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FISHERIES RESEARCH BOARD OF CANADA. Cultivation of a puffer Fugu rubripes rubripes (Temminck and Schlegel) By Atushi Furukawa and Ryo Okamoto

.. FISHERIES RESEARCH BOARD OF CANADA Translation Series No Cultivation of a puffer Fugu rubripes rubripes (Temminck and Schlegel) By Atushi Furukawa and Ryo Okamoto Original title: Fugu no Yoshoku.
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.. FISHERIES RESEARCH BOARD OF CANADA Translation Series No Cultivation of a puffer Fugu rubripes rubripes (Temminck and Schlegel) By Atushi Furukawa and Ryo Okamoto Original title: Fugu no Yoshoku. From: Booklet No. 13. Publ. by Nippon Suisan Shigen Hogo KyOkai, (Japan Fisheries Resource Conservation Association), pp , 1966., f Translated by the Translation Bureau (RN) Foreign Languages Division Department of the Secretary of State of Canada, Fisheries Research Board of Canada Biological Station, Nanaimo, B. C pages typescript 0441 : 7? 3 )06c DEPARTMENT OF THE SECRETARY OF ;TA 'E TRANSLATION BUREAU FOREIGN LA.NGUAGES DIVISION SECRÉTARIAT D'ÉTAT BUREAU DES TRADUCTIONS DIVISION DES LANGUES ÉTRANGÈRES YOUR NO. VOTRE N DEPARTMENT MINISTLRE of Fisheries F.R.B. DIVISION/BRANCH DIVISION/DIRECTION Office of the Editor CITY VILLE Ottawa» ' OUR NO, NOTRE N 0 LANGUAGE LANGUE Japanese TRANSLATOR ON! TIALS) TRADUCTEUR A LES ; R.N. DATE CULTIVATION OF A PUFFER Fugu.rubripes rubripes (Temminck & Schlegel) Preface It is 30 years since the cultiation of a puffer began in Japan. Although the àevelopment of both industry. and research about the cultivation of a puffer was interrupted by World War II, for about 10 years, the cultivation of a puffer in Japan is flow remarkably developing owing to the new policy by the Government of Japan, for example, the improvement of the organisation of coastal fishery'and the recommendation of fish cultivation. Therefore, in order have more rational and more stable cultivation, it is necessary to have the basic knowledge about the cultivation of a puffer, such as the cultivation pool, the diet and.the disease. 2 ps z.,1 -2 &IMO Q. This booklet is divided into two parts ; the first part is the explanation of the basic knowledge of the cultivation of a puffer and the second part is the description of the present state of cultivation in Japan: This:booklet is not a text book of the cultivation of a puffer, but the one which gives many problems to be solved about the cultivatbn of a puffer. The authors wish much advice and many suggestions will be given by readers. I. BASIC KNOWLEDGE OF THE CULTIVATION OF A PUFFER 1) History of Cultivation The cultivation of a puffer is generally carried out by casting a diet, but the increase of the body weight is very little during cultivation. Therefore, strictly speaking, the word keeping should be used instead of cultivation . The cultivation of a puffer was tried in 1935 by cultivators of a young yellow tail in Okayama Prefecture and in 1938 and 1939 by Kataro Yano in Hiroshima Prefecture. In June,1938, Mr. Yano bought 2,000 adult puffers (about 5,400 kg) and kept them in a!;large tide pool by feeding with small fishes. At the end of the year, he could sell about 3,000 kg puffers. +) Next year,'he tried again, but he failed bought 2,000 adult puffers for 800-1,000 Yen in JUne, 1938, and could sell about 60% of. these puffers for 4,800 Yen at the end of the year. -3- ton s owing to the unexpected heavy rain and flood. In 1933 and 1937, Chiaki Ogawa and Genji Tokunaga of the Fisheries Experiment Station in Yamaguchi Prefecture tried to cultivate a pufferforacomparativelyshorttime.they bought kg adult Duffers between August and October in , and 0.8 kg adult puffers between October and November in 1937 and cultivated them until the end of the year. These work and research were the first trial of cultivation in our country and their basic method of cultivation was almost same as that of present industry. However, the intensification of the Chinese.Affairs and the subsequent development to World War II interrupted the development of the industry and research of cultivation for about 11 years. 1- n 1951, Nagozo Uchida in Okayama Prefecture resumed the cultivation of a puffer. In 1954, Gosaku Imai in Fukui Prefecture began to cultivate the puffers which-were caught in pril and May in Wakasa Bay, which is at the coast of the Japan Sea. e- 4, ' Then, the cultivation industry greatly developed in a few years. The cause of this sudden increase of cultivation seemed to be as follows ; first, the cultivation was recognized. to be a good industry by many people, second, the coastal fishery could not give enough profit to fishermen and thirdly, the Government of Japan began *to improve the life of fishermen. In 1962, there were about 30 cultivators at the coast of the ee Inland Sea, and more than 400,000 puffers were cùltivated., But, the number of cultivated puffers decreased to less than 300,000 in 1963, owing to the difficulty in getting adult Duffers which were used for cultivtion. The decrease of adult puffers continued till ïhe number of puffer caught in 1964 was only 50,000, so many cultivators could not get enough puffers for cultivation. As for the research of cultivation, Mr. Maekawa of Fisheries Experiment Station in Yamoguch Prefecture made with his co-workers in 1956 a cultivation experiment of small puffers (about 600 g) which were caught in Autumn, at a special pool designed for the cultivation of prawn. They also made a long term cultivation experiment about one year old puffer in 1959 and found that this puffer grew. up to g and about 30 cm length at the end of their experiment (about 10 months after) Mr. Takai.of Fisheries Research Institute in Ministry, of Agriculture cultivated with his co-workers adult and infant Ipuffers from 1954 to 1958, and also made some. ecological studies about them. In 1960, Mr. Kitsutaka made research experiments about infant puffers and Mr. Kumai of Xinki University made cultivation experiments of one-year and two-year' old puffers in order to use them as the cultivated fish. however, their researches were made in an only small scale and were not adopted by cultivators. Cultivators still use adult puffers as cultivated puffers. 5 - 2) Taxonomy of a uffer and descri.etion about its available species There are about 100 kinds of puffers in the world and they live in the sea of both the tropical and the temperate zone oe have 38 species, 10 tribes, 2 families and one sub-order in the sea around Japan and 27 species of puffers from Japan which all live in the sea. Generally, puffers are divided into 8 tribes,.namely, Canthigaster,,Liosaccus, Lagocephalus, Amblyrhnchotes, Fugu, Chelonodon, Boesemanichthys and Arothron, and are considered to belong to the same ancester as that of Balistina, Ostraciontina and Malina. Torafugu (Fugu rubripes rubripes Temminck & Schlegel), the most important puffer as a cultivated puffer, is classified as follows: Vertebrata Gnathostomata - Osteichthys -,Teleostomi Teleostei Tetraodontida - Wetradontina - Tetraodontidae - Fugu - Fugu rubripes rubripes. Thera has been a habit of eating puffers since ancient times in China, Japan, Korea and many islands in Pacific Ocean. The names of puffers,which are eaten now in Japan are shown in Table 1. Among them, Torafugu (Fugu rubripes rubripes), Karasu (Fugu rubripes chinensis), Mafugu (Fugu vermicular s porphyreus) and Nashifugu . (Fugu vermicularis radiatus) are important for their haul and price. Torafugu and Karasu are used as the material for cooking, and Nashifugu and liafugu are used as the material. for processing food. 6 Table. The names of puffers which are eaten in Ja an Common name Torafugu Karasu AkamefugU Nashifugu Shosaifugu Mafugu Shimafugu Cromafugu Komonfugu Iliganfugu Sabafugu Kanafugu Ioritofugu Zoological names Fugu rubripes rubripes (TEMMINCK & SCHLEGEL) Fugu rubripes chinensis (ABE) Fugu chrysops (HILGENDORli') Fugu vertnicularis radia lus (ABE) Fu,gu vermicularis vern2icularis (TEMMINCK & SCHLEGEL) Fugu vertnicularis porphyreus (TEMmINCK & SCHLEGELY Fugu xanthopterus (TEmmiNCK & SCHLEGEL) Fugu stictonolus (TEMmiNCK & SCHLEGEL) Fu,gu pokilonotits (TEMMINCK & SCHLEGEL) Fugu pardalis (TEmmiNcK & SCHLEGEL) Lagoccphalus lunaris (BLOCH 8.:: SCHLEGEL) Lagocephalus laevigatus inermis(temminck & SCHLEGEL) Liosaccus cutaneus (Go NTHER)... (1) 7orafugu FuF,u rubripes rubripes (Temminck & Schlegel) This puffer is the most important species among the Duffers listed in Table 1 9 and is also called Mafugu or Daimyo fugu (in Hiroshima Prefecture), Monbuku '(in Kochi Prefecture) or Oyamafugu (in Wakayama Prefecture). From old times, this puffer has been eaten by some special people,. epicures, as a special cooking in winter, for example, slices of raw fish, a pot of fish and vegetables cooked before the dinners and fin-dipped wine. Nowadays,people like tb eat this Duffer, so the demand of this puffer is increasing ' very much. Fugu-cooking at Shimonoseki (in Yamaguchi Prefepture) is the most famous in Japan. Besides the food material,.this puffer is used for making Fugu-chochin , a special fish-shaped lantern made of the skin of a puffer. The total length of the largest of this puffer is. about 70 cm. The area where 7- 7 this puffer lives is from the sea near Vladivostok to the China Sea. This puffer has one clear black large spot near each pectoral fin and many small thorns on the belly and the backe Its spawning season is between April and June, same as that of many other Duffers. A fry comes to the entrance of a river and lives there from the end of summer till the beginning of. autumn. The shape and color of its body at this time are similar to those of Kusa fugu . Although the toxic character' of this puffer is weaker than that of. Kusa fugu or Higan fugua, it is hardly used for cooking from the spawning season till the end of autumn. Fig. 1-1 Torafugua. (2) Karasu Fugu rubripes chinensis (Abe). This puffer is similar to Torafugun very much, but is different from Torafugu in the following points: the color of its anal fin is black and the large black spot near each pectoral fin is surrounded by a white circle. The total length of the largest of this puffer is about 50 cm and the area where this puffer lives is from the middle 8 8 part of Honshu to East China Sea. In many toxicological done and ecological studies which have beenatill now, this puffer is not differentiated from Torafugu . But, the taste of this puffer is a little worse and'its price is cheaper than that of Torafugu , so the studies about this puffer should be made independently hereafter. Fig Karasu (3) Akamefugu Fugu chrysops (Hilgenaorf) The puffer called Akame or Akamefugu in Tokyo is not this puffer, but is Higanfugu . Akamefugu is not caught so much. The total length of the largest of this puffer is about 28 cm its body is flattened a little and its vertebra is alsoflattened at the rear part of the body. The color of its back is light pink or brown with slight yellow..there are many small black spots on its back. Usually, this puffer 4 is caught together with Higanfugu , and is sometimes used as foodstuff with Higanfugu . Fig. 1-3 Akamefugu 9 9. (4) Nashifugu Fugu vermicularis radiatus (Abe) This puffer is similar to Shosaifugu and is practically. black spots near each pectoral fin (although the Y are not so large as those of Torafugu or Karasu ), which are big surrounded by many white spots like a chrysanthemum. Therefore, it is easy to differentiate this puffer from Shosaifugu . the The color of the loweraide ofacaudal fin is white and we can differentiate this puffer from Mafugu with this character. The total length of the largest of this puffer is about 25 cm. The area where this puffer lives is Inland Sea, Ariake Sea, South Korea and East China Sea. As the haul of. this puffer is comparatively. large, this puffer is used as the food stuff of cheaper fugu cooking. called Shosaifugu in Tokyo. However, this puffer has (5). Shosaifugu Fugu vermicularis vermicularis 1122ainck & Schlegel This puffer is similar to Gomafugu and is practiealq.y. called Gomafugu in Tokyo. However, tliis puffer is differentiated from Gomafugu in the folowing pointsi (1) there are no rough thorns, (2) the color of lower parts of both caudal and anal fin is white, and (3) there are no 10 - large black spots near the pectoral fins. The total length of the largest of this puffer is about 34 cm. This is one of the most common species living along the coast of Honshu. Fig. 1-5 Shosaifugu (6) Mafuu Fugu vermicularis porphyreus (Temminck & Schlegel) This puffer is called Namera or Shosai in Tokyo, so is sometimes confused with Shosaifugu . Although its taste is not so goo d. as that of Torafugu , this puffer is used as the stuff of coking and the stuff of processing food owing to its large amounts of haul in Hokkaido, Tohoku and South China Sea. The total length of the largest of this puffer is about 47 cm, so this puffer belongs to one of the large puffers in Japan. The area where this puffer lives is from south-western parts of Saghalien and Vladivostok to East China Sea. Fig. 1-6 Mafugu 11 (7) Shimafugu Pu xanthopterus (Temminck & Schlegel) This puffer is confused with. akamefugu in some area of Japan, but this puffer is :differentiated easily from Akamefugu in the following points ; (1) the color of all sorts of fins of Shimafugu is clear yellow and (2) there are white stripasin the blue surface of its caudal part. The total length of the largest of this puffer is about 60 cm. The area where this puffer lives is Sagami Bay, South Korea 9 fellow Sea and South China Sea. It is reported that there live a number of young puffersin Ariake Sea and that aduit puffers are sometimes caught in Inland Sea. But, one can not think this Duffer as the object of the stuff owing to its very small amount of haul. Fig. 1-7 Shimafugu (8) Gomafucru Fu ec Schle The total length of the largest of this puffer is about 40 cm, and the area where this puffer lives is Hokkaido,.. South Korea, Honshu, and East China Sea. At Konahama in Fukui Prefecture, a number of puffers of this kind are some- times caught. 12 This puffer is sometimes ualled Shosaifugu in Tokyo and Niigata. The young puffer of this kind is similar t Mafugu , Shosaifugu and Komonfugu , and it is very difficult to differentiate this puffer from them. However, it has thorns on its belly and its back, and the color of its anal fin is that of lemon while it is.alive. This puffer is differentiated from others with above characteristics. Fig. 1-8 Gomafugu (9 ) Komonfugu Fugu poecilonotus (Temminck & Schlegel/ The color of the body of this puffer is similar to that of Higanfugu , but there are small,' round, light-colored spots on the surface of its body. There are also small thorns on its belly and its back and the color of its anal fin is yellow or orange. These are different points of this puffer from' shosaifugu and Nashifugu . The total length of the largest of this puffer is about 25 cm. The area where this imffer lives is Honshu, Korea and Okinawa. r. Fig. 1-9 Komonfugu 1 3 (10) Higanfugu Fugu pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel' The total length of the'largest of this puffer is about 36 cm. As this puffer is similar to Akameftige in respect of its eye color, its body shape and the spot size on its body, it is called Akdme or Akamefugu in. Tokyo. (Akame means a red eye in English). However, this puffer has many projecting materials on the skin, so the differentiation of both puffers is not so difficult. The area where this puffer lives is Hokkaido (Muroran), Vladivostok the amounts of its haul are not so large. Shantung Province and Okinawa, but Fig. l-10 Higanfugu (11) Sabafugu Lagocephalus lunaris (Bloch & Schlegel) This puffer is called Kinbuku (Gold puffer) in Flikui Prefecture and Ginfugu or Ginbuku (Silver puffer) in Tokyo, Misaki, Kochi, Muroto and Udetsu in Ishikawa Prefecture, owing to the presence of gold or silver brillance on the side of its body. The totel.length of the largest of this puffer is about 36 cm. The area where this puffer lives is the Southern. art of Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean. The shape and other 14 -14 - ecological character are different from those of other puffers, such as Terafugu or ftashifugu . This puffer has no toxin, and its taste is different from that of 'other puffers. Fig Sabafuge (12) Kanafugu 'Lagocephalus laevigatus inermis (Temminck & Schlegel) This puffer is similar to Sabafugu and is also called KinbUku or Ginbuke, but this puffer grows bigger than Sabafugu and the total length of the largest of this puffer is about 60 cm. Mie area where this puffer lives is southern parts of Japan, East China Sea, indian Ocean and Australia. It is reported that a number of puffers of this kind are sometimes caught in East China Sea. There is no thorn on its body, but -ftere are many particles in a line on is belly..,the. ' gill pore is black, and its nostrils are flat, which is, different from other puffers. Its taste is not good. Fig Kanafugu (13') Yoritofugu Liosaccus cutaneus (Günther) '-ehis puffer is called in different districts by many names, namely, Kawafugu , Dedefugu (at Odawara), Mizufugu *(at Numazu) and Chochinfugu (in Idea Prefepture).. l'his puffer lias on the surface of ità body many lines, but there are no thorns. The characteristic point of this Duffer is that the front part of its body is large like an angler. The skin of its belly is loosaand its belly often contains'an amount of water. The total length of the largest of this puffer is about 38 cm. This puffer lives in all the warm seasin the world. This puffer lives in a com7)aratively deep part of the sea ; it is caught at the depth of about 100 m by fishing (at Izu island), and at the depth of about 300 m by a dragnet (in. the Sea of Kumano). As this :puffer has no toxin,-bne. can eat even its ovary. Pugu-chochim% a special fish-shaped lantern is also made of this puffer. Fig Yoritofugu . The number of the striation at fins and the vertebra about these available species of puffer is shown in Table 2. Table 2 The number of the striation at fins and the vertebra Common name Body Dorsal fin Anal fin Pectoral fins vertebrae length cm Torafugu one small thornshaped striation and soft striations Karasu one small striation and soft striations Àkamefugu one small soft striation and soft striations Nashifugu Shosaifugu Mafugu Shimafugu one very small 21 striation and soft striations Gomafugu Komonfugu Higanfugu one short'soft striation and soft striations Saba -Pugu ,.. Kanafugu one small striation. and 17 soft striations Yoritofugu one small striation -and 'soft striations ie local names of a puffer, some of which are described above, are shown. in Table Table 3 Local names of a puffer Common name Torafugu Karasu Nashifugu Shasaifugu Mafugu Shimafugu Gomafugu Komonfugu Higanfugu Sabafugu Kanafugu Yoitof'ugu Local naine (Names of place used this name) dfugu, dbuku (Okayama, Kagawa, Hiroshima), Mafugu (Hiroshima, Shimonoseki), Genkaifugu (Shimonoseki, Beppu, Iki), Monfugu, Monbuku (Uchi, Beppu, Goto-Tamanoura), Sokofugu (Yamaguchi, Fukuoka, kta.), Ganba (Shimabara), Bukku (Nagasaki-Mogi), Dogira (Fukuoka- Yanagawa, Amakusa), Oyamafugu (Wakanoura, Tanabe), Igafugu (Toyama), Honfugu (Beppu), Kumasakafugu (Niigata-Ishigi), Kamaefugu (Okayama),Montsuki (Okayama-Kônoshima), Shiro (Shimonoseki), Daimyofugu (Hiroshima, Yamaguchi) Gatora, Kuro, Kurofugu, Hirefugu (Hiroshima, Shimonoseki), Gaga (Shimonoseki) Nashibuku, Suzumefugu, Ganbafugu (Yanagawa), Sh5saifugu (Tokyo), Nagoyafugu (Nakajima) Gomafugu (Tokyo), Tcirifugu, Daikonfugu (Tsuyazaki) Shosai, Namerafugu (Tokyo), Kurofugu (Konahama) Torafugu, Akamefugu (Yanagawa), Sabafugu (Hiroshima. Amakusa), Sugefugu (Nagasaki), Terado (Mogi), Kitamakura (Moji-Imazu) Safugu (T3hoku), Sabafugu (Tokyo), Sawafugu (Toyama) Nagoyabuku (Shimonoseki), Nagoyafugu (Kagawa), Mofugu Akame, Akamefugu (Tokyo, Tateyama, Amakusa), Nagoyafugu (Misaki, Awaji), Chinchinfugu (Hamada) Mofugu (Onoda, Megishima), Mobuku (Hiroshima), Mafugu (Asamushi, Misaki, Amakusa), Yoritofugu (Mie), Ginfugu, Ginbuku (Tokyo, Misaki, Amakusa, Nagasaki, Kochi, Muroto, Shimonoseki, Hiroshima) Kînbuku, Kin
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