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  Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at Download by:  [University of Newcastle, Australia] Date:  17 March 2017, At: 18:48 Archives of Animal Nutrition ISSN: 1745-039X (Print) 1477-2817 (Online) Journal homepage: Effects of different iron supply to pregnantsows (Sus scrofa domestica L.) on reproductiveperformance as well as iron status of new-bornpiglets Marzell Buffler, Christiane Becker & Wilhelm M. Windisch To cite this article:  Marzell Buffler, Christiane Becker & Wilhelm M. Windisch (2017):Effects of different iron supply to pregnant sows (Sus scrofa domestica L.) on reproductiveperformance as well as iron status of new-born piglets, Archives of Animal Nutrition, DOI:10.1080/1745039X.2017.1301059 To link to this article: Published online: 15 Mar 2017.Submit your article to this journal View related articles View Crossmark data  E ff  ects of di ff  erent iron supply to pregnant sows ( Sus scrofadomestica  L.) on reproductive performance as well as ironstatus of new-born piglets Marzell Bu ffl er, Christiane Becker and Wilhelm M. Windisch TUM School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Bavaria, Germany ABSTRACT  The present study aimed to investigate the e ff  ects of di ff  erent iron(Fe) supply to sows during gestation on their reproductive perfor-mance and placental Fe load. Additionally, the Fe status of thecorresponding o ff  spring was assessed. Twenty multiparous sowswere fed from insemination to farrowing with isoenergetic andisonitrogenic balanced diets di ff  ering in Fe content. The diet lowin Fe (Group  − Fe) was mainly composed of soybean meal andmaize meal and had a Fe content of 114 mg/kg DM. For the diethigh in Fe (Group +Fe), the diet was supplemented with Fe(II)SO 4  · 7H 2 O to a total Fe content of 256 mg/kg. Blood characteristics(haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular haem concentration,total Fe-binding capacity, transferrin saturation) of all sows weremeasured at the beginning and at the end of gestation. Daily Feretention was calculated at the day of farrowing. After birth, repro-ductive performance (litter size, piglet weight, litter weight), placen-tal Fe content and Fe blood characteristics of the piglets weredetermined. Apparent daily Fe retention tended to be greater inGroup +Fe (  p  < 0.1). Blood parameters of the sows did not show anyvariations between feeding groups, neither at the beginning nor atthe end of pregnancy, whereas placental Fe content was lower inGroup  − Fe (  p  < 0.05). In addition, Fe supply during gestationimproved litter size (  p  < 0.01) and litter weight (  p  < 0.05).Although all sows were supplied according to the current Fe recom-mendations, a signi 󿬁 cant decline in reproductive performance of Group  − Fe was recognised. Therefore, it was concluded that the re-evaluation of the gross Fe requirements of pregnant sows is inevi-table to accommodate the current feeding recommendations. ARTICLE HISTORY Received 27 October 2017Accepted 23 February 2017 KEYWORDS Iron; nutrient requirements;piglet production;reproductive performance;sow feeding 1. Introduction Intheorganism,theessential trace element iron (Fe) isneeded for a multitude offunctionsand plays a key role in oxygen transport and as cofactor of many enzymes (Hentze et al.2010). Therefore, an adequate Fe supply is fundamental for health and adequate perfor-mance of livestock animals. The current recommendations of Fe supply for pregnant andlactating sows are 80 – 100 mg/kg dry matter (DM) (NRC 2012). However, these valueshave not been re-evaluated for more than 35 years. During this period, a massive increasein the reproductive performance of sows was achieved, which was due to quantitative CONTACT  Marzell Bu ffl er marzell.bu ffl ARCHIVES OF ANIMAL NUTRITION, 2017 © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group  genetics, accompanied by greater nutrient demands of sows (Kim et al. 2005; Ball et al.2008). Furthermore, in global pig production, Fe contents of diets for gestating sows vary widely. In the US swine industry, the average dietary Fe content is 1.3 times of theestimated requirement (Flohr et al. 2016). In German farms, this content is exceeded onaverage by 430 mg/kg diet (Humann-Ziehank  2014). As maternal Fe de 󿬁 ciency bears therisk of reduced fertility and stillbirth (Normand et al. 2012), it is important to evaluatewhether the current data on Fe requirement of pregnant sows are still valid. Althoughthere is a signi 󿬁 cant amount of literature on the interconnections between alimentary Fesupply of sows and the Fe status of the o ff  spring, the current knowledge on Fe demands of modern sow genotypes is scarce. Therefore, the present study investigated the e ff  ects of di ff  erent alimentary Fe supply to pregnant sows on their reproductive performance as wellas the Fe status of their o ff  spring. 2. Materials and methods 2.1.  Experimental design This study was conducted at the research facility for livestock Thalhausen (TUMunich). The experiment was registered and approved by the District Government of Upper Bavaria of the Federal State of Bavaria (AZ 55.2-1-54-2532-84-13).The experiment was carried out in two trial periods. In each period, 12 sows(German Landrace) on heat were allocated to two feeding groups according to anequal average gestation number ( n  = 6 sows per group and period). Subsequently, allsows were inseminated. The animals were housed in gestation crates for 4 weeks untilgestation could be con 󿬁 rmed by ultrasound diagnosis. Because in each group one sow of was not successfully inseminated, the e ff  ective treatment group size amounted to n  = 5 for each of the two experimental periods. Next, pregnant sows were stabled aloneor pair-wise in fattening pens to allow individual feeding. Coprophagy was avoided by permanent observation of the sows and immediate removal of faeces in the pens. Oneweek before farrowing, the sows were moved into separate farrowing pens.The experimental feeding period lasted from insemination to farrowing. During thistime, sows were fed isoenergetic and isonitrogenic diets which di ff  ered in Fe content(low Fe diet vs. high Fe diet). The group low in Fe (Group  − Fe) received the basal dietcomposed mainly of corn and soybean meal (Table 1) with a native Fe content of 114 mg/kg. The basal diet was designed to meet all nutrient demands including a Fesupply of 90 mg/kg DM according to GfE (2006) and NRC (2012). In the group with high Fe content (Group +Fe), the basal diet was supplemented with 637 mg Fe(II)SO 4  · 7H 2 O per kg diet to reach a total Fe content of 256 mg/kg DM. From insemina-tion to day 84, the daily feed intake was restricted to 2.5 kg and from day 85 tofarrowing to 3.2 kg. Animals had free access to drinking water. 2.2.  Reproductive performance parameters After farrowing, the litter sizes of each sow as well as number of piglets born alive weredetermined. All piglets were weighted immediately after birth and data was used tocalculate the respective litter weights. 2 M. BUFFLER ET AL.  2.3.  Sampling conditions Two aliquots of each diet (500 g) were sampled in polyethylene bottles and storedat  − 20°C. Faecal samples of sows were collected on the day of farrowing andstored in plastic bags at  − 20°C. Placenta tissue was packed into plastic bagsdirectly after birth and frozen at  − 20°C. At the day of insemination and the day of farrowing, from sows blood samples (2 × 9 ml) were taken from  vena jugularis .Blood was collected in serum tubes (S-Monovette Z-Gel, Sarstedt AG Co,Nürnbrecht, Germany) and lithium heparin tubes (S-Monovette LithiumHeparin, Sarstedt AG &Co; 16 IU heparin/ml of blood), which were free of traceelement contaminants. Serum tubes were centrifuged at 3.000  g   for 15 min andserum was stored in 1.5 ml Eppendorf tubes at  − 20°C.Immediately after birth, from each piglet 1 ml of blood was collected from  venacava cranialis  with heparinised syringes and stored at 4°C. One piglet per litter waseuthanised at day 1 postpartum by anaesthesia (azaperone, ketamine) and bleeding.Blood samples (2 × 9 ml) were collected in serum and lithium heparin tubes asdescribed earlier. Liver tissue of these piglets was collected in plastic bags, evacuatedand stored at  − 20°C. 2.4.  Crude nutrient analysis and apparent retention of Fe DM and crude nutrient contents in diets were determined by proximate analysis (crudeprotein[Kjeldahl]:method954.01;etherextract:method920.39;crudeash:method942.05;crude  󿬁 bre: method 930.10) (AOAC 2005). The contents of metabolisable energy of bothdiets were calculated on the basis of the DLG database ( listed metabolisable energy (ME) contentsof the single feedstu ff  s.DM digestibility aswell as daily apparent Fe retention was determined according to the indicator dilutionmethod using lignin as native marker. Lignin contents in feed and faeces were determinedby   󿬁 bre detergent analysis (method 973.18) according to AOAC (2005). Table 1.  Ingredients and metabolisable energy content of the basal diet. Ingredient Contents (% in dry matter)Corn 77.36Cellulose 6.50Soybean meal (40% CP) 12.00 L -Lysine 0.15 DL -Methionine 0.12 L -Tryptophan 0.02Soybean oil 1.00NaCl 0.55CaCO 3  0.75Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 0.80Premix † 0.75Metabolisable energy ‡ [MJ/kg] 12.86 † Provided per kg dietary DM: 829 mg MgO; 24 mg CuSO 4  · 5H 2 O; 62 mg MnSO 4  · H 2 O;0.4 mg Na 2 SeO 3  · 5H 2 O; 0.7 mg KI; 244 mg ZnSO 4  · H 2 O; 16 mg vitamin A; 0.8 mgvitamin D 3 ; 60 mg vitamin E; 0.6 mg vitamin K 3 ; 3.4 mg vitamin B 1 ; 10.5 mg vitaminB 2 ; 22 mg niacin; 26 mg pantothenic acid; 3 mg vitamin B 6 ; 34 µg vitamin B 12 ;22.0 mg biotin; 2.9 mg folic acid; 2.4 g choline chloride (contents of all vitamins andtrace elements met the requirements according to NRC 2012);  ‡ Estimated from ARCHIVES OF ANIMAL NUTRITION 3
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