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FACULTY OF HISTORY ZAPISKI HISTORYCZNE DEVOTED TO THE HISTORY OF POMERANIA AND BALTIC COUNTRIES VOLUME LXXV YEAR 2010 BOOK 3

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T O R U Ń S C I E N T I F I C S O C I E T Y FACULTY OF HISTORY ZAPISKI HISTORYCZNE DEVOTED TO THE HISTORY OF POMERANIA AND BALTIC COUNTRIES VOLUME LXXV YEAR 2010 BOOK 3 C O N T E N T R a d o s ł a w K
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T O R U Ń S C I E N T I F I C S O C I E T Y FACULTY OF HISTORY ZAPISKI HISTORYCZNE DEVOTED TO THE HISTORY OF POMERANIA AND BALTIC COUNTRIES VOLUME LXXV YEAR 2010 BOOK 3 C O N T E N T R a d o s ł a w K r a j n i a k : Provosts of the teutonic cathedral chapter in Chełmża in the years M a g d a G a w i n e c k a - Wo ź n i a k : The Polish-Danish economic relations in the years K r z y s z t o f H a l i c k i : The organization and activity of political police in Pomerania in the period between August 1920 and April K a r o l P o l e j o w s k i : About the establishment of union between Clairvaux and Oliwa in D y m i t r W i ć k o : Silva Rerum of the 18 th century with the diary of Michał Adam Ślizień ( ). From the collection of the National Library of Belarus in Minsk. M i ł o s z S t ę p i ń s k i : Jesse Owens in the light of information policy of the Third Reich at the 11 th Olympic Games (on the example of Pommersche Zeitung the body of the National Socialist German Workers Party in the province of Pomerania) TORUŃ 2012 T O R U Ń S C I E N T I F I C S O C I E T Y FACULTY OF HISTORY ZAPISKI HISTORYCZNE DEVOTED TO THE HISTORY OF POMERANIA AND BALTIC COUNTRIES PUBLISHED SINCE 1908 (TO 1955 AS ZAPISKI TOWARZYSTWA NAUKOWEGO W TORUNIU) VOLUME LXXV YEAR 2010 BOOK 3 TORUŃ 2012 EDITORIAL COUNCIL OF THE JOURNAL ZAPISKI HISTORYCZNE Head of the Council: Mieczysław Wojciechowski Members: Karola Ciesielska, Jerzy Dygdała, Karin Friedrich, Rolf Hammel-Kiesow, Grzegorz Jasiński, Edmund Kizik, Janusz Małłek, Ilgvars Misāns, Michael G. Müller, Alvydas Nikžentaitis, Stanisław Salmonowicz, Jürgen Sarnowsky, Jacek Staszewski, Janusz Tandecki, Kazimierz Wajda, Edward Włodarczyk, Mieczysław Wojciechowski EDITORIAL COMMITTEE OF ZAPISKI HISTORYCZNE Editor: Bogusław Dybaś, Deputy editor: Roman Czaja Piotr Oliński (editor of the electronic version) Members: Mirosław Golon, Tomasz Kempa, Przemysław Olstowski, Magdalena Niedzielska, Mariusz Wołos Editorial secretaries: Paweł A. Jeziorski, Katarzyna Minczykowska Translation Agnieszka Chabros, Edward Maliszewski Editing and revision Aneta Dąbrowska-Korzus Typesetting and formatting Włodzimierz Dąbrowski Address of the editorial office Towarzystwo Naukowe w Toruniu Toruń, ul. Wysoka Guidelines for authors are to be found on the website and in each BOOK 1 of the journal Articles appearing in this journal are abstracted and indexed in Historical Abstracts Edition of the publication partially funded by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education as part of the National Programme of the Development of the Humanities ISSN TORUŃ SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY CONTENTS Articles Radosław Krajniak, Provosts of the teutonic cathedral chapter in Chełmża in the years Magda Gawinecka-Woźniak, The Polish-Danish economic relations in the years Krzysztof Halicki, The organization and activity of political police in Pomerania in the period between August 1920 and April Sources and Materials Karol Polejowski, About the establishment of union between Clairvaux and Oliwa in Dymitr Wićko, Silva Rerum of the 18 th century with the diary of Michał Adam Ślizień ( ). From the collection of the National Library of Belarus in Minsk Miłosz Stępiński, Jesse Owens in the light of information policy of the Third Reich at the 11 th Olympic Games (on the example of Pommersche Zeitung the body of the National Socialist German Workers Party in the province of Pomerania)... 95 ZAPISKI HISTORYCZNE VOLUME LXXV 2010 BOOK 3 RADOSŁAW KRAJNIAK (Toruń) PROVOSTS OF THE TEUTONIC CATHEDRAL CHAPTER IN CHEŁMŻA IN THE YEARS * Keywords: History of the Church, Chełmno Diocese, cathedral chapter, clergy of the Teutonic Knights, Teutonic Order, prelates and canons The aim of this study is to look at a group of clergy who, as members of the chapter, fulfilled solemn divine service at the Chełmża Cathedral, reached the highest offices of the Chapter provostry. The Chełmża chapter was founded on 22 nd July 1251 by the first bishop of Chełmno, Heidenreich, who granted it the Augustinian rule 1. The Teutonic period in the history of the chapter would not begin until 1264, when Teutonic rule was accepted by the canons 2. Although we know of two provosts of the pre-teutonic period 3, in this paper we look only at the provosts who served in office after the rule change, or more precisely, from 1266 when we meet the first Teuton-provost, to 1457 when the last was provost of the chapter recorded. The chapter finally ceased to be Teutonic after the Second Peace of Toruń. * The first edition of the article was published in Polish in Zapiski Historyczne, 2010: 75, z. 3, p..this article is based on a master s thesis entitled Skład osobowy kapituły katedralnej w Chełmży , written under the supervision of prof. dr. hab. Andrzej Radzimiński in the Department of the History of the Church, UMK. 1 Urkundenbuch des Bisthms Culm, bearb. v. C. P. Woelky, Theil I: Das Bisthum Culm unter dem Deutschen Orden , Danzig 1885 (hereafter UBC), 29; see also: A. Radzimiński, Powstanie i organizacja średniowiecznej kapituły katedralnej w Chełmży, [in:] Szkice regionalne. 1. Zapiski chełmżyńskie, ed. K. Wajda, D. Poliński, Toruń 2003, pp ; idem, Fundacja i inkorporacja kapituły katedralnej w Chełmży oraz załamanie się misji dominikańskiej w Prusach w poł. XIII w, Zapiski Historyczne (hereafter ZH), vol. 56: 1991, fascs. 2 3, pp UBC, 71; the issue of incorporation is presented in detail by A. Radzimiński, Powstanie i organizacja, p ; idem, Z dziejów kształtowania i organizacji kapituł krzyżackich. Inkorporacje pruskich kapituł katedralnych do zakonu krzyżackiego, [in:] Zakon krzyżacki a społeczeństwo państwa w Prusach: zbiór studiów, ed. Z. H. Nowak, Toruń 1995, p ; idem, Fundacja i inkorporacja, pp These are: Heinrich, mentioned as provost on 1 st February 1255 (UBC, 37; see A. Mańkowski, Prałaci i kanonicy katedralni chełmińscy od założenia kapituły do naszych czasów, Roczniki Towarzystwa Naukowego w Toruniu, vol. 33: 1926, p. 59) and Walter, provost from 9 th February 1255 probably to 10 th May 1258 (UBC, 38; Pommerellisches Urkundenbuch, hrsg. v. M. Perlbach, Danzig 1882, 169; Preussisches Urkundenbuch. Politische Abteilung (hereafter Pr. Urk.), Bd. 1, H. 2, bearb. v. A. Seraphim, Königsberg 1909, 50; see A. Mańkowski, Prałaci, vol. 34, p. 395). 6 Radosław Krajniak It is difficult to consider the research into the history of the cathedral chapter in Chełmża as advanced. The lack of a detailed monograph of the history of the canon corporation during the Middle Ages seems to be severe, especially as two other Prussian Teutonic chapters, Pomezan 4 and Sambian 5, have their full monographs. When it comes to Chełmża, only the research into the foundation, incorporation and organization of the college of canons, mainly through the work of Andrzej Radzimiński, seems to be sufficient 6. The findings of this historian supplement and correct the now obsolete legal and political monograph of the Chełmża chapter by Johannes Hoelge 7. Research into the social nature of the Chełmża college of canons looks much worse. Alfons Mańkowski s work, especially the passages about the fate of the medieval canons, is probably of historiographical value only 8. It is also difficult to recognize as sufficient a short article by Karol Górski, which in fact is a summary of Alfons Mańkowski s 9 imperfect research, and the work by Krzysztof Mikulski, who was trying to establish Torun citizens in the chapter of Chełmno and Warmia, where he devoted most attention to times outside the main chronological framework of this study 10. Maciej Dorna included in his work biographies of members of the Chełmża Chapter up to 1309, including the four provosts 11. But they were not free of errors, as shown in the review of the Poznań historian by Radosław Biskup and the author of these words M. Glauert, Das Domkapitel von Pomesanien ( ) (Prussia Sacra, 1), Toruń R. Biskup, Das Domkapitel von Samland ( ) (Prussia Sacra, 2), Toruń See items contained above in footnotes 1 and 2, as well as: Państwo zakonu krzyżackiego w Prusach. Władza i społeczeństwo, ed. M. Biskup, R. Czaja, Warszawa 2008, mainly pp , , ; A. Radzimiński, Kościół w państwie zakonu krzyżackiego w Prusach Organizacja uposażenie ustawodawstwo duchowieństwo wierni, Malbork 2006; idem, Entstehung, Inkorporation und ursprüngliche Ausstattung des mittelalterlichen Domkapitels in Kulmsee, [in:] Die Domkapitel des Deutschen Ordens in Preuβen und Livland, hrsg. v. R. Biskup, M. Glauert, Münster 2004, p ; idem, Biskupstwa państwa krzyżackiego w Prusach XIII XV w. Z dziejów organizacji kościelnej i duchowieństwa, Toruń 1999, p ; idem, Deutscher Orden und die Bischöfe und Domkapitel in Preussen, [in:] Ritterorden und Kirche im Mittelalter (Ordines militares. Colloquia Torunensia Historica, 9), hrsg. v. Z. H. Nowak, Toruń 1997, p J. Hoelge, Das Culmer Domkapitel zu Culmsee im Mittelalter. Ein Beitrag zur Verfassungs- und Verwaltungsgeschichte der Domkapitel des Deutschordensstaates in Preussen, Mitteilungen der Literarischen Gesellschaft Masovia, Bd. 18: 1913, pp ; Bd. 19: 1914, pp A. Mańkowski, Prałaci, vol. 33: 1926, pp and vol. 34: 1927, pp K. Górski, Kapituła chełmińska w czasach krzyżackich, [in:] idem, Studia i szkice z dziejów państwa krzyżackiego, Olsztyn 1986, pp ; idem, Das Kulmer Domkapitel in den Zeiten des Deutschen Ordens. Zur Bedeutung der Priester im Deutschen Orden, [in:] Die geistlichen Ritterorden Europas, hrsg. v. J. Fleckenstein, M. Hellmann, Sigmaringen 1980, pp K. Mikulski, Mieszczanie toruńscy w kapitule warmińskiej i chełmińskiej, [in:] Duchowieństwo kapitulne w Polsce średniowiecznej i wczesnonowożytnej. Studia nad pochodzeniem i funkcjonowaniem elity kościelnej, ed. A. Radzimiński, Toruń 2000, pp M. Dorna, Bracia zakonu krzyżackiego w Prusach w latach Studium prozopograficzne, Poznań A review by R. Biskup and R. Krajniaka of the work: M. Dorna, Bracia zakonu krzyżackiego w Prusach w latach Studium prozopograficzne, Poznań 2004, published in: ZH, vol. 73: 2008, fascs. 2 3, pp Provosts of the teutonic cathedral chapter in Chełmża... 7 Moving on to the main body of the article, it should be stressed that the cathedral provosts were superiors of the chapter and, as such, they occupied the first place in the testations of all known documents in which they were mentioned by the Chełmża canons. They were responsible for managing the property and representing the chapter outside 13. They had a vice provost to help them 14. The first provost attested in the sources was Heinrich witnessing on a document issued on 1 February 1255 in Toruń 15. He was also a priest of the cathedral chapter of the Augustinian rule. However, the first provost of the Teutonic chapter was Dietrich, who was certified in provostry in In the Teutonic period, specifically from 1266 to 1457, 28 priests achieved the highest dignity of the Chapter, of which for the longest time, from 1287 to 1303, probably continuously, Heinrich von Strassberg (6 16 ) was a provost. In comparison with other clergymen, Nikolaus von Schlochau (22) also presents himself impressively with 8 years of provostry. Provosts were elected at the annual chapter for one year. But it was acceptable to entrust the provost already in office with the duties, which often resulted in the presence of one person for many years in the same position. Analyzing the membership of the chapter, one can see that some of its members held various functions, such as being once a provost, then just a canon, and held again some of the prelate offices. The career of Johann Copetz (see biography No. 11) is a perfect example of rotation in the Chapter offices. All this definitely distinguished the Teutonic chapter from the Western European or Polish chapters, where priests were promoted in the hierarchy, and took the prelate offices for life 17. Rules for election to particular offices, including those to provostry, were outlined in a letter that the Grand Master Konrad von Jungingen sent to the Livonian master Wennemar von Brüggenei in As follows from the letter, each of the clergy holding a capitular office was required to deposit the seal and a report with the Bishop at the annual chapter. Then there were re-nominations. First, the provost was elected using, in this case, one of the two manners of election: per scrutinium or per compromissum. The first method consisted in the fact that the head of the diocese together with one or two canons interrogated in secret individual members of the college, asking who they would like to see in the office of provost. Then, the returning committee counted the votes and the canon who received most of the votes, received the provostry. Then, after the election, he had the initiative in filling the remaining dignities of the Chapter. He designated the dean, and if there were no opposing votes in the hall, a subsequent prelate remained approved in the office for 13 Państwo zakonu krzyżackiego, p. 165; A. Radzimiński, Kościół, p. 59; idem, Powstanie i organizacja, p. 67; J. Hoelge, op.cit., Bd. 18, pp A. Radzimiński, Powstanie i organizacja, p UBC, 37 (H. prepositus). 16 Number of biography chich appears later in this work. 17 A. Radzimiński, Kościół, pp ; idem, Powstanie i organizacja, pp ; idem, Biskupstwa, pp UBC, 408; A. Radzimiński, Kościół, p. 193. 8 Radosław Krajniak the next year. Other prelates were also elected in this way. Another way to fill the provostry was per compromissum. This method was based on the election of three canons who, being given a certain authority, appointed the provost by selecting one of the clergy at their sole discretion. Other offices were filled as has been outlined above. Offices were taken for the period of one year, and at that time without a good reason the bishop could not dismiss a canon from office, and if so, only after consultations on the matter with the Chapter 19. Provosts as a group of clergy can be studied, and attempts made to draw various generalizing conclusions. While trying to determine the territorial and social origin, it should be noted that the provosts known only by their first names are excluded from the analysis, and there were ten of those in the period of interest to us. In attempting to determine the territorial origin using largely last names related to place names, we should also not forget that the origin must be considered twofold: firstly, as a place of birth, and secondly, as a place where the canon was attested before joining the ranks of the chapter 20. It is also extremely difficult to reconstruct the social status of the clergy. The reason for this is most often the rudimentary form of the source material. Geographical origin can be established with high probability for fifteen provosts, i.e. for more than half. Three of them came from Toruń: Friedrich von Goldberg (5), Hermann von der Kemenate (9), Johann Ritter (13). Friedrich von Goldberg (5), Hermann von der Kemenate (9), and Johann Ritter (13). They were also the only representatives of the Chełmno diocese at the highest rank of the Chapter. As many as five provosts came from Gdańsk Pomerania. Among them were two representatives of Gdańsk (Lorenz Zankenczyn (17) and Nikolaus Tiergart (20)) and one from each of Człuchów (Nikolaus von Schlochau (22)), Tuchola (Nikolaus von Tuchel (23)), and Tczew (Richard von Dirschau (25)). In the provosts group we also note three ministers whose roots can be found in Silesia (Johann Herman (12), Johann von Neisse (14), Nikolaus von Frankenstein (21)) and two who arrived in the state of the Teutonic Order in Prussia from the German Reich (Heinrich von Strassberg (6) and Johann von Smalenburg (16)). One of the provosts came from the Pomezan Diocese (Heinrich von Thymau (7)) and another one most likely from Warmia (Nikolaus Goldaw (19)). The dominance of local recruitment, limited to the area of the Teutonic Order s control in Prussia, is noticeable here. Attempts have been made to determine the social status of eleven provosts. Almost all of them came from bourgeois families, including five from patrician families. One provost came from a family of Strassberg mayors, ministerials of the Reich (Heinrich von Strassberg (6)). Friedrich von Goldberg (5), Hermann von der Kemenate (9), and Johann Ritter (13) came from patrician families of 19 A. Radzimiński, Kościół, p. 193 et seq; idem Powstanie i organizacja, p. 79; idem, Biskupstwa, pp See comments which in the section devoted to the geographical origin of the Sambian canons are presented by Radosław Biskup (op. cit., pp ). Provosts of the teutonic cathedral chapter in Chełmża... 9 Toruń. Nikolaus Tiergart (20) and Lorenz Zankenczyn (17) were descended from Gdansk patricians. Johann von Neisse (14) (Nysa), Nikolaus von Frankenstein (21) (Ząbkowice Śląskie), Nikolaus von Schlochau (22) (Człuchów), Nikolaus von Tuchel (23) (Tuchola), and Richard von Dirschau ( 25) (Tczew) should be considered as bourgeois. Among provosts, there were some who had a university education. We know of five such from the Teutonic period. Among them, law at the university in Prague was studied by Nikolaus von Tuchel (23) and Nikolaus Goldaw (19). Nikolaus Tiergart (20) studied in Vienna and Leipzig, and Lorenz Zankenczyn (17) obtained a bachelor s degree in Rostock. It is not known from which university Hermann von der Kemenate (9) graduated. However, a master s degree, which appears on two documents of 1334, undeniably testifies to his education. Plans to grant to the Chełmża provosts the right to award degrees in the Chełmno Academy testify to the considerable authority they undoubtedly enjoyed at least in the diocese of Chełmno. This is mentioned in both the privilege of Pope Urban VI of 1386 and the imperial privilege of Sigismund of Luxembourg of However, the provosts did not have the opportunity to use those rights, because the founding of a school of higher education in the State of the Teutonic Order in Prussia ultimately failed 21. The Chełmża provosts s relations with the Holy See are an interesting aspect telling us a little about their activity. Many sources of papal provenance mention the provosts of Chełmża. They were appointed by popes to be conservators of rights of bishops, chapters, and chapter provosts (Berthold (2), Johann von Smalenburg (16), Nikolaus von Schlochau (22)). They also considered complaints from chapters (Heinrich von Strassberg (6) or Hermann (8)), they were appointed to collect outstanding tithes (Christian (3) or Heinrich von Thymau (7)), as well as to introduce certain clergymen (Johann von Neisse (14))to specific benefices. Provosts themselves also wrote to the papacy. Two of them, Hermann von der Kemenate (9) and Johann Ritter (13), arranged for a plenary indulgence in articulo mortis. Detailed information about all the previously known provosts of the Teutonic chapter in Chełmża is contained in the following biographies arranged in alphabetical order, preceded by a table showing the clergy in chronological order. 21 Z. H. Nowak, Dzieje tzw. Akademii Chełmińskiej, [in:] Dzieje Chełmna. Zarys monograficzny, ed. M. Biskup, Warszawa Poznań Toruń 1987 (wyd. 2 zmienione), pp ; idem, Dzieje tzw. Akademii Chełmińskiej, [in:] Dzieje Chełmna i jego regionu. Zarys monograficzny, ed. M. Biskup, Toruń 1968, pp ; idem, Starania o założenie uniwersytetu w Chełmnie w XIV i XV w., ZH, vol. 31: 1966, fascs. 4, pp. 11, 25, 32 35; B. Kűrbisówna, Próba założenia uniwersytetu w Chełmnie w roku 1386, [in:] Opuscula Casimiro Tymieniecki septuagenario dedicata, Poznań 1959, p. 153. 10 Chełmża provosts from 1266 to 1457 Radosław Krajniak Duration of office Provost No of biogram 10 th April 1266 Dietrich 4 5 th November 1274(?) 6 January 1276(?) Werner th February 12
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