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  Electricity  is the set of  physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of matter that has a property of  electric charge. In early days, electricity was considered as being not related to magnetism. Later on, many experimental results and the development of  Maxwell's equations indicated that both electricity and magnetism are from a single phenomenon: electromagnetism. Various common phenomena are related to electricity, including lightning,  static electricity, electric heating, electric discharges and many others. The presence of an electric charge, which can be either positive or negative, produces an electric field. The movement of  electric charges is an electric current and produces a magnetic field.  When a charge is placed in a location with a non-zero electric field, a force will act on it. The magnitude of this force is given by Coulomb's law. Thus, if that charge were to move, the electric field would be doing work on the electric charge. Thus we can speak of  electric potential at a certain point in space, which is equal to the work done by an external agent in carrying a unit of positive charge from an arbitrarily chosen reference point to that point without any acceleration and is typically measured in volts. Electricity is at the heart of many modern technologies, being used for:    electric power  where electric current is used to energise equipment;    electronics  which deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, and associated passive interconnection technologies. Electrical phenomena have been studied since antiquity, though progress in theoretical understanding remained slow until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Even then, practical applications for electricity were few, and it would not be until the late nineteenth century that electrical engineers were able to put it to industrial and residential use. The rapid expansion in electrical technology at this time transformed industry and society, becoming a driving force for the Second Industrial Revolution. Electricity's extraordinary versatility means it can be put to an almost limitless set of applications which include transport, heating, lighting, communications,  and computation. Electrical power is now the backbone of modern industrial society.    Benjamin Franklin Among those who studied electricity  was Benjamin Franklin. He is famous for his experiments with electricity , but he did not discover  it. Franklin's famous experiment in 1752 with the kite, key, and storm simply proved that lightning and tiny electric  sparks were the same thing.    Source of Electricity Electricity cannot be mined from the ground like coal . So it is called a secondary source of energy, meaning that it is derived from primary sources, including coal, natural gas,  nuclear fission reactions, sunlight, wind, and hydropower. Most direct uses of  primary energy are limited to generating heat and motion. Electricity, by contrast, is extremely versatile, with a wide range of complex applications. Electricity plays such an essential role in contemporary American life that its supply and demand are often examined separately from the primary sources used to  produce it. The mystery of Pre-Colonial Philippines  Few people realize that before the Spanish colonization, the Philippines was already home to a vibrant thriving society of native tribes. When someone talks about the history of the Philippines, the conversation generally begins with the arrival of the Spanish. Few people recognise the nation even existed, let alone had a system of governance and was even quite prosperous before the coming of the Spanish and other colonizers. The land had a rich culture with a people who had established themselves in rather unbelievable ways. Pre-colonial Philippines has been quoted  by some historians and other rather influential people as being one of the most progressive societies to ever exist to this moment. A brief look at the history books reveals a land where there was a very rich culture of agriculturalists, innovators and empowerment beyond comparison. So, what was the culture like before the Spanish colonized this land? It is vital to note that the name Philippine is attributed to Dominican Priest and Spanish explorer Ruy Lopez de Villalobos who named the Philippine Islands after Phillip II in 1543. The name was automatically adopted henceforth. This piece is, however, about the rich culture the country had  before colonization. Here are a few points to note, therefore, about pre-colonial Philippines. Their women were very powerful A look at the pre-colonial Philippines reveals a society where there was a lot of equality when it comes to gender. Women were just as powerful as men in terms of family hierarchy, societal  placement, leadership and even professionalism. The women had a lot of say on how the family unit operated from making key decisions such as the number of kids to have and their spacing. They also solely decided the names of their kids. In certain instances, women were even thoroughly revered by men because of the power and influence they yielded. It was a common sign to see men walking behind women as a show of respect. As well, just like men, women owned and inherited property, had equal opportunity in almost all professions and craftsmanship and also led their respective territories. They had good foreign relations especially with the Chinese Pre-colonial Philippines generally had very good relations with foreigners. They traded with the Arabs, Chinese and even Indians. History reveals that the trading expertise of native Filipinos gave them a name halfway across the world. Their trade was, however, not outstanding with the Chinese. People could consider them trade buddies because of the level of trust between the two. It is said that the honesty of the Philippines greatly surprised the Chinese and improved their trade relations. So much was the trust that at times the Chinese would leave their goods at the ocean shore and come back for their traded items late on whereupon the Filipinos would surrender the returns without question. This made the Chinese the greatest trade partners of the ancient Philippines. Their tribes were either highlanders or lowlanders. The indigenous Filipinos include several tribes that existed way before the coming of the modern Filipinos. These tribes have been traced almost 50,000 years back according to archaeological evidence. It is important to notice that there are 2 major subdivisions for the 134 indigenous Filipino tribes. They were either highlanders or lowlanders. After colonization, the lowlanders were majorly influenced in terms of culture erosion by the colonizers. The highlanders, however, maintained the majority of their culture even during and after colonization. This was majorly influenced by the inaccessibility of the highlands that discouraged the colonizers. The majority of the indigenous people of  northern Philippines are referred to as  Igorot while those found within the mainland Mindanao are called the  Lumad.  The tribes co-existed   peacefully and engaged in many activities amongst themselves which strengthened their relations as well as that of foreigners. The tribes and sub-tribes also intermarried and visited each other to ensure they correlated well. Their differences were more of a strength than a weakness which helped them in improving their general operations and life as a whole. While there were 134 ethnic groups in the Philippines, 135 languages still exist till now and one is known by the majority, if not all of the Philippines population. This common language is Tagalog and is currently used as the national language. Several professions already existed The ancient Filipinos were a predominantly an agricultural society with large tracts of land having both animal and crops. This made them self-sufficient in terms of food. Do not, however,  be fooled that they were only agriculturalists. They had very many other professions that saw them create a well-rounded society. These professions included mining, seafaring, hunting, weapon making, smithing and even textiles. This made them produce a lot of items that they could use and trade in. This as well made them one of the richest and most-skilled pre-colonial settlements known to man. Many foreigners came to settle within the Filipinos because of their skill-set and their friendly and honest lifestyle. Islam was the major religion Islam is said to be the oldest single religion to ever exist in the pre-colonial Philippines. This is attributed to the trade relations between the ancient Filipinos and Muslim traders from The Persian Gulf and other surrounding areas. This happened in the 14th century and quickly spread to the rest of Philippines with a major concentration of Muslims in the southern region of Mindanao. The greatest warriors in terms of fighting against the west and general colonization were the Muslims with most of their clerics such as Rajah Sulayman who was the Muslim Rajah (leader) of Maynila, staging fights that have gone down history as some of the longest resistance against colonizers. Islam is currently a religion practised by 6% of the Philippine population in the modern day, with Christianity, Buddhism and Hinduism taking a big chunk of the current Philippine population. It is evident that the average ancient pre-colonial Filipino was a person with a strong and rich culture, well-endowed intellect with a high level of professionalism and skill. With such large tracts of well-endowed land, an honest society with equality, religion, and diversity that was embraced rather than shunned, one could argue that life must have been better during pre-colonial time than now, but that is just an issue up for debate. Scientific method The scientific method  is an empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of  science since at least the 17th century. It involves careful observation, applying rigorous skepticism about what is observed, given that cognitive assumptions can distort how one interprets the observation. It involves formulating hypotheses,  via induction, based on such observations; experimental and measurement-based testing of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings. These are  principles  of the scientific method, as distinguished from a definitive series of steps applicable to all scientific enterprises.  The first characteristic of the scientific method is its conventional nature which serves as a framework of the generation of objective knowledge. That is why multiple characteristics exist according to the perspective with which they are classified, studied, and even named. The expression scientific method is used with different meanings, and, very often, abuses it to  justify a specific personal or social position with relative ignorance about the complexity of the concept. As its very name indicates, it represents the methodology that defines and differentiates scientific knowledge from other types of knowledge. The philosophy of science creates the scientific method to exclude all that has subjective nature and, therefore, is not capable of forming part of what is called scientific knowledge. In the last analysis, that which is accepted by common sense itself is why it obtains general acceptance by the scientific community and society. Clearly not everyone will agree with the previous paragraph as there are various trends of the  philosophy of science that are, in turn, derived from the different concepts about reality,  perception, theories, etc. On the other hand, we know that there are things whose nature is precisely subjective. The scientific approach to these elements is complex and normally carried out through the lesser scientific methods which are designed for specific branches of knowledge. It deals with those three basic types of scientific method (inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning,  and hypothetic-deductive or hypothesis testing)  that tend to be applied in the natural sciences (physics, chemistry, biology, etc.) in contrast to the commonly categorized social sciences (economics, politics, etc.) Among these methods we can cite: hermeneutical,  phenomenological, dialectical, functionalism, structuralism, etc.  What is scientific method? Actually, despite receiving the same designation as scientific methods,  we are referring to things that are no longer different but situated on a different scale. Paradoxically, if we talk about the world of transportation technology, these nominative clones were referred to in a case as types of basic parts like nuts or bolts, and in another as types of vehicles like motorcycles, cars, trucks, boats, planes, rockets, etc. In other words, there are three basic types and the rest are types composed from the previous that try to define a complex structure and that, therefore, are found on a macroscopic scale relating to the first. Likewise, it is obvious that the concept of time is associated with that of life and, by extension, with that of love.  But the existence of love is not scientific!  Nor do we know very well what life is about. And what are the vital impulse systems? Here we come to an existential problem with certain branches of science that don’t want to and can’t recognize that life and love exist with the corresponding exercise of their freedom. It is as if freedom were the enemy of knowledge and science in that it attempts to discover laws that explain events and where it fails it imposes its personal god: randomness.  We find a prototype of agnosticism in Laplace  (1749-1827) when he says: If in a particular instance we become aware of the exact situation and velocity of all of the particles of the universe, we could deduce through calculations all of its past and future . In my opinion, this affirmation needs a greater act of faith than the contrary simply because although freedom may not be very scientific I feel deep down that it is.


Jul 11, 2019
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