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  The Periodic Tableof the Elements,in Pictures and Words © 2005–2016 Keith EnevoldsenCreative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0International License elements.wlonk.com  A  l   k  a  l   i   E  a  r  t   h  M e t   a  l   s  A  l   k  a  l   i   M e t   a  l   s  Transition MetalsSuperheavy ElementsRare Earth MetalsActinide Metals  N o b  l   e G  a  s  e s  H a  l   o g e n  s  M   e  t   a  l   l   o  i   d    s  P   o  o  r  M   e  t   a  l   s  N   o  n  m  e  t   a  l   s   H Hydrogen  belongs to no definite group. It forms compounds by either donating an electron like an alkali metal or accepting an electron like a halogen. Alkali Metals  are very reactive and readily form compounds but are not found free in nature. They form salts and alkali (acid-neutralizing) compounds such as baking soda. In pure form, they are very soft metals which catch fire on contact with water. Alkali Earth Metals  are reactive and readily form compounds but are not found free in nature. Their oxides are called alkali earths. In pure form, they are soft and somewhat brittle metals. An atom  has a nucleus , made of protons  and neutrons , surrounded by electrons  orbiting in cloud-like shells . Smaller shells are surrounded by larger shells.The atomic number  is the number of protons in an atom. This determines the chemical properties of the atom.Protons have positive electric charge , neutrons are neutral, and electrons are negative. Normally, an atom has equal numbers of protons and electrons. An ion  is a charged atom with more or fewer electrons than protons.The atomic weight  of an element is the average number of protons plus neutrons. You can easily estimate the atomic weight: it is usually 2 to 2.5 times the atomic number.An element  is a substance made from one or more atoms of the same atomic number. A compound  is a substance made from two or more elements chemically bonded. Atoms Nucleus ofprotons andneutronsElectronshellsParticlesProtonNeutronElectron+10-1 The color of the symbol isthe color of the element inits most common pure form.Examplestop ten elements by weight Human Body top eight elements by weight Earth's Crust ferromagnetic at room temperature MagneticSolidLiquid at roomtemperature Gas corrosion-resistant Noble Metals all isotopes are radioactive Radioactive less than a millionth percent of earth's crust Only Traces Found in Nature only made by people Never Found in Nature red liquidcolorless gasmetallic solid The color of the symbol isthe color of the element inits most common pure form.Examplestop ten elements by weight Human Body top eight elements by weight Earth's Crust ferromagnetic at room temperature MagneticSolidLiquid at roomtemperature Gas corrosion-resistant Noble Metals all isotopes are radioactive Radioactive less than a millionth percent of earth's crust Only Traces Found in Nature only made by people Never Found in Nature red liquidcolorless gasmetallic solid The color of the symbol isthe color of the element inits most common pure form.Examplestop ten elements by weight Human Body top eight elements by weight Earth's Crust ferromagnetic at room temperature MagneticSolidLiquid at roomtemperature Gas corrosion-resistant Noble Metals all isotopes are radioactive Radioactive less than a millionth percent of earth's crust Only Traces Found in Nature only made by people Never Found in Nature red liquidcolorless gasmetallic solid The color of the symbol isthe color of the element inits most common pure form.Examplestop ten elements by weight Human Body top eight elements by weight Earth's Crust ferromagnetic at room temperature MagneticSolidLiquid at roomtemperature Gas corrosion-resistant Noble Metals all isotopes are radioactive Radioactive less than a millionth percent of earth's crust Only Traces Found in Nature only made by people Never Found in Nature red liquidcolorless gasmetallic solid elements.wlonk.com elements.wlonk.com elements.wlonk.comelements.wlonk.com elements.wlonk.com elements.wlonk.comelements.wlonk.com elements.wlonk.com elements.wlonk.com  Hydrogen H No Group Alkali Metals  A  l   k  a  l   i   M e t   a  l   s  Alkali Earth Metals  A  l   k  a  l   i   E  a  r  t   h  M e t   a  l   s  Alkali Earth MetalsAlkali Metals    T  r  a  n  s   i   t   i  o  n   M  e   t  a   l  s   S  u  p  e  r   h  e  a  v  y   E   l  e  m  e  n   t  s   R  a  r  e   E  a  r   t   h   M  e   t  a   l  s   A  c   t   i  n   i   d  e   M  e   t  a   l  s Noble GasesHalogens  M e  t a   l  l o  i d s  P o o r M e  t a   l s  N o n m e  t a   l s    H Alkali Earth MetalsAlkali Metals    T  r  a  n  s   i   t   i  o  n   M  e   t  a   l  s   S  u  p  e  r   h  e  a  v  y   E   l  e  m  e  n   t  s   R  a  r  e   E  a  r   t   h   M  e   t  a   l  s   A  c   t   i  n   i   d  e   M  e   t  a   l  s Noble GasesHalogens  M e  t a   l  l o  i d s  P o o r M e  t a   l s  N o n m e  t a   l s    H Alkali Earth MetalsAlkali Metals    T  r  a  n  s   i   t   i  o  n   M  e   t  a   l  s   S  u  p  e  r   h  e  a  v  y   E   l  e  m  e  n   t  s   R  a  r  e   E  a  r   t   h   M  e   t  a   l  s   A  c   t   i  n   i   d  e   M  e   t  a   l  s Noble GasesHalogens  M e  t a   l  l o  i d s  P o o r M e  t a   l s  N o n m e  t a   l s    H Alkali Earth MetalsAlkali Metals    T  r  a  n  s   i   t   i  o  n   M  e   t  a   l  s   S  u  p  e  r   h  e  a  v  y   E   l  e  m  e  n   t  s   R  a  r  e   E  a  r   t   h   M  e   t  a   l  s   A  c   t   i  n   i   d  e   M  e   t  a   l  s Noble GasesHalogens  M e  t a   l  l o  i d s  P o o r M e  t a   l s  N o n m e  t a   l s    H    A   t  o  m  s   f  o  r  m   m  o  l  e  c  u  l  e  s    b  y   b  o  n  d  i  n  g    t  o  g  e   t   h  e  r .   A   t  o  m  s  g   i  v  e ,   t  a   k  e ,  o  r  s   h  a  r  e  e   l  e  c   t  r  o  n  s   t  o  a  c   h   i  e  v  e   f  u   l   l  o  u   t  e  r  e   l  e  c   t  r  o  n  s   h  e   l   l  s .   E   l  e  m  e  n   t  s   i  n   t   h  e  s  a  m  e   g  r  o  u  p  ,  o  r  c  o   l  u  m  n ,  a  r  e  s   i  m   i   l  a  r   b  e  c  a  u  s  e   t   h  e  y   t  y  p   i  c  a   l   l  y   h  a  v  e   t   h  e  s  a  m  e  n  u  m   b  e  r  o   f  o  u   t  e  r  e   l  e  c   t  r  o  n  s .   T   h   i  s   t  a   b   l  e  s   h  o  w  s  s  o  m  e  e  a  s  y  -   t  o  -  r  e  m  e  m   b  e  r  c  o  m  m  o  n  n  u  m   b  e  r  s   f  o  r  e  a  c   h  g  r  o  u  p .   I  o  n  i  c  b  o  n  d    O  n  e  a   t  o  m   t  a   k  e  s  a  n  e   l  e  c   t  r  o  n   f  r  o  m  a  n  o   t   h  e  r  a   t  o  m  a  n   d   t   h  e  o  p  p  o  s   i   t  e   l  y  c   h  a  r  g  e   d   i  o  n  s  a   t   t  r  a  c   t .   C  o  v  a  l  e  n  t  b  o  n  d    A   t  o  m  s  s   h  a  r  e   t   h  e   i  r  o  u   t  e  r  e   l  e  c   t  r  o  n  s .   M  e  t  a  l  l  i  c  b  o  n  d    S   h  a  r  e   d  o  u   t  e  r  e   l  e  c   t  r  o  n  s   f   l  o  w ,  c  o  n   d  u  c   t   i  n  g   h  e  a   t  a  n   d  e   l  e  c   t  r   i  c   i   t  y .   C  h  e  m  i  c  a  l   B  o  n  d  i  n  g    N  a   C   l   N  a   +    C   l   -    H   H   O   H   H   O    S  a   l   t   S   i   l  v  e  r   W  a   t  e  r    A  g   A  g   A  g   A  g   A  g   A  g   A  g   G  r  o  u  p  s    T   h  e  v  a   l  e  n  c  e  n  u  m   b  e  r   i  s   t   h  e  n  u  m   b  e  r  o   f  e   l  e  c   t  r  o  n  s  g   i  v  e  n   (  +   )  o  r   t  a   k  e  n   (  -   )  w   h  e  n   b  o  n   d   i  n  g .   2   3  -   1   2   1   3   1   4   1   5   1   6   1   7   1   8   11  +   1   G  r  o  u  p  n  u  m   b  e  r   O  u   t  e  r  e   l  e  c   t  r  o  n  s   *   V  a   l  e  n  c  e  n  u  m   b  e  r   *   2  +   2   2  +   2   3  +   3   4  +   4 ,  -   4   5  -   3   6  -   2   7  -   1   80   *   t  y  p   i  c  a   l AtomicSymbolNameSymbolsAtomicNumber number ofprotonsHow it is (or was) usedor where it occurs in nature  _____ium Widgets A Z elements.wlonk.com elements.wlonk.com elements.wlonk.comelements.wlonk.com elements.wlonk.com elements.wlonk.comelements.wlonk.com elements.wlonk.com elements.wlonk.com  Halogens  are reactive nonmetals and readily form compounds but are not found free in nature. They combine with alkali metals to form salts (halogen means salt-former). Noble Gases are inactive, or inert. Each atom has exactly the number of electrons it needs to have a full outer shell, so these atoms almost never bond with other atoms. That is why these are all gases. Transition Metals  are typical metals: they are strong, shiny, malleable (they can be hammered into shape), flexible (in thin sheets or wires), and they conduct both heat and electricity. Poor Metals  are usually soft and have low melting temperatures. Metalloids  are partly like metals and partly like nonmetals. For example, they are semiconductors, which means they conduct electricity in some conditions.B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, and Te are metalloids. Nonmetals , in their solid state, are usually brittle (they break rather than bend) and they are insulators of both heat and electricity. Actinide Metals  are all radioactive heavy metals. They are used mainly for their radioactive properties. Rare Earth Metals  are all soft metals. They are chemically similar to scandium and yttrium and are difficult to separate from each other. Superheavy Elements  are all radioactive and short-lived. They are never found in nature and have no uses except atomic research. elements.wlonk.com elements.wlonk.com elements.wlonk.comelements.wlonk.com elements.wlonk.com elements.wlonk.comelements.wlonk.com elements.wlonk.com elements.wlonk.com  Halogens  H a  l     o  g e n  s  Noble Gases  N o b  l   e G  a  s  e s  Transition Metals Transition Metals Poor Metals P   o  o  r  M   e  t   a  l   s   Metalloids M   e  t   a  l    l    o  i   d    s   Nonmetals N    o   n   m   e  t    a   l    s   Rare Earth Metals Rare Earth Metals Actinide Metals Actinide Metals Superheavy Elements Superheavy Elements elements.wlonk.com elements.wlonk.com elements.wlonk.comelements.wlonk.com elements.wlonk.com elements.wlonk.comelements.wlonk.com elements.wlonk.com elements.wlonk.com

CHAPTER 1

Sep 10, 2019

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Sep 10, 2019
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