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  UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS GENERAL BIOLOGY 1 K.C.L.M EVOLUTION 1 Charles Darwin (Charles Robert Darwin) (, 2014) 02/12/1809-04/19/1882    British naturalist (born in Shrewsbury, England; youngest of 6 kids)    Family: Dr. R.W. Darwin (father, medical doctor), Dr. Erasmus Darwin (grandfather, renowned botanist), Susanna (mother, died when Charles was only 8 y/o)    Education: University of Edinburgh (October 1825,16 y/o with brother Erasmus); (1827, Christ’s College in Cambridge)      Expectations: medical doctor (but blood made Darwin queasy); parson (rector/clergy); more inclined to natural history      Developed * Theory of Evolution  based on natural selection      Social Darwinism      Traveled around the world for a 5-year voyage on the HMS Beagle to study various plants o   (During his stay @ Christ’s College) *John Stevens Henslow (botany professor) BECAME HIS MENTOR   o   Graduated with BACHELOR OF ARTS DEGREE (1831) o   *Henslow recommended hi m a NATURALIST’S POSITION aboard the HMS Beagle      Capt. Robert FitzRoy (captain of HMS Beagle): take a 5-year survey trip around the world    (December 27, 1831) launching of the voyage    –  allowed Darwin to collect varieties of natural specimens (birds, plants, fossils)      Points of Interests for Darwin: The Pacific Islands, Galapagos Archipelago, South America  –  where he had hands-on research and experimentation for botany, geology, zoology    (1836) return to England  –  beginning of writing his findings in Journal of Researches (published as part of Capt. FitzRoy’s larger narrative and later edited into the Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle)     After the trip, *MONUMENTAL EFFECT ON DARWIN’S VIEW OF NATURAL HISTORY: developing of a *revolutionary theory about the srcin of living beings (contrary to the *popular naturalist view of that time)    Other naturalists believed the species were created at the start of the world / over the course of natural history. SPECIES REMAINED THE SAME THROUGH TIME      Landmark book: On the Origin of Species (1859)      THEORY OF EVOLUTION    –  species survived through a process called natural selection (species that successfully adapted/evolved to meet the constantly changing requirements of their natural habitat THRIVED AND REPRODUCED while those who failed to adapt/evolve DIED   o   (upon studying plants, birds, fossils) noticed that there are similarities among the species in the whole world together with variations based on specific locations = species existing and known today GRADUALLY EVOVLED FROM COMMON ANCESTORS   o   Darwin’s Theory of Evolution + Process of Natural Selection = DARWINISM      ORIGIN OF SPECIES (1858)  –  public introduction of the revolutionary theory of evolution in a letter at the meeting of the *Linnean Society    UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS GENERAL BIOLOGY 1 K.C.L.M o   (November 24, 1859)  –  published a detailed explanation of his theory in On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection   o   (next century)  –  DNA studies gave scientific evidence for the theory; but it was in conflict with Creationism (religious view that everything was created by God)    Social Darwinism    –   collection of ideas in the late 1800s that used Darwin’s theory of evolution to highlight and expound social and economic issues   o   Darwin rarely established a connection between his theories and human society but to explain his views, he used widely understood concepts such as survival of the fittest from Herbert Spencer (sociologist) o   (during the Industrial Revolution and laissez faire capitalism) Social Darwinism was used as  justification for imperialism, labor abuses, racism, poverty, eugenics, social inequality    Died at his family home (Down House, London); buried at Westminster Abbey    (more than a century after) Richard Brum (Yale ornithologist) tried to revive Darwin’s theory on sexual selection in The Evolution of Beauty   o   Darwin: female aesthetic mating choices became the driving force of evolution o   Brum: had an effective argument through birds’ expertise (The New York Times’ list of 10 best books of 2017) REFERENCE: (2014, April 2). Charles Darwin Biography  . Retrieved from The Biography:   2 Charles Darwin (BBC, n.d.)      Grandfathers: Erasmus Darwin (doctor, Zoonomia:   species could transmute into another); Josiah Wedgewood (industrialist and anti-slavery campaigner)    (1838) Darwin’s explanation of transmutation: animals well -adapted to the environment survive longer and reproduced. Evolution happened through Natural Selection.    (Summer 1858) Alfred Russel Wallace (admirer of Darwin) set off to travel after his inspiration of the Beagle Voyage. He wants to arrive at a theory of Natural Selection to publish. Darwin was afraid that Wallace will take credit.    (July 1858) publicizing the theory to the Linnean Society    –   Britain’s le ading Natural History body. The presentation included Darwin’s and Wallace’s work.      (November 1859) Publishing of On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection      (June 1860) Darwin’s Theory of Evolution on trial at Oxford University. Thomas Huxley defended the ideas in public. He went head to head with Bishop Samuel Wilberforce o   Both sides were victors and it was Darwin Legend that shook the Victorian Society    (February 1871) The Descent of Man    –  unequivocal account of human evolution (a challenge to Christian orthodoxy). His ideas were accepted eventually REFERENCE: BBC. (n.d.). Charles Darwin: Evolution and the story of our species . Retrieved from BBC - iWonder:  UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS GENERAL BIOLOGY 1 K.C.L.M Charles Darwin’s Mentors   (Grigg, 2010)    John Stevens Henslow (1796-1861) o   Took part in geological expeditions to the Isle of Wight to the Isle of Man with  Adam Sedgwick o   (1822) Professor of Mineralogy at Cambridge o   (1825) Professor of Botany o   (1824) had been ordained as an Anglican clergyman o   Founder of the Cambridge University Botanical Garden  Aims:    To analyze the limits of variation within created species    To use the limits of variation to define species in a practice referred to as collation (he was conforming that species don’t evolve but only have the capacity to vary within limits)   o   Darwin and Henslow had the friendship that influenced the former’s career. Darwin took Henslow’s 5-week botany course three times (1829-1831) The man who walks with Henslow      Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873) o   (1818) ordained as Anglican clergyman before being a professor of Geology (Chair of Geology) o   Catastrophist o   Believed in a succession of Divine creative acts throughout the long expanse of history / long geological ages   o   Totally opposed to all theories of biological evolution o   Origin of Species in 1859: more pain than pleasure because it is very opposite to the inductive truth REFERENCE: Grigg, R. (2010, January). Darwin's mentors . Retrieved from    Charles Lyell (Charles Lyell, n.d.)   o   author, friend, and correspondent to Darwin   o   geology and its subjects better remain beset by speculation and uncertainty   o   ( Principles of Geology, 1830-1833) aimed to explain it philosophically rigorous science that is based on real life situations that can still be in action at the present time   o   In this/his view, there’s no earth -destroying comets or rising of new mountains   o   Darwin became a zealous disciple of Lyell’s book wherein he believes that small changes can be added up over time to result to big changes   Pieces of advice to Darwin:    Encouragement to pursue being a naturalist      Presented a model of being a theorist       Avoid administrative burdens o   Darwin always believed that half the contents of his books came from Lyell: the gradual operation of natural selection and the reliance on immense eons of time  UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS GENERAL BIOLOGY 1 K.C.L.M o   His view: the difference of humans from all other life forms is reason  and the highest application of reason is science. Natural selection was science at its best but the downside of it was making humans fundamentally the same as the other forms of life REFERENCE: Charles Lyell  . (n.d.). Retrieved from University of Cambridge: Darwin Correspondence Project: Darwin’s Voyages aboard HMS Beagle   (Darwin's Voyages, 2011)      (1831, age 22) Darwin aboard the survey ship, HMS Beagle as its naturalist o   Beagle  –  Royal Navy brig 27 m (90 ft) long. 74 people were on board as well as supplies and 22 clocks    Experience of equipping himself with the fundamental knowledge of geology and biology that are substantial in developing his theory of evolution    Shipped more than 1,500 different species    Had notes about erosion, earthquakes, volcanoes    England > South America > Pacific Ocean > Galapagos Island > Australia > Mauritius > South Africa o   South America      exploration to the Southern Coast (now Argentina and Chile)    Latin America: most important discoveries that helped him in working with his evolutionary theory    Brazil: first experience of rainforest     Argentina and Falkland Islands: found many fossils and geological findings    Chile (Chiloe Island): has 2 different environments: the Pacific-facing side is very damp and has high winds that led to an environment rich in vegetation. The continent-facing side is protected by mountains that has a unique micro-climate; thus, supported native life for centuries. The eruption of Mt. Osomo also led to an enriched understanding of the Earth’s geology o   The Galapagos Islands (5-week stay)    Most unique, scientifically important, and biologically outstanding area    Witnessed the effects of evolution in isolation    4/5 islands only: San Cristobal, Floreana, Santiago, Isabela    Helped in his theory: numerous differences in animals, flora, fauna IN THE DIFFERENT ISLANDS BUT STILL HAS THE SAME HABITS, IS ANALOGOUS, AND LIVING IN THE SAME PLACE OF THE NATURAL ECONOMY REFERENCE: Darwin's Voyages . (2011, March 26). Retrieved from National Geographic: (McNamara, 2019)   o   Tahiti (November 1835)  –   New Zealand (late December) o   Australia  
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