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  Module 1: Information and Communications Technology Today Information and Communication Technology (ICT)    Refers to technologies, both hardware and software, that enable human to communicate with one another.    Common misconception that ICT is internet or computer alone. Basically, it is any form of technology that enables you to communicate. New Technologies    Brand new Laptop    Smartphones    Tablets Four main periods: 1.   PREMECHANICAL PERIOD 2.   MECHANICAL PERIOD 3.   ELECTROMECHANICAL PERIOD 4.   ELECTRONIC PERIOD Period    The earliest age of information technology.    The time between 3000B.C. and 1450A.D.    Humans first started communicating using  petroglyths or petroglyphs were usually carved in rock.    Early alphabets were developed such as the Phoenician alphabet.    Pens and paper began to be developed. It started off as just marks in wet clay, but later paper was created out of papyrus plant.    The most popular kind of paper made was  probably by the Chinese who made paper from rags.    Egyptian scrolls which were popular ways of writing down information to save.    The first numbering systems. Around 100A.D.    The first 1-9 system was created by people from India. However, it wasn’t until 875A.D. (775 years later) that the number 0 was invented.    They created calculators, the popular model of that time was the abacus. Mechanical Period    We first start to see connections between our current technology and its ancestors.    Time between 1450 and 1840.    Slide rule (an analog computer used for multiplying and dividing) were invented.    Pascaline which was a very popular mechanical computer by Blaise Pascal.    Charles Babbage developed the Difference Engine which tabulated polynomial equations using the method of finite differences.    The Analytical Engine, first invented by Charles Babbage in 1837, contained features such as arithmetic logic unit, control flow and integrated memory. Electromechanical Period    Our modern-day technology.    The time between 1840 and 1940. These are the  beginnings of telecommunication. Telegraph was created in the early 1800s.    Morse code was created by Samuel Morse in 1835.    The telephone (one of the most popular forms of communication) was created by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876.    The first radio developed by Guglielmo Marconi in 1894.    The first large-scale automatic digital computer in the United States was the Mark 1 created by Harvard University around 1940. o   It was programmed using punch cards. o   8ft high, 50ft long, 2ft wide, and weighed 5 tons.    The Telegraph is considered the first electrical communications device. The first device to use electricity to transmit information over an electrical media. First invented in 1837 by William Cooke and Sir Charles Wheatstone.    Bombe was invented in 1939 by Alan Turing. This device was used to decipher the code. o   And was improved by Gordon Welchman a year later.   Electronic Period    Electronic age is what we currently live in. Time  between 1940 and right now.    ENIAC  (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was the first high-speed, digital computer capable of being reprogrammed to solve a full range of computing problems. o   Designed to be used by the U.S. Army for artillery firing tables. o   680 square feet and weighing 30 tons.    BASIC  (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) the third generation replaced transistors. Actual operating system showed up around this time along with the advanced  programming language.      CPU  (Central Processing Unit) The fourth and latest generation. Which contained memory, logic, and control circuits all on a single chip.      Apple II  an 8-bit home computer and one of the world's first highly successful mass-produced microcomputer products, designed primarily by Steve Wozniak .   o   It was introduced by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak at the 1977 West Coast Computer Faire and was the first consumer product sold by Apple Computer, Inc.      GUI (Graphical User Interface) a form of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation. Module 2: Professional Ethics “Character is what you do when no one is watching”  -   old adage Definition of Ethics Ethics    Greek word   “ETHOS”   (character)      Latin word “ MORES” (customs)    They combine to define how individuals choose to interact with one another.    In philosophy, ethics defines what is good for the individual and for society and establishes the nature of duties that people owe themselves and one another.    Branch of Axiology, one of the four major  branches of philosophy, which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to distinguish that which is right from that which is wrong.    Moral Philosophy, western tradition of ethics.    “  Ethics are moral standards that help guide behavior, actions, and choices.”    Ethics are grounded in the notion of Responsibility: o   free moral agents o   individuals o   organizations o   societies are responsible for the actions that they take Accountability: o   individuals o   organizations o   society should be held accountable to others for the consequences of their actions “In most societies, a sys tem of laws codifies the most significant ethical standards and provides a mechanism for holding people, organizations, and even governments accountable.”  -   Laudon, et al, 1996 Two angles of Ethics:    Normative   refers to well-based standards of right and wrong that prescribe what humans ought to do, in terms of:   o   rights o   obligations o    benefits to society o   Fairness, and specific virtues.    Ethics, for example, refers to those standards that impose the reasonable obligations: o   Rape, stealing, murder, assault, slander, and fraud.    Ethical standards  also include those that enjoin virtues:  o   honesty o   compassion o   loyalty    Ethical standards  include standards relating to rights: o   Such as the right to life, freedom from injury, to choose, to privacy, and to freedom of speech and expression. Such standards are adequate standards of ethics.    Prescriptive refers to the study and development of personal ethical standards, as well as community ethics, in terms of: o   Behavior o   Feelings o   Laws o   Social habits and norms which can deviate from more universal ethical standards.    Ethics also means, the continuous effort of studying of our own moral beliefs and conduct, and striving to ensure that we, and our community and the institutions we help to shape, live up to standards that are reasonable and solidly-based for the progress of human beings. Ethical Foundations & Philosophical Ethics Aristotle    Conceives of ethical theory as a field distinct from the theoretical sciences.    We study ethics in order to improve our lives, and therefore its principal concern is the nature of human well-being. Plato      He regards the ethical virtues: o   Justice o   Courage o   temperance As complex rational, emotional and social skills Kallman and Grillo (1992) argue that:    Ethics has to do with making a principle- based choice between competing alternatives. In the simplest ethical dilemmas, the choice is between right and wrong.    Are often very subjective , and connected to our emotions and our basic sense of ‘right’ and ‘wrong’. This means that it can be difficult to define ethics rigorously. This also applies to ethics in I.T. Kallman and Grillo consider whether ‘computer ethics’ are different from ‘regu lar ethics; and argue that:    Most experts agree that there is actually no special category of computer ethics; rather, there are ethical situations in which computers are involved. Professional Ethics    One's conduct of behavior and practice when carrying out professional work. ICT Ethics    In a world where information and communication technology has come to define how people live and work, and has critically affected culture and values.      This is a difficult task because of the diversity in creed, class, caste, dialect, language, culture and race throughout the region.    The issue of ICT ethics takes on added significance as the region struggles with the dynamics of globalization and the current  political environment after the September 11 incident. ICT Ethical Issues 1.   Unemployment o   Automation of work has caused creative destruction by eliminating some vocations and creating new ones. 2.   Crime o   Stolen and counterfeit ATM cards are used to steal millions of dollars each year throughout the region. o   The anonymity of the machines makes some crimes easier and creates many new types of crimes. 3.   Loss of privacy o   Transactions are transmitted and recorded in databases in the public or  private sector.   4.   Errors o   Information input into the databases is  prone to human and device error. 5.   Intellectual Property o   Millions of dollars of software is illegally copied each year all over the world. o   This phenomenon has a great impact on the software industry in the region. 6.   Freedom of speech and press o   How do the constitutional rights of individuals in terms of the freedoms of speech and press apply to electronic media? How seriously do the problems of pornography, harassment, libel, and censorship on the net affect individuals and society? What government initiatives have been used in handling this crisis? 7.   Digital Divide o   The increasing use of computers has increased the separation of rich and  poor, creating a digital divide between the information “haves” and “have -nots .”   8.   Professional Ethics o   Faulty and useless systems that cause disasters and hardships to users might  be built by incompetent ICT  professionals. o   In dispensing their duties ICT  professionals must demonstrate their  best practices and standards as set by  professional bodies for quality assurance. Module 3: Ethical and Social Issues in Information System Ethics    Principles of right and wrong used by individuals as free moral agents to guide  behavior    It encompasses proper conduct and good living. Types of Ethical Issues in I.T. 1.   Ethical Dilemmas o   What are and are not ethical issues in I.T.? o   Are hackers testing the system or  performing an immoral action? o   Will genetic engineering improve the quality of peoples’ lives or start to destroy it? 2.   Plagiarism   o   Work of others is copied, but the author presents it as his or her own work. o   It is generally not a legal issue, like copyright infringement, but it is an ethical one. o   self-plagiarism 3.   Piracy   o   the illegal copying of software o   it is estimated that approximately 50% of all programs on PCs are  pirated copies 4.   Hacking   o   access to proprietary data    White Hat , breaks security for non-malicious reasons .    Grey Hat , a hacker of ambiguous ethics.      Black Hat , someone who subverts computer security without authorization or uses technology. 5.   Computer crime   o   Using imaging and desktop  publishing to create, copy or alter official documents and graphic images. o   Fraud (A deception deliberately  practiced in order to secure unfair or unlawful gain). o   Embezzlement  (is the act of dishonestly appropriating or secreting assets, usually financial in nature, by one or more individuals to whom such assets have been entrusted).

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Oct 7, 2019
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