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Gender Equality in Classroom Instruction: Introducing Gender Training for Teachers in the Republic of Korea

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Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education Gender in Education Network in Asia (GENIA) Gender Equality in Classroom Instruction: Introducing Gender Training for Teachers in the Republic of Korea Gender
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Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education Gender in Education Network in Asia (GENIA) Gender Equality in Classroom Instruction: Introducing Gender Training for Teachers in the Republic of Korea Gender Equality in Classroom Instruction: Introducing Gender Training for Teachers in the Republic of Korea Dr. Kyungah Jung (Fellow, KWDI) Dr. Haesook Chung (Senior Fellow, KWDI) August 2005 Jung, Kyungah; and Chung, Haesook Gender equality in classroom instruction: Introducing gender training for teachers in the Republic of Korea. Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok, p 1. Gender equality. 2. Classroom environment. 3. Student teacher relationship. 4. Korea, Republic ISBN UNESCO 2006 Published by the UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education 920 Sukhumvit Rd., Prakanong Bangkok 10110, Thailand Printed in Thailand The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout the publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning its frontiers or boundaries. CONTENTS Executive Summary 1 1. Introduction 5 2. Results of Classroom Observation Teacher-Student Interaction Use of Curricular Materials Use of Instructional Language Distribution of Curriculum and School Facilities Overview of the Programme Direction of Programme Development Goals of the Programme Content Composition of the Programme Lesson Plan: Gender-Responsive Classroom Interaction 22 References 41 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Response Opportunities of Male and Female Students in Elementary Schools 9 Table 2. Programme Content Structure 21 LIST OF OBSERVATION CASES Case 1. Gender Discrimination in Curricular Materials 10 Case 2. Gender Discriminative Explanations on Subject Content 11 Case 3. Strengthening of Gender-Stereotyped Attitudes 13 Case 4. Male Students Playing Soccer; Female Students Smelling the Fragrance of Flowers 13 LIST OF INTERVIEW CASES Interview 1. Reasons of Differentiated Discipline 9 Interview 2. Male Students Monopolization of Playground 14 Interview 3. Female Students Self-Consciousness Toward the Opposite Sex 15 Executive Summary A part of the research, A Programme Development for Enhancing the Gender- Sensitive Teaching conducted by the Korean Women s Development Institute (KWDI) in 2003, was translated for this paper. This report is largely composed of three parts, namely the results of classroom observation, an overview of the programme, and the lesson plan. Results of Classroom Observation Classroom observation was conducted in four classes (2nd, 4th, 5th and 6th Grades) from three elementary schools and four classes (1st and 2nd Grades, and two classes from the 3rd Grade) from two junior high schools. Observations lasted for a total of 508 hours, including 255 hours in the elementary schools and 253 hours in the junior high schools. In addition, interviews with 37 students (19 girls and 18 boys) and 16 teachers (11 female teachers and 5 male teachers) were conducted during the observation period. The principal observation results are as follows. Teacher-Student Interaction Male students tended to have more teacher-student interaction opportunities in both elementary and junior high schools. Male students responded to teacher-initiated questions more by being called on or by calling out. There are a few female students who raised their hands for being called on by teachers. Also they didn't take the opportunities for responses by calling out before teachers' pointing to them as male students did. Nearly all participating teachers did not provide detailed feedback to either male or female students on the whole, and were conservative in eliciting the participation of passive students. The feedbacks that teachers provided to students were mainly the affirmation of correct answer, the negation of incorrect answer, or giving answers themselves directly to students. Although teachers disciplined male students more severely than female students, male students also had more social contact with teachers, including jokes and personal conversations, than female students did. Use of Curricular Materials Curricular materials reflecting traditional gender roles were selected and used by teachers. These curricular materials conveyed dichotomous thinking of housework for women and office work for men to the students. In addition, these materials also presented the message of female students being assistants and male students being leading participants in science activities. Use of Instructional Language Explanations and examples reflecting patriarchal gender role stereotypes were used frequently by teachers. Gender discriminative language was used in teaching various subjects, such as good citizenship, social studies, manual training and homemaking, including much more gender equality issues than do other subjects. Distribution of Curriculum and School Facilities Gender differences in achievement and attitudes of students towards specific subjects could be further reinforced, in co-educational schools, which are susceptible to exposure by the opposite sex's eyes and by the distribution of curriculum based on teachers' gender stereotypes. In the case of physical education, one of the most typical subjects displaying gender differences, it seems that the gender discriminative distribution of physical education curriculum, monopolization of school sports facilities by male students, and the traditional dress code requiring female students to wear skirts all promote the alienation of female students from physical education activities. Overview of the Programme The gender equality training programme for teachers was developed based on the classroom observation results presented above and on the survey results of teachers not included in this report. This programme was developed in order to enable teachers to enhance gender equality consciousness and to implement gender equality education. This programme is 60 hours and composed of four subjects and 20 topics. Goals of the Programme Providing teachers with opportunities to examine their own gendersensitiveness and to reflect on life as men or women Having teachers recognize inequality in the family system and family life, and nurture abilities in forming a gender-equal family culture in which family members are not discriminated against opportunities of decisionmaking, the allocation of resources or benefits, access to services, etc., based on their sex. Having teachers nurture the abilities enabling them to examine their own instructional behaviors from a gender-sensitive view-point and to develop gender-equal teaching strategies Having teachers nurture the abilities enabling them to develop democratic leadership as teachers and to form a gender-equal school organizational culture Content Composition of the Programme My Gender Equality Consciousness My Gender Equality Consciousness; 2-1) Becoming an Owner of My Life (female teacher); 2-2) Becoming a Free Man (male teacher); 3) An Understanding of Feminism; 4) History and State of the Women's Movement Equal Family Culture Cultivating a Gender Equal Family Relationship; 2) Technical Training for Equal Family Relationships; 3) Technical Training for Equal Family Relationships Gender Equality Education Gender Differences in Academic Performance; 2) Co-educational School Education; 3) Gender-Responsive Classroom Interaction; 4) Teaching Models for Cooperation; 5) Analysis of Gender Equality in Curricular Materials; 6) Gender- Sensitive Guidance Counseling; 7) Prevention of and Intervention in Student Sexual Harassment; 8) Management of Student Organizations Gender-Sensitive School Institutional Culture Leadership of a Successful Teacher; 2) Diversity Awareness Training; 3) Understanding the Gender-Sensitive Institutional Culture; 4) Sexual Harassment at Work; 5) Gender-Sensitive Policy and Budget Lesson Plan: Gender-Responsive Classroom Interaction Instructional Goals Recognizing the differences between male and female students with respect to attitudes and participation during lessons Understanding subtle gender biases inherent in teacher-student interaction, and examining one's own instructional behaviors Searching for gender-responsive classroom interaction strategies Content Composition of Lessons Introducing the goals and activities of the lessons Understanding male and female student s' attitude in the classroom Observation and analysis of gender-biased teacher-student interaction Role playing: acting out the typical behaviors of male/female students Lecture: research results on teacher-student interaction in the classroom Group activity: seeking teaching strategies for making changes Presentation of group discussion results 1. Introduction Settlement of Gender Equality Education has been promoted as one of the principal policy goals in the Republic of Korea since the establishment of the Women s Education Division in the Ministry of Education in The development and dissemination of Guidelines for Teachers on Gender Equality Education, the designation of model schools for gender equality education, and the designation of school supervisors and researchers in charge of gender equality education within municipal and provincial offices of education are a series of such examples. In spite of several governmental projects for gender equality education, it is evident that those teachers actually required to implement gender equality education do not fully understand the concept. In addition, teachers have been found to lack the ability to reflect on their own gender-biased instructional behaviors (Cho, Chung, & Kim, 2000). Gender equality education tends to be understood by teachers as simply providing male and female students with equal educational opportunities, fostering their androgyny, or teaching gender equality consciousness directly. However, gender equality education should be understood as not only eliminating gender discrimination, which could be inherent in educational practices (including the instructional behaviors of teachers), but also integrating the experiences and needs of both female and male students into all educational practices and, ultimately, enabling them to overcome traditional gender relations through education. Training for teachers who are the subjects of gender equality education is essential in order to actualize gender equality education more effectively at school sites. However, gender equality training for teachers has been conducted very insufficiently at teacher training institutions in the Republic of Korea. Most training programmes for teachers include merely one- or three-hour lessons on gender equality issues as one of many cultural subjects, although a small number of teacher training institutions by local autonomous governments have recently attempted to conduct Gender equality training courses for teachers. The Korean Women s Development Institute has come to recognize that it is necessary to develop a model programme for the diffusion of gender equality training for teachers. The research addressing this necessity, A Programme Development for Enhancing Gender-Sensitive Teaching Abilities of Teachers, was conducted in order to promote gender equality training for teachers by developing a model gender equality training programme and distributing it to teacher training institutions. The main contents of the research are as follows: Reviewing the existing research on teachers' gender equality consciousness, instructional behaviors, such as interaction with male and female students, and gender training programmes for teachers Examining the actual states of gender training for teachers at in-service teacher training institutions Analyzing various instructional behaviors of teachers, such as interaction with students, selection of teaching-learning materials, and the distribution of curriculum to male and female students, through classroom observation Examining teachers' awareness of gender differences and possible causes, and their attitudes toward gender equality education with questionnaires Developing a training programme for enhancing teachers abilities to implement gender equality education The goal was to develop a training programme for teachers, enabling them to enhance not only their own gender awareness, but also their abilities to implement gender equality education in school contexts. In developing this training programme, both quantitative and qualitative data showing teachers gender awareness states, and gender equal or gender-biased instructional behaviors were collected. Firstly, classroom observation was conducted in an attempt to gauge teachers gender awareness and instructional behaviors qualitatively. In fact, classroom observation studies of elementary and high schools concerning gender equality issues have scarcely been carried out in the Republic of Korea up to now. This study seems to be practically the first one conducted in elementary and junior high school classrooms. The observation results of this study mostly confirmed the key findings of existing research carried out in other countries (Sadker & Sadker, 1994; Brophy, 1985; She, 2000). The major findings of the observations can be summarized as follows: 1) Male students are likely to occupy teacher-student interaction, while female students are likely to remain as passive respondents, compared with male students; 2) Teachers use instructional language and teaching-learning materials that strengthen traditional gender role consciousness of students during lessons; 3) The distribution of curriculum and school facilities by schools and teachers seemed to reinforce the existing gender segregation and gender differences in subjects that already show differential tendencies in achievement and participation for male and female students. In addition to observation, a survey of 544 teachers (269 male teachers and 275 female teachers) from elementary and secondary schools was carried out by KWDI from September, 15 until October, 7, 2003 for the research A Programme Development for Enhancing Gender-Sensitive Teaching Abilities of Teachers, although the results of the survey were not included in this paper. The main purpose of this survey was to understand gender sensitivity. The survey results show that quite a number of teachers participating in this investigation have a gender-biased awareness of gender differences and the possible causes; yet, they do not precisely understand what gender equality education is. The training programme was developed primarily from the results of the observation and the survey. This paper includes results of the classroom observations conducted in elementary and junior high schools, as well as a training programme lesson plan for teachers. The results of the classroom observations will be summarized in Chapter 2, and Chapter 3 presents an outline of the entire programme. Lastly, one unit of the programme, Gender-Responsive Teacher-Student Interaction, will be introduced in Chapter 4. 2. Results of Classroom Observation This chapter includes a summary of the major findings of the classroom observations. These classroom observations were conducted for 508 hours, twice a week, over an 8- week period, for a total of 16 observations, in four classes (each class from the 2nd, 4th, 5th and 6th Grades) at three elementary schools and four classes (one class each from the 1st and 2nd Grades, and two classes from the 3rd Grade) at two junior high schools. 1 Students entire activities, from the time they entered and left school on each observation day, were observed. Moreover, interviews with 37 students and 16 teachers, including teachers in charge of subject classes, were carried out during the observation period. The research tried to examine various instructional behaviors of teachers toward male and female students in class from a gender-sensitive viewpoint. The observation results could be divided largely into three parts. The first part involves teacher-student interaction in the classroom. This part includes several aspects of teacher-student interaction, such as questions and responses between teachers and students, teachers feedback to the students responses, teachers discipline of male and female students, and social contact between the teachers and students. The second part concerns teaching materials and instructional language selected by teachers. The effects of teachers gender stereotypes on their selection of teaching materials and instructional language were analyzed in this part. The third part contains an investigation on how the customary operations of curriculum and educational resources adopted by schools and teachers can further reinforce gender differences and gender segregation. The observation results can be summarized as follows: 2.1 Teacher-Student Interaction Teacher-student interaction in classrooms at the elementary and junior high schools, centered on male students, as suggested by previous research. Male students dominated more opportunities for interaction with teachers than did female students in all forms of response, through being called on by teachers or by calling out without teachers asking them. 1 The 1st Grade at junior high school is applicable to 13 years old in the Republic of Korea, 2nd Grade to 14 years old and, 3rd Grade to 15 years old. Table 1. Response Opportunities of Male and Female Students in Elementary Schools Unit: Persons (%) Subject 2nd Session 5th Session 6th Session Mathematics Writing Mathematics Sensible Living Male 2 (100.0) 13 (76.5) 7 (77.8) 10 (62.5) Female - 4 (23.5) 2 (22.2) 6 (37.5) Total 2 (100.0) 17 (100.0) 9 (100.0) 16 (100.0) Note: Response by raising hands A few female students who raised their hands were only waiting quietly to be called upon, and didn t call out as male students did. Not only did the male students actively respond more to teacher-initiated questions, but they also displayed far more student-initiated questions than did female students. Teachers very scarcely asked additional questions or provided detailed feedback in general to the responses of the male and female students. The feedback that teachers provided to students was mainly the affirmation of correct answers or the negation of incorrect answers. There were a lot more cases where teachers would rather give answers themselves than suggest clues or rephrased questions on non-respondent or incorrect answers. In addition, instances of teachers encouraging female students to participate during lessons were also hard to find. Teachers used different discipline methods and intensity for male and female students on similar matters in the same class. Male students were given physical punishment, while female students were mostly given verbal reprimands. Teachers tend to base their different responses based on a belief that the students different attitudes and responses towards discipline require a genderdifferentiated approach. (Interview 1). Although male students received more disciplinary contact from teachers than did female students, they also had more social contacts with teachers, including jokes or personal conversations. Interview 1. Reasons of Differentiated Discipline Female students are likely to show their emotional responses on physical punishment. They get distressed easily and cry often. Once they are upset, they tend to remain that way for long period of time. On the contrary, male students don t become shaken greatly. Female student need consolation after rebuked for certainly. However, male students are easy to relent with smiling on the question, Are you all right? after punishment. (Teacher in charge of the fourth grade in H elementary school, male) 2.2 Use of Curricular Materials The observation results show that the curricular materials based on patriarchal gender role stereotypes were selected and used by teachers. A scie
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