastic State and the Army Under Louis 󰁘󰁉󰁖   (Cambridge, 2002); with regard to international relations, see Toby Osborne,  Dynasty and Diplomacy in the Court of Savoy: Political Culture and the Thirty Years’ War (Cambridge, 2002). Also Daniel H. Nexon, The Struggle for Power in Early Modern Europe. Religious Con􀁦lict, Dynastic Empires, and International Change  (Princeton, 2009). For skepticism about the development of   󰀲󰀶󰀹 󰁄󰁹󰁮󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁹 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁓󰁴󰁡󰁴󰁥 󰁂󰁵􀁩󰁬󰁤􀁩󰁮󰁧 󰁊󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁯􀁦 󰁥󰁡󰁲󰁬󰁹 󰁭󰁯󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁮 󰁨􀁩󰁳󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁹 󰀲󰀰 (󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀶) 󰀲󰀶󰀷-󰀲󰀹󰀲 to many such dynasties.󰀴 But it was a dynastic state in one more important aspect. It was a composite state of which a number of territories required—by custom, treaty or political expediency—a royal governor. Therefore, the Habsburgs always needed a certain number of dynastic extras to serve as regents or co-rulers, and Filiberto of Savoy was one of them. Approaching the Habsburg monarchy as a dynastic state, in line with current historiography on early modern Europe, means tackling the issue of the participation of such problematic royal relatives in dynastic rule and untangling the con󐁦􀁬icting interests involved.In this essay, I will focus on Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy (1588-1624), the third son of Duke Carlo Emanuele of Savoy (1562-1630) and the Spanish infanta Catalina Micaela (1567-1597), Philip 󰁉󰁉’s younger daughter. Filiberto’s service in the Habsburg Monarchy has been tentatively interpreted within the context of a more “patrimonialist” style of rule.󰀵 In international afairs, this entailed a greater faith in the cohesive power of kinship, than in the solidarity among Catholic powers. According to Martínez Millán and De Carlos Morales, Philip 󰁉󰁉 had lost faith in the possibility of winning peace on the battle󰁦󰁩eld at the closing stages of his reign and instead aimed to establish a network of dynastically related powers in Europe that would jointly bring about peace. Eforts to achieve this included the secession of the Low Countries to his eldest daughter and son-in-law, and renewed political and dynastic ties to the Austrian branch of the dynasty.􀀶 I will develop the argument that this increased deploy-ment of dynastic personnel is also apparent within the Monarchy, with the appointment of relatives to o󰁦󰁩ces such as the grand priory of Castile and the generalship of the Mediterranean 󐁦􀁬eet. In doing so, I agree with Manuel Rivero Rodríguez who recently argued that Filiberto’s appointment to the viceroyalty “modern” military institutions, see Steven Gunn, David Grummitt and Hans Cools, “War and the State in Early Modern Europe: Widening the Debate,” War in History  15 (2008): 371-388.􀀴 For Castilian aristocratic dynasties, see for instance Carlos José Hernando Sánchez, Castilla y  Nápoles en el siglo 󰁘󰁖󰁉: el virrey Pedro de Toledo: Linaje, Estado y Cultura (1532-1553)  (Valladolid, 1994), focusing on one Castilian family’s dynastic strategies in Italy. Also the forthcoming dis-sertation of Sebastiaan Derks on “Dynasticism and Sovereignty of the Farnese in Habsburg Europe, 1550-1600” (Ph.D. Diss., Leiden University, forthcoming).􀀵 Henar Pizarro Llorente, “La orden de San Juan y la Familia Real. Manuel Filiberto de Saboya Gran Prior de Castilla y León,” in  La Orden de San Juan entre el Mediterráneo y La Mancha , ed. Francisco Ruiz Gómez and Jesús Molero García (Cueca, 2009), 351-365, 359.󐀶 José Martínez Millán and Carlos Javier de Carlos Morales,  Felipe 󰁉󰁉 (1527-1598). La Con󰁦󰁩guración de la Monarquía Hispana (Madrid, 1998), 254-259. Apart from the secession, Philip 󰁉󰁉 arranged the marriages of his daughter with Archduke Albert and of his son with an archduchess of the Styrian line.  󰀲󰀷󰀰 󰁇󰁥󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁳 󰁊󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁯􀁦 󰁥󰁡󰁲󰁬󰁹 󰁭󰁯󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁮 󰁨􀁩󰁳󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁹 󰀲󰀰 (󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀶) 󰀲󰀶󰀷-󰀲󰀹󰀲 of Sicily was part of a change in the role of the royal family in ruling the monar-chy aimed at strengthening the position of the viceroys. By their instructions,  viceroys were given more independence, and those that were recruited from the royal lineage or its collateral lines could “transfer royalty” to their posts and represent the king more efectively since they “participaba[n] de la propia persona real.”􀀷 Filiberto of Savoy actually embodied a wider patrimonializing process, since he was the 󰁦󰁩rst to hold a number of o󰁦󰁩ces that had been previ-ously held by aristocrats but would thereafter be reserved for royal relatives. I shall argue that by appointing Filiberto, the kings of Spain aimed to strengthen royal control of the monarchy, but they needed to negotiate his appointments  within the fraught context of deteriorating diplomatic relations between Spain and Savoy. Thus, in Filiberto’s career, state building, dynastic interests and international diplomacy collided, allowing us to analyze this development and focus on its problems. I will 󰁦󰁩rst discuss the dynastic o󰁦󰁩ces within the Habsburg monarchy and their incumbents in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This paragraph  will show that the number and nature of these o󰁦󰁩ces changed. In the next three sections, I will focus on the appointments of Filiberto to the grand priory of Castile (1600), generalship of the Mediterranean 󐁦􀁬eet (1612) and the viceroy-alty of Sicily (1624)—focusing on the tensions between dynastic interests, state building and diplomatic relations.  Dynastic O󰁦􀁦󰁩ces and Their Incumbents Close relatives of the 󰁦󰁩ve Habsburg monarchs of Spain—Charles 󰁖 (r. 1516-1556), Philip 󰁉󰁉 (r. 1556-1598), Philip 󰁉󰁉󰁉 (r. 1598-1621), Philip 󰁉󰁖 (r. 1621-1665) and Charles 󰁉󰁉 (r. 1665-1700)—invariably served in a number of o󰁦󰁩ces or were given a share in the inheritance.􀀸 Whenever the monarch was away from Castile or the Low Countries, he would leave a close relative in charge. Charles 󰁖 󐀷 Manuel Rivero Rodríguez, “La Casa del Principe Filiberto de Saboya en Madrid,” in  L’Infanta. Caterina d’Austria, Duchessa di Savoia (1567-1597) , ed. B.A. Raviola e F. Varallo (Roma, 2013), 499-517, 509. Quotes from 513: Filiberto organized his household “como un infante de España que trasladaba físicamente la realeza y era mucho más que un simple representante del rey pues, en cierto modo, por su sangre, participaba de la propia persona real.”󐀸 Bartolomé Bennassar,  La Monarquía Española de los Austrias. Conceptos, Poderes y Expresiones Sociales  (Salamanca, 2006), 96-99: notes how Charles 󰁖 and Philip 󰁉󰁉 provided for the (pos-sible) partitioning of their patrimonies, with Charles stipulating that a second grandson born to Philip 󰁉󰁉 and Mary Tudor would inherit the Low Countries (and England through his mother), and Philip 󰁉󰁉 awarding the Low Countries to his daughter Isabel and her husband  Archduke Albert.   󰀲󰀷󰀱 󰁄󰁹󰁮󰁡󰁳󰁴󰁹 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁓󰁴󰁡󰁴󰁥 󰁂󰁵􀁩󰁬󰁤􀁩󰁮󰁧 󰁊󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁯􀁦 󰁥󰁡󰁲󰁬󰁹 󰁭󰁯󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁮 󰁨􀁩󰁳󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁹 󰀲󰀰 (󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀶) 󰀲󰀶󰀷-󰀲󰀹󰀲 employed 󰁦󰁩rst his aunt and then his sister as governesses in Brussels, while he left his spouse, son and eldest daughter (married to her cousin) as governors of Castile. While Philip 󰁉󰁉 was away from Castile, he left his younger sister in charge, while his illegitimate sister and brother (who was also general of the Mediterranean 󐁦􀁬eet for a while) served in the Low Countries. Philip 󰁉󰁉󰁉’s sister had become joint sovereign of the Low Countries with her husband after their father’s death; after her husband’s death she remained in the Low Countries as governess for her nephew Philip 󰁉󰁖. Philip 󰁉󰁖’s brother Carlos was appointed to Portugal (but died before he could take up o󰁦󰁩ce) and the generalship of the Mediterranean 󐁦􀁬eet, while his youngest brother Ferdinand succeeded their aunt as governor of the Low Countries after serving brie󐁦􀁬y in Catalonia.􀀹 Philip 󰁉󰁖 also employed his illegitimate son as general of the Mediterranean 󐁦􀁬eet and grand prior of Castile, and also as governor in Brussels, Naples and Sicily. The childless Charles 󰁉󰁉 employed his half-brother in Aragon.􀀱􀀰 The remaining sib-lings were usually married sisters. On the whole, all siblings who were not mar-ried (anymore) served in some governorship or were intended to do so.􀀱􀀱Clearly, the most obvious candidates to 󰁦󰁩ll subsidiary dynastic o󰁦󰁩ces were a monarch’s closest relatives. When such individuals were not available, they  were forced to employ more distant relatives, usually nephews and cousins. The 󰁦󰁩ve Habsburg monarchs had 57 nephews between them, both related through blood (sibling’s child, 23), and through marriage (spouse’s sibling’s child, 34).􀀱󐀲 Of these, only seven attained o󰁦󰁩ce in the Habsburg monarchy, 󰁦󰁩ll-ing o󰁦󰁩ces such as the governorships of Castile (Archduke Maximilian, jointly  with his spouse), the Low Countries (Duke Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy, Sr.; archdukes Ernest and Albert; Alessandro Farnese), Portugal (Archduke Albert), the generalship of the Mediterranean 󐁦􀁬eet (Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy, Jr.), grand priory of Castile in the Order of Malta (Archduke Wenceslaus intended, Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy, Jr.) and Sicily (Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy, Jr.).􀀱􀀳 󐀹 Martha K. Hofman,  Raised to Rule. Educating Royalty at the Court of the Spanish  Habsburgs, 1601-1634  (Baton Rouge, 2011), 174-175.󐀱󐀰 Ignacio Ruiz Rodríguez,  Don Juan José de Austria en la Monarquía Hispánica: Entre la  Política, el Poder y la Intriga  (Madrid, 2008), 53-54, 69, 230-231.󐀱󐀱 One of very few exceptions is that Philip 󰁉󰁉 refused to allow his adult and erratic son don Carlos any role in government and even imprisoned him.󐀱􀀲 I have included all sons over ten years old—the age at which they were likely to be sent to a foreign court for their education—born to all siblings of Charles 󰁖, Philip 󰁉󰁉, Philip 󰁉󰁉󰁉, Philip 󰁉󰁖 and Charles 󰁉󰁉 and of the legitimate siblings of their spouses. The children of illegitimate siblings who were acknowledged have also been included.󐀱󰀳 Erwin Mayer-Löwenschwerdt, “Der Aufenthalt der Erzherzöge Rudolf und Ernst in Spanien, 1564-1571,” Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien  206, no. 5 (1927): 3-64; José Martínez Millán, “El Archiduque Alberto en la Corte de Felipe 󰁉󰁉,” in
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