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Estimation of Nitrate Concentration and Biological Denitrification of Wastewater in a Fluidized Bed Bioreactor

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Estimation of Nitrate Concentration and Biological Denitrification of Wastewater in a Fluidized Bed Bioreactor
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  International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 9, September (2014), pp. 221-230 © IAEME   221   ESTIMATION OF NITRATE CONCENTRATION AND BIOLOGICAL DENITRIFICATION OF WASTEWATER IN A FLUIDIZED BED BIOREACTOR KHAZAMOHIDDIN SHAIK 1 , Dr. SABUMON P C 2   1 Final B.tech Civil Engineering Student 2 Professor in Vellore institute of technologies I. ABSTRACT Nitrate is harmful to both mankind and animal and also to the environment .Nitrate is a major pollutant present in effluent wastewater from nitrogenous fertilizer, explosives, paper mills, pulpmills, and also from municipal waste. The World Health Organization has set a limit of 10 mg/L NO3 -  for human consumption and 100 mg/l NO3 -  for animals. Water above these limits requires denitrification. Nitrates causes cancer, blue-bay syndrome, hypertension and thyroid hypertrophy. Experimentation on biological denitrification was carried out in a fluidized bed bio-reactor using synthetic wastewater with polypropylene beads as supporting media for the growth of microorganism. Synthetic wastewater is taken into the reactor for biological treatment and air was fed from bottom with solids being fluidized at the top due to low density. Experiments were performed for water of different initial nitrate concentrations with Pseudomonas stutzeri microorganism by varying the parameters like airflow rate, temperature, carbon source, poly propylene beads and pH in the range 2 lpm to 3.5 lpm, 20 0 C to 35 0 C, 70 mg/L to 85 mg/L, 5 mg/L to 25 mg/L and 6 to 8 respectively. The optimum parameters at which maximum denitrification is noticed are found to be 2.5 lpm (air flow rate), 30 0 C (temperature), 85 mg/L (carbon source), 15 mg/L (poly propylene beads) and 7 (pH). More than 95% removal of nitrates is noticed from the experimental work. The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of operating parameters like airflow rate, temperature, carbon source, polypropylene beads and pH. Keywords:   Wastewater Treatment, Fluidized Bed Bioreactor, Microorganism, Biological Denitrification, Immobilization, Pseudomonas Stutzeri.   INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 9, September (2014), pp. 221-230 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/Ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.9290 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCIET ©IAEME  International Journal of Civil Eng ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, II. INTRODUCTION Removal of Nitrates is an common groundwater contaminant environment can be a cause of serio water sources, as well as hazard for drinking water for animal and huma are the greatest source of pollution, and nitrogen in ground water can fertilizer industries, explosives indu food processing. The World Heal consumption and 100 mg/L NO3 -  nitrogen substances, i.e. nitrates and a proton donor (energy source) is polluted wastewater (e.g. domestic source for the conversion of nit groundwater, in which the nitrate c content, an additional proton acc following pathway, in this process nitric oxide, nitrous oxide and nitro The main advantage of thi Denitrification requires an organ Denitrification especially in waste substrate for energy. Bacteria can u of the denitrification process; gene external carbon source due to econo be used in denitrification process in glycerol, lactic acid, molasses, etc. source. There are different method exchange, reverse osmosis, electro its own advantages and disadvanta and effective method as there is no takes place at mild reaction conditi work reported on biological denitri little using  Pseudomonas stutzeri . including ethanol and acetic acid, molasses, succinic acid, ethanol a experimental study fluidized bed reflow rate, temperature and initial ni water. It was operated for the remo external carbon source and  Pseu polypropylene bead. neering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 097 Issue 9, September (2014), pp. 221-230 © IAEM 222   important environmental issue as nitrate is s world-wide and discharge of nitrogen com s problems such as eutrophication of rivers an human and animal health and also to the enviro consumption is not recommended for health r accounting for more than half the volume of a be caused by human excreta, sewage disposa tries, municipal waste and industrial effluents, h Organization has set a limit of 10 mg/L or animals. Denitrification is a process in w nitrites are reduced to nitrogen gas, such as N vailable. In many biological denitrification sy sewage) contains sufficient carbon source to p ate to nitrogen gas by the denitrifying ba ontent may be as high as 100 mg/L with low ptor is required. The nitrate reduction react icroorganisms first reduce nitrates to nitrites en gas. s process is that it takes place at mild rea ic and inorganic substrate for energy an ater treatment is a heterotrophic process req e a variety of carbon sources, which is an imp rally most of the wastewater treatment plants mic reasons in denitrification process. Other co lude acetate, ethanol, methane, glucose, and p n this experimental work methanol was used a s, which have been developed for removing ialysis, chemical and catalytic denitrification. es. Biological method is found to be the mos econdary pollution. The main advantage of thi ons. Several studies has been carried out on ication of waste water using a fluidized bed Several sources of carbon have been used f newspaper, cotton, acetate, ethanol and met nd acetic acid, acetate, ethanol and hydroly actor was used to investigate the effect of vari trate concentration on nitrate removal from th al of nitrate at different concentrations. Metha  omon Stutzeri is used as the denitrifying ba – 6308 (Print), one of the most ponents into the deterioration of nment. Nitrate in asons. Industries ll water pollution l, cattle seepage, particularly from NO3 - for human ich the oxidized O and N2, when   stems, the nitrate ovide the energy teria. The treat dissolved carbon ions involve the and then produce ction conditions. cell synthesis. iring an organic rtant component use methanol as pounds that can eptone, saw dust, s external carbon nitrogen like ion ach of them has commonly used process is that it enitrification but ioreactor is very or denitrification anol, rice husk, zed rice. In this ables such as air synthetic waste nol is used as the cteria for which  International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 9, September (2014), pp. 221-230 © IAEME   223   III. ESTIMATION OF NITRATE CONCENTRATION OF SAMPLE Ultraviolet Spectrophotometric Screening Method: i) Apparatus: Spectrophotometer with cuvette that transmits UV light. ii) Reagents: Nitrate-free water:  Use redistilled or distilled deionized water of highest purity to prepare all solutions and dilutions. Stock nitrate solution:  Dry potassium nitrate ( 3 KNO ) in an oven at 105°C for 24 h. Dissolve 0.7218 g in water and dilute to 1000 mL; 1.00 mL = 100 µg -3 NO -N. Intermediate nitrate solution:  Dilute 100 mL stock nitrate solution to 1000 mL with water, 1.00 mL = 100 µg -3 NO -N. Hydrochloric acid solution, HCl, 1 N.  IV. PROCEDURE i) Treatment of sample To 50 mL clear sample, filtered if necessary, add 1 mL HCl solution and mix thoroughly. ii) Preparation of standard curve Prepare -3 NO  calibration standards in the range of to 7 mg -3 NO -N/L by diluting to 50 mL the following volumes of intermediate nitrate solution: 0, 1.00, 2.00, 4.00, and 7.00… 35.0 mL. Treat -3 NO  standards in same manner as samples. iii) Spectrophotometric measurement Read absorbance using distilled deionized water as the reference. Use a wavelength of 220 nm to obtain -3 NO  reading and a wavelength of 275 nm to determine interference due to dissolved organic matter. iv) Calculation For samples and standards, subtract two times the absorbance reading at 275 nm from the reading at 220 nm to obtain absorbance due to -3 NO . Construct a standard curve by plotting absorbance due to -3 NO  against -3 NO -N concentration of standard. Using corrected sample absorbance, obtain sample concentrations directly from standard curve. Note: If correction value is more than 10% of the reading at 220 nm, do not use this method.  International Journal of Civil Eng ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Fig 1: Estimation of Ni v) Finding concentration of nitrat Fig 2: A Tableconce neering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 097 Issue 9, September (2014), pp. 221-230 © IAEM 224   trate Concentration Using UV SPECTROSC in unknown solution: (Calibration Curve) sorbance Vs Concentration Curve 1: concentration vs. absorbance   tration(mg/l) Absorbance(nm) 1 0.35 2 0.567 3 0.919 4 1.111 5 1.269 6 1.567 7 2.075 8 2.303 9 2.682 10 2.953 15 4.65 20 6.1 25 7.46 30 8.99 35 10.62 nknown 9.32 – 6308 (Print), OPY

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