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English and the educationalization of social problems, 1894 to 1918.

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This study draws from histories of “educationalisation” and neo-Foucaultian histories of English teaching in an archival analysis that revisits landmark pedagogical texts that coincided with the rapid expansion of the school subject English in
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  Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found athttp://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=cpdh20 Download by:  [Jory Brass] Date:  10 March 2016, At: 14:04 Paedagogica Historica International Journal of the History of Education ISSN: 0030-9230 (Print) 1477-674X (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/cpdh20 English teaching and the educationalisation of social problems in the United States, 1894–1918  Jory Brass To cite this article:  Jory Brass (2016): English teaching and the educationalisationof social problems in the United States, 1894–1918, Paedagogica Historica, DOI:10.1080/00309230.2016.1151056 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00309230.2016.1151056 Published online: 10 Mar 2016.Submit your article to this journal View related articles View Crossmark data  PAEDAGOGICA HISTORICA, 2016http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00309230.2016.1151056 © 2016 Stichting Paedagogica Historica English teaching and the educationalisation of social problems in the United States, 1894–1918 Jory Brass Melbourne Graduate School of Education, University of Melbourne, Australia Introduction Te school subject “English” rose to prominence in several English-speaking countries around the turn o the twentieth century. 1  In the United States, the term “English” rarely appeared in school curriculum documents prior to the 1880s. Within three decades, however, it was a core subject and universal graduation requirement in US high schools. 2   English traditionally has been understood as a school subject centred on the study o English 1 Robin Peel, Annette Patterson, and Jeanne Gerlach, eds., Questions of English: Ethics, Aesthetics, Rhetoric, and the Formation of the Subject in England, Australia, and the United States  (London: Routledge Falmer, 2000). 2 E. Hays, College Entrance Requirements in English: Their Effects on the High Schools. An American Survey   (New York: Teachers College Press, 1936). ABSTRACT  This study draws from histories of “educationalisation” and neo-Foucaultian histories of English teaching in an archival analysis that revisits landmark pedagogical texts that coincided with the rapid expansion of the school subject English in between the 1894 Report of the Committee of Ten and 1918 Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education. The archival analysis considers these two reform documents along with the first comprehensive books on English teaching, which were published between the 1890s and 1920s. The study’s analysis adopts a selective focus on their explicit aims and rationales for teaching English, particularly in secondary schools, and the pedagogic logics and practices by which English was imagined as a governmental response to various social problems. This archival work recovers the largely overlooked ways in which the teaching of English was positioned to improve the moral and social condition of the population, to develop youths’ capacities for self-governance, to professionalise teaching through the psychological sciences, and to include “problem” populations within the corrective spaces of the English classroom. It also illustrates how distinctive approaches to teaching English language and literature were understood to attune youths’ “souls” to a range of governmental norms. This study bridges ideas from two historical literatures in order to unearth “educationalisation” problematics and “governmental” practices that traditional histories of English teaching have largely obscured, particularly in the United States. KEYWORDS Educationalisation; English teaching; governmentality; curriculum history ARTICLE HISTORY Received 4 June 2014 Accepted 24 November 2015 CONTACT Jory Brass  jbrass@unimelb.edu.au    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   J  o  r  y   B  r  a  s  s   ]  a   t   1   4  :   0   4   1   0   M  a  r  c   h   2   0   1   6  2 J. BRASS literature, grammar, writing and communication – the “English language arts”. In this arti-cle, however, I revisit the emergent proessional literature on English teaching rom the 1890s to 1910s to recover the largely overlooked ways in which landmark texts positioned primary and secondary school English within social projects to improve the condition o the population, to develop youths’ capacities or sel-governance and to include “problem” populations within the corrective spaces o the schools. Te aim o this study is to recover these educational aims and practices through archival analysis and to theorise these over-looked aspects o English teaching by drawing rom histories o “educationalisation” that srcinated in Europe and neo-Foucaultian histories o English teaching that have been most developed in Australia. “Educationalisation” and neo-Foucaultian histories of subject English he “educationalisation o social problems” has named a transnational phenomenon in which “social” responsibilities were increasingly transerred to schools. 3  he umbrella term “educationalisation” (or “pedagogisation”) indicates the expansion o educational action in a number o countries, particularly in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, when mass popular education was increasingly conceived as a solution to perceived social, moral, economic and political problems. his mode o thinking has continued into the twenty-irst century, where today’s schools not only may be called upon to inculcate academic knowledge, or example, but also to alleviate poverty, to improve national economic competitiveness, and to promote personal responsibility, sae driving, sae sex and democratic citizenship. 4 Most histories o educationalisation argue that the pedagogical unction o modern nation-states did not srcinate rom a single model, historical process, or ideal. Rather, it emerged out o different historical practices and visions o social order that ed into modern efforts to save society by saving the child. 5  Across the “long nineteenth century”, 6  or exam- ple, Christian impulses to save individuals and society were transormed into seemingly sec- ular projects o making republican citizens as they were joined with new ideas about social order and progress, the emergence o science as a practice to intervene in human affairs, and shifing notions o individual identity and social solidarity. 7  By the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, modern education reorms also sought to proessionalise teaching through the reason and expertise o the social sciences, to replace pedagogies o physical compulsion with psychological “treatment” o the child, and to include various “problem” populations o students within the corrective spaces o the school. Tese rationalities, pro-cesses and practices coalesced into a transnational phenomenon o educationalisation that continues to orm the basis o much contemporary thinking about curriculum, schooling and social reorm in the early twenty-first century. 8 3 Paul Smeyers and Marc Depaepe, eds., Educational Research: The Educationalization of Social Problems  (New York: Springer, 2008). 4 Ibid. 5 Thomas Popkewitz, “The Social, Psychological and Educational Sciences: From Educationalization to Pedagogicalization of The Family and Child,” in ibid. 6 Daniel Trohler, Thomas Popkewitz, and David Labaree, eds., Schooling and the Making of Citizens in the Long Nineteenth Century   (New York: Routledge, 2011). 7 Ibid. 8 Smeyers and Depaepe, Educational Research .    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   J  o  r  y   B  r  a  s  s   ]  a   t   1   4  :   0   4   1   0   M  a  r  c   h   2   0   1   6  PAEDAGOGICA HISTORICA 3 Tese historical contours o educationalisation have been studied more extensively in Europe than in North America. 9  At the same time, historical studies o educationalisation in the United States have historicised the pedagogisation o the child and amily rom the eighteenth century to the present, explored distinguishing trends o present technologies o educationalisation, traced relationships between educationalisation and the social sciences, and accounted or the persistence o educationalisation in spite o its perennial ailures to reorm schools or society. 10  Tese studies have offered varied and productive engagements with the educationalisation concept; however, they have not explored important connec-tions between the educationalisation o social problems and modern English teaching that might offer important contributions and challenges both to histories o educationalisation and histories o subject English.While most studies o English teaching have remained “pugnaciously anti-histori- cal”, 11  a small, international network o historians have adapted Foucaultian analytics to consider how the teaching o English has been implicated since the turn o the twentieth century in governing individuals and populations. In Culture and Government   and Rethinking the School  , or example, Australian Ian Hunter contended that the teaching o English in primary and secondary schools was made possible by a “late mutation” in a pedagogical apparatus o Christian pastoral care that or centuries had been directed towards the well-being o the individual soul. Between the late eighteenth and early twentieth centuries, Hunter argued, the Protestant Sunday school movement in the UK had led to a distinctive apparatus o literary pedagogy that enabled children to internal- ise social norms as personal conscience and desire. Sunday schools may have invented literary lessons capable o orming norm-governed individuals, Hunter argued, but it was the modern, bureaucratic state – not philanthropy or religion – that possessed the resources, administrative expertise, and political will necessary to inculcate social attributes at the scale o the population. As modern states began to improvise school systems, they reappropriated pastoral relationships, reading practices and sel-discipli-nary techniques rom Protestantism and adapted them in primary and (later) secondary English classrooms to address a range o “social” concerns related to “the child’s attrib- utes as a member o a population and uture citizen o the state – to his health, criminal propensity, sentiments, and regularity o habits” (p. 46). Here, Hunter’s account o the conditions that gave rise to secondary English teaching resonate with key historical breaks and contours associated with the acceleration o educationalisation in the nine- teenth and twentieth centuries.Other Australian historians have engaged the work o Hunter, Foucault and others to explore how practices o English teaching have been as much about shaping subjectivity as helping youth to read, write and speak the English language. In particular, the individ-ual and collaborative histories o Bill Green, Phil Cormack, Annette Patterson and col-leagues have detailed how subject English has been implicated or a century in the political work o nation-building and addressing a wide range o social, moral, ethical and political 9 Ibid. 10 Lynda Stone, “Educationalization in a USA Present: A Historicist Rendering," in Educational Research  ed. Smeyers and Depaepe, 61–78; David Labaree, “The Winning Ways of a Losing Strategy: Educationalizing Social Problems in the United States,” Educational Theory   58, no. 4 (2008): 447–60. 11 Robert Morgan, “The ‘Englishness’ of English Teaching,” in Bringing English to Order: The History and Politics of a School Subject  , ed. Ivor Goodson and Peter Medway (East Sussex Falmer Press, 1990), 197–241.    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   J  o  r  y   B  r  a  s  s   ]  a   t   1   4  :   0   4   1   0   M  a  r  c   h   2   0   1   6  4 J. BRASS concerns. 12  In many cases, the English curriculum and reading pedagogies were ordered to orm sel-governing individuals who were both “subject” to the British Empire and “citizens” o Australia. Tus, as Bill Green has noted, political crises over the teaching o literature, grammar and popular texts in Australia have reflected larger struggles over cultural author- ity, national identity and control o the symbolic field. Similarly, in England, Canada and the United States, a ew histories have drawn rom the work o Foucault and cultural studies to examine how the primary and secondary English curriculum ordered symbolic fields and pedagogical environments to oster children’s capacities to act autonomously within social rules and orms. 13  In many respects, then, the course in English was not only a course in reading and writing, but also training in how to say “I” and how to live in accordance with social imaginaries. 14  More recently, my work in the United States has ollowed similar lines o analysis to examine how US English teachers have been charged or more than a century with reshaping the attributes o the population through classroom practices that were thought to attune youths’ minds and souls to larger governing patterns o society. 15  Reading across these Anglophone studies, subject English can be viewed productively as “the territory o discipline and governmentality, o bio-power, and the social regulation o norms and images, with the English teacher as the kindly moral supervisor o uture citizens”. 16 Acknowledging both differences and resonances within and across these two literatures, my inquiry draws rom both histories o “educationalisation” and neo-Foucaultian histories o English teaching to inorm an archival analysis o landmark texts that coincided with the rapid expansion o English teaching between 1894 and 1918. First, I re-examine the first comprehensive books on English teaching that Applebee’s influential history credited with creating an initial identity and consciousness among English teachers in the US: B. A. Hinsdale’s (1898) eaching the Language-Arts , Percival Chubb’s (1902) Te eaching of English in the Elementary School and the Secondary School  , and Carpenter, Baker and Scott’s (1903) Te eaching of English in the Elementary and the Secondary School  . Tese long, comprehensive books were largely responsible or outlining the first influential visions o English teaching or the twentieth century – particularly the latter books, which were 12 Annette Patterson, Phil Cormack and Bill Green, “The Child, the Text and the Teacher: Reading Primers and Reading Instruction,” Paedogogica Historica  48, no. 2 (2012), 185–96; Green, Cormack and Patterson, “Re-reading the Reading Lesson: Episodes in the History of Reading Pedagogy,” Oxford Review of Education  39, no. 3 (2013), 329–44; Green and Cormack, “Curriculum History, “English” and the New Education; or, Installing the Empire of English?,” Pedagogy, Culture, & Society   16, no. 3 (2008), 253–67; Green and Cormack, “Literacy, Nation, Schooling: Reading (in) Australia,” in Schooling and the Making of Citizens in the Long Nineteenth Century  , ed. Daniel Trohler, Thomas Popkewitz and David Labaree (New York: Routledge, 2011), 241–61; Cormack, “Imagining the National Subject: English and the Post-Primary School Child in Early Twentieth- Century South Australia,” in English Teachers at Work: Narratives, Counter Narratives, and Arguments , ed. Brenton Doecke, David Homer and Helen Nixon (Kent Town, SA: Wakefield Press/Australian Association for the Teaching of English, 2003), 109–22; Bill Green and Catherine Beavis, eds., Teaching the English Subjects: Essays on Curriculum History and Australian Schooling  (Deakin: Deakin University Press, 1996). 13 Peter Medway and Ivor Goodson, eds., Bringing English to Order: The History and Politics of a School Subject   (London: Taylor & Francis, 1990); James Donald, Sentimental Education: Schooling, Popular Culture, and the Regulation of Liberty   (London: Verso, 1992); Robert Morgan, “Three Unspeakable Things: Looking Through English’s Family Album,”  Journal of Educational Thought   29, no. 1 (1995), 3–33; Morgan, “The ‘Englishness’ of English Teaching”. 14 Morgan, “The 'Englishness' of English Teaching”. 15 Brass, “The Sweet Tyranny of Creating One's Own Life: Rethinking Power and Freedom in English Teaching,” Educational Theory   60, no. 6 (2011): 703–17; Brass, “Historicizing English Pedagogy: The Extension and Transformation of ‘The Cure of Souls’,” Pedagogy, Culture and Society   19, no.1 (2011): 93–112; Brass, “Sunday Schools and English Teaching: Re-reading Ian Hunter and “The Emergence of ‘English’ in the United States.” Changing English  18, no. 4 (2011): 337–49. 16 Green, Cormack and Reid, “Putting Our Past to Work...” English in Australia  127–28 (2000) 111–19.    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   J  o  r  y   B  r  a  s  s   ]  a   t   1   4  :   0   4   1   0   M  a  r  c   h   2   0   1   6

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