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Farrokh, K. (2015). Pan-Arabism and Iran. In The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Imperialism and Anti-Imperialism (Edited by I. Ness & Z. Cope), Palgrave-Macmillan, pp.915-923.

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Farrokh, K. (2015). Pan-Arabism and Iran. In "The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Imperialism and Anti-Imperialism" (Edited by I. Ness & Z. Cope), Palgrave-Macmillan, pp.915-923.
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  Farrokh article in New Book by Palgrave-Macmillan: ÒThe  Palgrave Encyclopedia of Imperialism and Anti-ImperialismÓ Palgrave-Macmillan Publications in London and new York, which is a major international academic venue for scholarly works, has just published a seminal book entitled: The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Imperialism and Anti-Imperialism , London & New York: Palgrave-Macmillan, 2015  The book has been edited by Edited by Dr. Immanuel Ness, Dr. Zak Cope with the Senior Editorial Advising having been provided by Dr. Sa‘r Maty B‰ . Front cover of the 2015 text Ò The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Imperialism and Anti- Imperialism, London & New York: Palgrave-Macmillan, 2015Ó. As noted in the  Palgrave-Macmillan webpage:   " The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Imperialism and Anti- Imperialism is a brand new, two-volume publication which presents theoretical explanations and historical accounts of imperialism and anti-imperialism from the 16th Century to the present day. [...] this work contains over 170 entries written by an international team of experts and scholars in the field of imperialism and anti-imperialism. This exciting title is the most comprehensive scholarly work of its kind to  provide in-depth studies on imperialism's roots, goals, tactics, influence, and outcomes.  It also covers anti-imperialism, including the rich and ongoing tradition of its theories and practices ."   The textbook has also published an article by Kaveh Farrokh: Farrokh, K. (2015). Pan-Arabism and Iran. In ÒThe Palgrave Encyclopedia of  Imperialism and Anti-ImperialismÓ (Immanuel Ness & Zak Cope, Eds., Sa‘r Maty B‰,  Editorial Advisor), Palgrave-Macmillan, pp.915-923.  Shaikh Salman Bin Hamad Al-Khalifa (at left) and Sir Charles Belgrave (right) (Picture Source: Flicker  ) who was EnglandÕs Government Adviser to Bahrain. It was  Belgrave who first pioneered the concept of changing the name of the Persian Gulf. The motives for such revisionist schemes are not clear, but it is possible that Belgrave was calculating that such actions would create frictions between the Iranians and the  Arabs.    A statue of Arabo-Islamic historian, Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) in Tunisia. Ibn Khaldun emphasized the crucial role of the Iranians in promoting learning, sciences, arts, architecture, and medicine in Islamic civilization. It was pan-Arabists such as Sami  Shawkat who insisted that history books such as those by Ibn Khaldun be destroyed or re-written to remove all references of Iranian contributions to Islamic civilization. The  former Baathist regime in Iraq promoted such policies and even worked alongside numerous lobbies to promote historical revisionism at the international level.    A direct quote from Ibn Khaldun's work, The Muqaddimah , states the following: ÒÉIt is a remarkable fact that, with few exceptions, most Muslim scholarsÉin the intellectual sciences have been non-ArabsÉthus the founders of grammar were  Sibawaih and after him, al-Farisi and Az-Zajjaj. All of them were of Persian descentÉthey invented rules of (Arabic) grammarÉgreat jurists were PersiansÉ only the Persians engaged in the task of preserving knowledge and writing systematic scholarly works. Thus the truth of the statement of the prophet becomes apparent, ÔIf learning were suspended in the highest parts of heaven the Persians would attain itÓÉThe intellectual sciences were also the preserve of the Persians, left alone by the  Arabs, who did not cultivate themÉas was the case with all craftsÉThis situation continued in the cities as long as the Persians and Persian countries, Iraq, Khorasan and Transoxiana (modern Central Asia), retained their sedentary culture.Ó [The Muqaddimah Translated by F. Rosenthal (III, pp. 311-15, 271-4 [ Arabic]; R.N. Frye (p.91)].
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