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Erotika Indika ; c., 650 A.D.

Erotic a well known component of Hindu temple art is traced in a structure dt.c.to 650A.D. The pictographs are discussed. All of them present frank nudidty. All nude presentations do not portend to amorous ethos nor allude to inter-course. Each
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  AÆga-©Ága ,  Journal of Performing and Visual Arts, Autumn-2008, pp. 19-33.   Author : Deepak Bhattacharya 1 EroÔikÁ IndikÁ : c.650 A.D. Dr. Deepak BhaÔÔÁchaªya Sri Radha Krishna, Kedar Gouri, Bubaneswar-751002, India, e.mail~ oddisilab1@dataone.in Phone 0674-2430407   Abstract   Erotic a well known component of Hindu temple art is traced in a structureddt.c.650A.D. The pictographs are discussed. All of them present frank nudidty. All nudepresentations do not portend to amorous ethos nor allude to inter-course. Eachpictograph seems is a independent mural or is in relation to a neighbouring one or is inrelation to the gamut. The high point is that, nudity in nªitya adds enchanting beauty tothe body and eros to the eye. Pan global, peerless on datum. Each have a kathÁ (story). The bhÁva ( ethos ) of the kathÁ have larger socio-cultural and historical connotations. The vÁªtÁ ( message ) is loaded with aspects of the then levels of social and physicalsciences. Introduction  The term Silpi (artist) encompass all types of performing artists. In general, to thecommon, it more denotes citrakÁrs (picture maker) and mÚªtikÁrs (sculptors). Worldover, in all historical periods the silpis have exhibited an uncanny affinity for depictingthe nude human body with extra refinement and flair. Such practice of the silpis (artists)is also practicing art. The term erotic arises out of Eros which connotes love making,which in turn is a practicing art. In parent Occidental phones erotics and India is alsointonated as eroÔikÁ and IndikÁ , respectively, which we adopt in our caption for topicallevity and heightened sensuality. Erotic in religious and secular art has been part of theHiÆdÚ way of life. Hindu temple exteriors adore erotic art, not interiors. Many wonderwhy ? Much has been written, much exhibited, yet related archaeology of  c. 650 A.D.,has not been. While our west facing candidate platform Ϫi PaªaÐÚrÁmeÐvara deÚla (temple) was built in c .650 A.D., in India, the Pallavas had similarly built the west facingKailashnath temple in c. 675A.D. Interestingly, the Pallava art panorama does not haveerotics. Whereas, the outer walls of our candidate structure is embellished with art work,many of which are erotic in ethos, some frank sexual. Preceding and cognate HinayÁñaart is bereft of erotics. The MÁhÁyÁña art follows a century later to our date of focus andgradually loads self with erotics, over the next few centuries. Many wonder why ?Deepak Bhattacharya[ 1-10 ]has co-related this structure with military cum religiousvictory with archaeoastronomy, maritime devices, engineering, Pure mathematics andhealth science heritage. Conserved by the British[ 11 ]and subsequently by the ASI it isthe best preserved structure of the earliest cognate group of the KaliÆgiya BakrÁkÁrRekhÁ DeÚla (cleaver and intelligent curvilinear temple). In relation to our topic, it is aauthentic candidate. This transaction is about the embedded eros aspects.  AÆga-©Ága ,  Journal of Performing and Visual Arts, Autumn-2008, pp. 19-33.   Author : Deepak Bhattacharya 2 We present each image and discuss the backdrop, the known cultural aspects and theembedded message(s) to the beholder (i.e. critical issues). Nudity, intercourse, exhibitionof private parts, body language thereof, are in relation to victor and the vanquished, needfor progeny, positional astronomy, iconology, classical dance, enticing urethralerection, its size, yearning by the damsel, inviting exhibition of her graceful body part-by-part, cavaroting , mid aged conjugal love, etc. are beholden by the discerning eye.Indications are also noted about aphrodisiac or kÁma yoga (principles and practices of coitus). Under the then imperial patronage and wider societal connoisseurship the silpi’s (artist’s) chisel has become the stylus, while the citªa bhaÐÁ (art dialect) is in thatof the beholder’s, which delivers the kathÁ (story). It transcends all barriers of  lingua and delivers on to the present mind as to how and what thought, the past .  To grasp thepolynomic kathÁ of  eªoÔikÁ in IÆdikÁ , aging and dispassionate scholarship adds profit to joy, for, in erotics, brevity is knaveity and haste is waste, as much in worship. This paperwas accepted by the 4 th Global Conference,  The Erotic – Exploring Critical Issues , 02-11-08, Salzburg. But it had to be withdrawn as author could not find support to travel.Also attempted in the Orissa History Congress. In this first time exploratory article weconsider few selected images as are on our candidate monument. Presentation & Discussions Our Fig.1 is located on the front façade, above the headof RÁvaña in the añÚgªha medallion. We can see Hara-PÁªvati are well dressed, ornamented and crown beset,yet Hara’s membrum verile is inflated and projectingoutside at 180 0 to navel. PÁrvati is seated on Hara’s thighas is done in vaÐikaraña (infatuation). Either areembracing each other. Both have pªava¿aƱalas (halos)behind head. BªÚÐava and Ði¿ha the vÁhañas are notedbelow respective members. PÁrvati is massaging the membrum verile and Hara holds the flower Kaiñ (Nynphaea Stell wild/Nyph. Lotus auct. non Linn). Thisflower has aphrodisiac property. It can turn on a femaleand excite her for higher and in-depth feeling of coitus. Inthe male it may trigger prolonged erection. Itmay suggest a long fore-play. Compared toHara, PÁrvati is suggestively younger andslimmer. The couple represents the male andfemale signatures of the HiÆdÚ society and aresymbolically flashing the embedded message tothe beholder. This image has a very importantplacement. The peeping figures is that of  ϪiViÐnÚ in Mohinee rÚpa[ 12] .  This sub-mural is part of the RÁvana AnÚgªha MÚrti. F-1F-2   F-1  AÆga-©Ága ,  Journal of Performing and Visual Arts, Autumn-2008, pp. 19-33.   Author : Deepak Bhattacharya 3  Our Fig.2 is located on the front façade alongthe west-north añÚratha pÁga (inter buttressarrangement). We can see a worn out image of a lady demonstrating the inner parts of hervagina and its ability to expand. She has bulbousmammaries and a fold-less slim waist and flatabdomen. We can see the outer ring represents labia majora and the inner ring represents labiaminora. Her sitting posture suggests a wellrehearsed position. This specimen may be forthe students of health sciences or to de-mystify the issues relating female genitals. It maybe interpreted as proto obstetrics and gynecology.Our Fig.3 is on the southern edge of the vazramaÐtaka. We can see a Ðaiva asceticdemonstrating his massive membrum verile . It seem he is invited/enticed by the ladystanding. She holds a flower. Botanist B.P. Chowdhury [13 ]has identified it as AÐokaindica/Saraca indica . This flower has medicinal use in removing uterine blocks and inassisting conception by triggering ovulation. She is crowned, wears a mekhalÁ at waist,well dressed, has gorgeous hips, bulbous breasts, inflamed tits, well demarcated circulartit-base, and has her feet in suggestive nªitya bhaÆgi . Her top cloth is seen as if slipping.She is enjoying the sight of the large inflated membrum verile . Either seem to be inagreement about the ongoing affair between them. Sculptured in two frames, this is awonderful interactive picture. It suggest good play and polygamy. Similar ethos are alsonoted in the art panorama of the Bharut-Sanchi pillars.Our Fig.4 is that of the bÁ±a in thesouth- eastquadrant. We cansee amorouscouples. The storyseems to bedelivered from leftto right. All themale figures are Ðaivas. Some of the females have ghÁgªÁ and dupÁtÁ type of wear. Itmay suggest ladies of the erstwhile Buddhist families adopting Ðaiva men as lifepartners. The bÁ±a runs as a lintel along the three sides of the spire. The whole of thelintel being embellished with kÁ¿a kathÁ (erotic stories) is a loaded suggestion to thebeholder as because the lintel is the load bearing mid portion of the spire and may belikened to the mid age of human life. F-3F-4  AÆga-©Ága ,  Journal of Performing and Visual Arts, Autumn-2008, pp. 19-33.   Author : Deepak Bhattacharya 4   This is a series along the northernside of the bÁ±a. Figures standing atdoorways. Note the half ajar doorwhich is very suggestive. Similar artforms can be seen at Sanchi wherepeople stand at the doorway to watchprocessions. The design of the doors isstill in vogue in rural Orissa and seeneven in old Bhubaneswar, Puri,Cuttack, etc. The articulation of theajar door is unparalleled. The citªÁ kathÁ is that, the ladies and the male members whoare on the either side (of the half ajar door) have  jaÔÁ (matted locks) type hair do, andwear Hindu apparels (tight fitting loin cloth upto their knees), ornaments and have alamp stand as shown in other murals elsewhere in this temple. The female in the middleframe (half ajar door) wears Buddhist apparels (gown upto her knees) and ornaments(ear rings are alike as in Bharut pillar art). Full gowns are dress forms of cold and lesshumid regions. The gracious lady represents an outsider. She has a distant look, herpelvic region is narrow, which suggest that she is issue less. We know that Buddhismenjoined celibacy on its vikÐÚs (members of the ÐaÆgha ) hence large number of fairer sex remained partner less. The pelvic region of the HiÆdÚ ladies suggests postmotherhood stage. One of them has a child (issue) i.e. she is a mother. The Ðaivadaïpati (Ðaiva couple) are suggesting that family life is openly permitted in the Ðaiva order. Whereas, it is not so in the Buddhist way of life. Therefore, she is being alluded torenounce her clebacy and adopt the ‘way of joyous copulation’ - Ðaiva dÁ¿patya. Besideand below the Ðaiva daïpati is seen a RÁj haÆÐa having elaborate inflorence of its hindcarrying a mÚktÁvali in its beak proceeding in majestic gait. It is suggestive of the greattidings of the Ðaiva way of life as compared to the Buddhist. Nearby is seen the parÁÐta   mayura with thaÆÔa mo±Á nidaªÐana . Its plume has wilted. The katha alludes to suchstate of affairs and also indicates failure of Buddhism and/or wane of mauryadominion in this part of the world.Our Fig.6 is that of a pair of couple inraised relief presented as two murals,yet heuristically connected. It islocated on the  jangha bhÁga on theeast side. In the image to the viewer’sleft, the male is to the right and he isbeing offered some eatable by thelady. They are seated on flat base. Inthe next frame the place of positionhas changed (as in Hindu system of showing the accepted female partner to the left of male). In this we can see a mÁÆciÁ (mini stool) in front and the male is seen in the act of putting something in to her mouth. He is offering pÁn (Piper beetle). In the left image her F-5F-6  AÆga-©Ága ,  Journal of Performing and Visual Arts, Autumn-2008, pp. 19-33.   Author : Deepak Bhattacharya 5 hips and thigh gives an impression of spreading. In the image to the right the couple areseated on mattress and the lady has her legs in crossed position, which is suggestive of post intercourse dialogue session. It is interactive picture of mid-age conjugal life.Our Fig.7 is that of a pair of two males andone female. It is located on the  jangha bhÁga on the south side (Left of Ϫi GaneÐa). Thefemale has her head rested on a pillow and hasone male entered into her. The male istransposing his body weight on to the ground,either are intricately enmeshed into each otherand the bodies appear as an single torso withtwo heads (every male part is in contact withsome part of the female). The gracious lady is much involved (as is her male partner) andhence holds the male firmly around his neck. It is depiction of the moments of greatsensation. This type of conjugation leading to absolute coitus has been described byVatsayana in his ‘ KÁma ÏÚtªÁ’ (axioms of desire) and of other covenences as ‘KÁmaÏastªÁ’ (desirous exercises) . So long is the affair, that the other person who is also in thereckoning is worrying and has put his hand on his head. Oh ! how long can/should ittake (he seems to be expressing). May be he is a celibate who expresses his noviceness. Itcan also be interpreted as a case of one lady enjoying the company of numerous malesand yet is not prostitution alias ‘natural selection’ (he who can give her the very best). F-7
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